St John David 1949 David St John

Holds an important place within the modern conceptualization of poetry as a mapping of consciousness (see modernism). His poetry bridges the gap between linear conceptions of thought found in narrative poetry of the mid-20th century and the elliptical patterns of the mind prominent in postmodern verse. He once remarked, as the image of the modern mind's discovery of itself defined poetic activity in the early part of this century I seek the movement or progression of the mind's discovery of...

Baraka Amiri Leroi Jones

(1934 ) Amiri Baraka, also known as Imamu Amiri Baraka and LeRoi Jones, is a unique force in American poetry. His practice as a cultural activist redefined the role of the modern American poet. He is best known for his powerful contribution, as writer and theorist, to the black arts movement of the 1960s. Mixing the open forms of 1950s beats and black mountain school poetry with the rhetorical and musical traditions of black culture, he explosively developed an urgent and militant...

Steele Timothy 1948 Timothy

Steele's formal verse implicitly critiques the subjectivism of much contemporary poetry. In books and essays Steele argues that the modernists conflated outmoded poetic diction and subject matter with meter and tradition and used free verse to destroy versification (see prosody and free verse), thus severing poetry from its sources of rhythm, structure, and rational thought. Steele hopes to help restore the art of measured speech. A predominant figure in the new formalism, Steele synthesizes...

Bibliography

Disjecta Miscellaneous Writings, edited by Ruby Cohn. New York Grove Press, 1984. Bridgman, Richard. Gertrude Stein in Pieces. New York Oxford University Press, 1970. Curnutt, Kirk, ed. The Critical Response to Gertrude Stein. Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press, 2000. Eliot, T. S. Charleston, Hey Hey Nation & Athenaeum 40.17 (January 29, 1927) 595. Hoffman, Michael, ed. Critical Essays on Gertrude Stein. Boston G. K. Hall, 1986. Loy, Mina. Gertrude Stein. In The Lost Lunar...

Snyder Gary 465

Although trying to define any set of poetics or methodology for either the San Francisco or Beat poets is a thorny issue at best, it can be said that many of their aesthetic preoccupations overlapped, especially as seen in the extensions and revitalizations of an earlier American generation in what has come to be labeled open form or organic poetry (see prosody and free verse and ars poeticas). Similarities can also be seen in the revival of oral poetry and the power of performance (see poetry...

Wieners John 19342002 Considered

Both a beat writer and a practitioner of the projective verse of Charles olson and the black mountain poets, Wieners combined the poetic with the political and personal in his lyrical free-verse (see prosody and free verse) as he once said, Lyricism is still a quality of a political career (112). Donald Allen's groundbreaking 1960 anthology The New American Poetry (see poetry anthologies) includes Wieners among new poets who have evolved their own original styles and new conceptions of poetry...

Stein Gertrude 475

In the 1920s and 1930s, Stein had a reputation as an extraordinary conversationalist and as a cubist writer visiting her and Toklas at 27 Rue de Fleurus, became a rite of passage for writers, painters, and American tourists. Stein was thus already well known when The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933), a fanciful memoir of the Paris art world, made her a popular writer. In 1934 Stein returned to the United States for the first time in 30 years to lecture and tour. In 1929 Alice and...

Patchen Kenneth 19111972

Of the earliest figures associated with the literary beat movement, Kenneth Patchen was an avant-garde writer, poet, and artist whose work consistently demonstrated his proletarian roots, as well as his commitments to pacifism, socialism, relentless experimentation with literary form, and radical human consciousness. From 1936 to 1972, Patchen published more than 36 books of poetry, fiction, and drama, including experiments in the antinovel, concrete poetry (see visual poetry), poetry and jazz...

Bronk William 19181999 William

Bronk is best known for his austere view of the world as well as for his writing style. His language subtle, balanced in tone and diction, essential is possibly the most distilled in all of 20th-century American poetry. In addition Bronk is always explicit visually and resonant musically. His work keeps alive a New England poetic tradition, evoking nature and the seasons, winter most of all, and delving into the nature of reality or truth. These concerns were firmly established early in the...

Clifton Lucille 1936 A prolific

Writer of poetry and children's books, Lucille Clifton has had a long and distinguished career. She was first published in the 1960s, her early work was influenced by the BLACK ARTS MOVEMENT, especially by poets Amiri BARAKA (LeRoi Jones), Ishmael REED, and Gwendolyn BROOKS. But the themes of spirituality and self-acceptance that infuse her later work also show the influence of Emily Dickinson, Walt Whitman, and, most importantly, the culture and stories of African-American women passed down...

Crystal Good Poet Bibliography

An Interview with Clarence Major and Victor Hern ndez Cruz. In New Black Voices, edited by Abrham Chapman. New York New American Library, 1972, pp. 545-552. Wallenstein, Barry. The Poet in New York Victor Hern ndez Cruz. Bilingual Review 1 (1974) 312-319. (1986) Though sometimes associated with the language school, Clark coolidge arrived at his poetics in advance of that group and has demonstrated a meditative or reflective tendency in works like Melencolia (1978) and Mine The...

Rudman Mark 1948 Mark Rudmans

Poetry takes up the relationships between fathers and sons, history and memory, literary tradition and scholarship. The figures of motion and architecture appear central to his poetics. Rudman composes in a shortened version of the American long poem (see LONG AND serial poetry), something he calls the intermediate poem inspired by William Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790) and T. S. eliots the waste land (two important early influences). Increasingly Rudman has attempted to...

Fugitiveagrarian School

Fugitives, a group of poets from Nashville, Tennessee, led the vanguard for modernist verse in the South in the 1920s (see MODERNISM). In contrast to the IMAGIST movement centered in England, the Fugitives emphasized traditional poetic forms and techniques, and their poems developed intellectual and moral themes focusing on an individual's relationship to society and to the natural world. The Fugitive group met relatively briefly, from the end of World War I to the late 1920s, and they...

Lowell Robert 19171977 Robert

Lowell was a major voice in American poetry in the cold war years, from the end of the Second World War until his death. The endurance of his reputation can be attributed, in large part, to his success in associating personal torment, his so-called confessional subject matter, with the social and geopolitical struggles of the time the nuclear standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union, the war in Vietnam, and the civil rights struggle. He began as a successor to T. S. eliot and...

Zinnes Harriet 1919 Harriet

Zinnes's poetry explores issues related to the fragile human condition and its chaotic environment, particularly as these issues pertain to the international political confusion of her times. Her influences include American writers, such as Ezra pound, John ashbery, and Frank o'hara, and the French poets Charles Baudelaire, St phane Mallarm , and Paul Verlaine. Zinnes was born Victoria Harriet Fich in Hyde Park, Massachusetts. she received her doctorate in 1953 and in 1964 published her first...

Forche Carolyn 1950 Carolyn

Forche once remarked, I had been told that a poet should be of his or her time. It is my feeling that the twentieth-century condition demands a poetry of witness (El Salvador 236). Drawing from a variety of poetic forms (see prosody and free verse), Forche's work revises these forms to suit the 20th-century human condition, mediating the horror of war and its effects on identity and the body. From the elegy and lyric poetry to free verse, Forche's work reflects a profound affinity with poets...

Rogers Pattiann 1940 Pattiann

Rogers's poetry links the intellectual rigors of the scientific method with the possibilities and suppositions inherent in a life based upon spiritual questioning. often compared with Walt Whitman, Henry David Thoreau, and Theodore roethke, Rogers notes that for these writers landscape and environment are much more than picturesque background (Elliot Interview 24). In her work the natural world becomes a source of self-knowledge and sustenance, a force, an actor, often a determining presence...

Cunningham James Vincent 113

Also important to this poet, who declares, kisses are a better fate than wisdom (since feeling is first 1926 ). He warns us, beware of heartless them (given the scalpel,they dissect a kiss (one's not half two. It's two are halves of one 1944 ). He says with wonderment that your slightest look easily will unclose me (somewhere i have never travelled, gladly beyond 1931 ), since he is a man who has tightened himself like a closed fist. At the opposite pole from his love lyrics are his biting...

Warren Robert Penn 19051989

Although he wrote poetry throughout his career, Robert Penn Warren was, for much of the 20th century, better known as a successful novelist and literary critic. The textbook he wrote with Cleanth Brooks, Understanding Poetry (1938), was extremely influential in determining the way poems have been read in the academy from the late 1930s to the late 1970s. Its insistent focus on text per se encouraged the teaching of poems without reference to anything but what the poem itself says. His works of...

Snodgrass William Dewitt

(1926- ) Long resistant to his reputation as a founder of confessional poetry, W D. Snodgrass rejects the label for its religious, television, and tabloid connotations. From the first, his art has offered an intimacy and sharing of personal experiences and emotions that were off-limits to his predecessors, who were influenced by T. S. eliot and the New Critics (see fugitive agrarian school). Born in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, Snodgrass escaped a constricting home life through service in the...

Abstract Expressionism Beginning

In New York in the late 1930s and influential until the late 1950s, abstract expressionism was the first major international art movement to originate in the United States. In painting, it combined cubism, fauvism, abstraction, expressionism, and surrealism. In poetry, as in painting, the style is marked by spontaneity, gesture, focus on process rather than product, invitation of accident, and collaboration. Its influence on American poetry is not limited to a single group of poets, although...

Ethnopoetics

Ethnopoetic texts influenced the translation, study, and making of poetry by writers associated with ethnopo-etics, as well as some associated with the black mountain school and beat poetry more recent trends toward multiculturalism, poetry in performance, and cross-cultural poetics reflect the influence of ethnopo-etics. During the 1970s the journal Alcheringa Ethnopo-etics balanced translations of traditional world poetry and contemporary creative work by poets, including David antin, George...

Wright C D Carolyn Wright

Wright maintains a maverick position in late 20th-century American poetry. With American poetry divided along aesthetic lines, she remains nonpartisan. Her work bears both the language poet's interest in fragment and surface as well as a narrative attention to time and place, and she cites as influences both Ron silliman and such regional writers as Frank Stanford and Flannery O'Connor. She often mentions that she is the daughter of a judge and a court reporter, as if explaining...

Bishop Elizabeth 19111979 From

The beginning of her life as a poet, Elizabeth Bishop was interested in the way that our perceptions can be refined through our encounters with the natural world. Written when she was 16 years old, To a Tree (1927) gives us an early glimpse into her way of viewing the world. The tree outside her window, her kin, asks nothing but To lean against the window and peer in And watch her move about Personified nature is interested in her, but what of her own interest in nature What does she make of...

Teasdale Sara 18841933 Sara Teas

Dale was an important voice of woman's poetry in the early 20th century (see female voice, female language). Her work, consistently appearing in monthly national magazines in the years before World War II, was well received by the public and critics alike. She identified with and is often compared to the 19th-century poet Elizabeth Barret Browning in theme, but her direct influence was the Victorian Christina Rossetti, about whom she had composed an unfinished biography. Teasdale was born in...

Loewinsohn Ron 1937 Ron Loewin

Sohn's poetry consistently acknowledges its debt to major modernist figures, including Ezra pound, William Butler Yeats, and William Carlos Williams (see modernism). Loewinsohn grew up in and around San Francisco as an aspiring Beatnik in the late fifties, he knew Allen GINSBERG, who wrote an introduction to his first published volume, Watermelons (1959), and encouraged Loewinsohn to send the manuscript to Williams, who added his own prefatory letter praising the authors poetic gift. Loewinsohn...

C Y D

YAU, JOHN (1950- ) John Yau's lively poetic experimentation shares the intense investigation of the sound play, texture, and multiple meanings of words with the language poets, Clark coolidge, and Harry mathews, as well as with the wild humor, erotic abandon, and imaginative breadth of the earlier surrealists (see surrealism). In demonstrating the instability of individual and collective identities and in exploring perceptions of time, his work parallels John ashbery's. In addition, Yau's...

San Francisco Renaissance In the

Two decades following World War II, an overarching reevaluation of art and its purpose occurred. This reconsideration gave rise to a number of identifiable movements and schools worldwide in the same period even though those movements had some philosophical and aesthetic similarities, each had distinctive qualities that set it apart from the others. In the United States, the postwar period saw the simultaneous emergence of four particular poetic phenomena the black mountain school, beat poetry,...

Simic Charles 1938 Charles Simic is

One of the most original and prolific voices in contemporary poetry. Born in Belgrade, in the former Yugoslavia, he has written thousands of inimitable poems that bring a distinctly European perspective to American literature. This eccentric un-American perspective remains a recognizable part of Simic's body of work, even though he has lived and worked in the United States his entire adult life. Simic was born and raised in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. After he emigrated to the united States in 1954,...

Thomas Lorenzo 1944 Lorenzo

Thomas's poetry and criticism have helped to show the relationship of poetry to music in the 20th century. His works are infused with jazz influences and are a testament to the exploration of social, political, and economic culture in American society. As Thomas has said, Poetry is one of the forms of music and always has been (121). Thomas has wanted to produce poems that sound like the jazz music he has enjoyed by such artists as Lightnin' Hopkins, Eric Dolphy, John Coltrane, and Charles...

Dorn Edward 133

Reflects this early experience of economic and social vulnerability. Dorn attended the University of Illinois from 1949 to 1950, then moved to North Carolina to attend the nontraditional arts-oriented Black Mountain College. Dorn completed a bachelor's degree in 1955. After leaving school he led a nomadic life, living in Washington's Skagis valley, New Mexico, and Idaho, at times barely supporting his family through manual labor, but all the while writing poetry. He taught at the University of...

Edson Russell 1935 Russell Edson

Has proven instrumental in popularizing and legitimizing the prose poetry genre in America. Charles Baudelaire and Arthur Rimbaud, 19th-century French poets, originated the prose poem when they challenged exist ing literary conventions related to rhyme, rhythm, and line, choosing instead a structure more malleable and natural. Although in 1848 Edgar Allan Poe produced Eureka A Prose Poem, it was the length of a novella. American prose poetry truly begins with Russell Edson. As Edson points out,...

Armantrout Rae 1947 Rae Arman

Trout's poetry is renowned for its often sparse lyricism and sharp social observation. Although she is a key member of the San Francisco poetry community from which the language school emerged, Armantrout is suspicious of the term language-oriented, because, as she explains, it seems to imply division between language and experience, thought and feeling, inner and outer (Why 546). Influenced by George oppen, she agrees with him that however elusive, sincerity is the measure and goal of the poem...

Those Winter Sundays Robert

HAYDEN (1962) Robert Hayden composed this 14-line elegy at a time when leading African-American artists promoted the notion that African-American poets must portray exclusively their own culture to support the struggle for freedom and equality (see the black arts movement). Rejecting such strictures from colleagues of any color or persuasion, Hayden created poems on various people and topics, despite sharp criticism from those who claimed that he betrayed his race. Those Winter Sundays has been...

Ostriker Alicia Suskin 1937

Alicia ostriker stands in the company of feminist poet critics, including Adrienne rich, Audre lorde, and Marge piercy, who helped create and were influenced by the United States feminist movement (see female voice, female language). Ostriker's critical and poetic contributions to American letters are a significant record of an observant, thinking, politically aware woman who examines her experiences in light of the political and social circumstances that surround her. A hallmark of ostriker's...

The New York School The New York

School of poetry was an innovative group of poets made up principally by Frank o'hara, John ashbery, Barbara guest, James schuyler, and Kenneth koch. Their poetry was experimental, philosophical, staunchly antiestablishment, and antiacademic. The group began writing in the 1950s and is closely associated with a similarly named movement in painting alternatively called abstract expressionism or action painting. The name New York school is a result of an aesthetic sensibility and writing style,...

Robinson Edwin Arlington

(1869-1935) Edwin Arlington Robinson is best known for his formal rhyming poems, surprise endings, and characterizations of the human condition not typi cal of any particular literary movement. With 23 publications ranging in genre from collections to book-length narrative poems (see narrative poetry), and in style from villanelles and sonnets to blank verse (see prosody and free verse), Robinson is perhaps one of the most overlooked and undervalued poets of 20th-century American literature....

Coleman Wanda 1946 Wanda

Coleman is a political artist whose vivid, energetic poetry depicts the everyday struggles of poor urban blacks. A poet who prefers the rhythms and language of natural speech to poetic diction, the gritty reality of lived experience to honed imagery, Coleman was instrumental along with Diane wakoski, Clayton eshelman, and Charles bukowski in the formation of an alternative literary forum in Los Angeles during the 1970s and 1980s. It was during this time that Coleman earned her reputation as a...

Merwin William Stanley

(1927- ) A prodigious poet and acclaimed translator, W. S. Merwin's distinguished career follows the ambitious literary projects of his modernist predecessors T. S. eliot, Ezra pound, and William Carlos WILLIAMS (see modernism). In more than 15 books of poetry and four books of prose, Merwin's theme, especially as it develops in the later phase of his work, is the postmodern problem of finding language that can offer an adequate and just account of the world. The insistent and as some critics...

Waldrop Keith 1932 Keith

Drop's work links metaphysical speculation to the physical textures of spoken language. His poem create momentary spaces where the spiritual and material meet. Waldrop cites the work of William bronk as kin and admires his early work for its use of data from very disparate realms (Interview I 278). Wal-drop's own poems are often collages of the compositional and the conversational. He once remarked, I'm interested in poets who start with spoken language, and then make new written language out...

Collins Billy 1941 The critic John

Taylor describes Billy Collins's poetry as a charming mixture of irony, wit, musing, and tenderness for the everyday (273), qualities that make him one of the most accessible American poets writing in the late 20th century. Unlike many poets of his generation, Collins often uses humorous anecdotes as the basis for his work. This sense of humor, tempered with wise observation and skillful manipulation of image and story, attracts both an academic and a nonacademic audience. Critics praise his...

Lindsay Nicholas Vachel

(1879-1931) Vachel Lindsay was a midwestern poet who achieved great fame from 1914 through the 1920s for his rhythmic verse, which he performed with great skill and vigor. In the latter part of the 20th century his work fell out of favor, largely because of racist overtones, particularly in the poem The Congo (1914). In the 1990s critics took a more balanced approach to Lindsay's work. He was identified with two other Illinois populist poets whose work also appeared in the Chicago-based...

Multimedia Poetry

Multimedia cyberpoetry uses sound, graphics, and text in ways important to the poem's form and content. A cyberpoem audio track is generally not a soundtrack for the poem or a recorded performance of the poem. It adds another level of meaning. For example, the audio portion of Projects for Mobile Phones (2000) by Alan Sondheim uses the sounds of mobile phones to divide the poem into calls or exchanges rather than sections. The interpretation of multimedia cyberpoetry frequently depends upon...

The Negro Speaks Of Rivers

LANGSTON HUGHES (1921) The poet's first mature and most recognizable published poem, The Negro Speaks of Rivers became an anthem for Langston hughes's life and poetry and the Civil Rights movement in the United States. Hughes is most highly regarded for his poems that utilize blues rhythm, but in this earlier poem he employs a rhythmic structure more akin to the cadences of a gospel sermon. Hughes was interested in capturing the oral traditions of African Americans, and here he fittingly uses a...

Black Arts Movement The Black Arts

Movement was a controversial literary faction that emerged in the mid-1960s as the artistic and aesthetic arm of the Black Power movement, a militant political operation that rejected the integrationist purposes and practices of the Civil Rights movement that preceded it. The Black Arts movement was one of the only American literary movements to merge art with a political agenda. Because poems were short and could be recited at rallies and other political activities to incite and move a crowd,...

September 1 1939 W H Auden

(1939) September 1, 1939, written as Germany invaded Poland, signaled the end of the 1930s era of political activism, at least for W H. auden, one the most important political poets of the 1930s. The poem grew to have a significant place in the discussion of what makes a final, canonical version of a poem, as Auden excised one stanza from his Collected Poems (1945) and then later repudiated the entire poem. As World War II began, Auden saw, as he wrote in the poem, the clever hopes of a low...

Foreword

20TH-CENTURY AMERICAN POETRY SOME GUIDEPOSTS As Burt Kimmelman emphasizes in his eloquent introduction to this volume, all of the poems, poets, and literary movements described in the pages that follow share a common Americanness. Yet the very essence of Americanness is diversity, the many in the one and the one in the many, as Walt Whitman, grandfather of all American bards, insisted I hear America singing, The varied carols I hear (emphasis mine). Thus it may be useful to attempt a chart of...

Harlem Renaissance

(1919-1934) Between 1919 and 1934 African-American artists flocked to New York City, specifically to Harlem. This era was to become one of the most prolific periods of African-American writing. What Alain Locke called in 1925 a New Negro Movement was later defined by historians as the Harlem Renaissance. Among the poets who gained popularity during this era were Langston hughes, Claude mckay, Countee cullen, Jean toomer, Arna Bontemps, Anne Spencer, Gwendolyn Bennett, Helene Johnson, Angelina...

Harper Michael S 1938 Michael

Harper is an African-American poet whose work is influenced not only by other writers, such as Sterling A. brown, Robert hayden, and Ralph Ellison, but also by jazz and blues, especially the music of John Coltrane and Charlie Parker. Harper says he resisted traditional forms (see prosody and free verse), because metrical verse forced an accommodation to the mechanics of the count. Instead, the rhythm of his poems is modeled more after jazz and the way its music was announced . . . in the...

Caribbean Poetic Influences

Influence of Caribbean literary and oral poetic practices on the culture of poetry in the United States has been important but often subtle. It is and will be the result of a number of factors, which include the rising number of people of Caribbean descent living and maintaining their cultural identity in the United States and the fact that poets and poetry scholars of Caribbean nationality have increasingly been invited to teach at U.S. universities, where they come into contact with young...

Selected Bibliography

Allen, Donald, and Warrent Tallman, eds. The Poetics of the New American Poetry. New York Grove Press, 1973. Altieri, Charles. Enlarging The Temple New Directions in American Poetry During the 1960's. Lewisburg, Pa. Bucknell University Press, 1979. -. Painterly Abstraction in Modernist American Poetry The Contemporaneity of Modernism. University Park, Pa. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. Contemporaneity in the Arts. University Park, Pa. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998. Self...

Johnson James Weldon 18711938

James Weldon Johnson personifies the definition of a poet who is a spiritual and political leader. Prophetic, inspirational, and rhetorically elegant, Johnson's poetry resonated in American public life. His poem Lift Every Voice and Sing (1900), written to celebrate Abraham Lincoln's birth, became popularly known as the Negro National Hymn. Fifty Years (1913) commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation It looks back to slavery and pronounces the rightful claim of African...

H D Hilda Doolittle 18861961

D.'s critical reputation suffered, largely because her initial success as part of an early 20th-century literary movement overshadowed her later work and more important themes. The poems of her early career epitomize the tenets of the imagist school. In her middle career she was criticized for growing beyond that movement, despite a similar move away by its cofounder and staunchest advocate, Ezra pound in her later years she was overlooked for maintaining within her poetry...

Ginsberg Allen 19261997 Allen

Ginsberg is the one person in American poetry whose name belongs alongside the prominent and influential writers of almost every mid-20th-century literary movement, including beat poetry, confessional poetry, the san francisco renaissance, and even the new YORK school. However, he is most well known as the central figure among the Beats, and he lived and worked intimately with Jack kerouac, Gregory corso, Peter Orlovsky and William S. Burroughs. Ginsbergs controversial poem howl (1956) was...

Cofer Judith Ortiz 1952 Judith

Ortiz Cofer emerged as an important writer of multicultural and feminist poetry at the end of the 20th century. She is representative of the latest generation of poets who express a new, more inclusive sense of ethnic American identity. Her method of combining poetry with prose also places her at the forefront of a contemporary movement that is in the process of expanding and redefining literary genres and that includes Gloria Anzaldua and Theresa Hak Kyung CHA. Her literary influences, which...

The Presidents Of The United States Of America Jackson

LOW (1963) The Presidents of the United States of America demonstrates a trend in mid-20th-century modernism in line with William Carlos williams's dictum, no ideas but in things in a synthesis of compositional methods peculiar to Jackson mac low. By taking an objective view of poetry's basic building block, language, through a systematic approach to writing, The Presidents stands with Charles olsons THE MAXIMUS POEMS, Paul BLACKBURNs THE JOURNALS, and Armand schwerners the tablets as an epic...

Economou George 145

Cornelius Eady's You Don't Miss Your Water Its Womanist Feminist Perspective. Journal of African American Men 2.1 (summer 1996) 15-31. Eberhart's poetry includes meditations on landscape and, widely conceived, on spiritual aspects of the human experience. A contemporary of T. S. eliot and other poets of modernism who often shunned formal poetry, Eberhart often wrote in form. According to Bernard Engel, Eberhart is not a follower of William Carlos WILLIAMS, Ezra pound, Robert...

Discrete Series George Oppen 1934

Prior to publishing his first volume of poetry, George OPPEN was mainly known for his association with the objectivist school Discrete Series (1934), however, brought him individual attention. Measured purely by word count, Discrete Series is shorter than this entry. In its original form, the white space around the poems gives the words a concrete presence that Louise gl ck refers to as restraint, juxtaposition, nuance (29). Indeed, the first thing that strikes the reader of Discrete Series is...

Dont Have Any Paper So Shut Up Or Social Romanticism Bruce

ANDREWS (1992) I Don't Have Any Paper strongly displays Bruce Andrews's avant-garde conviction that political art, in order to effect social change, must forcefully alter the reader's consciousness while simultaneously inviting her or his active participation. An embodiment of language school philosophy involving the materiality of language, the poem contains syntactical and semantic disruptions, shocking colloquial phrases, and ironic juxtapositions. As much themati-cally concerned with...

Poetry Anthologies In its broadest

Sense, a poetry anthology is a collection of poems written by a variety of poets. Typically an anthology also contains or is organized by a determining thematic or time-period focus. Thus, on the one hand, we might read the Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, which demonstrates a period but not a thematic unity, or, on the other hand, we might pick up an edition of 100 Love Poems, which showcases love poems throughout history. Regardless, however, of their determining focus or organization,...

Introduction

Make it new, the poet and sometime evangelist of the literary avant garde Ezra Pound insisted, as the 20th century was under way. Literature is news that stays news was another of his formulations meant to exhort poets to find their own path, to break ground, to put a literary tradition in its proper perspective. Eras do not neatly begin and end on time the fact of a new century, as told by a calendar, does not necessarily change how people think and feel. Even so, in January 1900 Americans...

Williams William Carlos

(1883-1963) Although he was deemed a poets' poet for most of his life, William Carlos Williams is today considered to be one of the most important modernist writers (see modernism). He employed a large variety of forms and genres (novels, short stories, essays, autobiography, prose poems, long poems, and plays), but he is best known for his short free verse poems dealing with mundane objects in a language that was everyday, yet highly structured (see prosody and free verse). While heavily...

Ode To The Confederate Dead

ALLEN TATE (1927) Ode to the Confederate Dead, Allen tate's most anthologized and best-known poem, brought modernism more fully to bear on American poetry, especially in the South, where a pervasive sentimental romantic poetics was giving way to the agrarian aesthetics of the Fugitives (see fugitive agrarian school). First published in 1927 and revised over the next 10 years, the poem describes, in second-person address, a man who has stopped beside a dilapidated Confederate graveyard. The...

Baca Jimmy Santiago 1952

Jimmy Santiago Baca has been a premier Chicano poet and essayist. While revealing the soul-searing anguish of a life forced into desperation and incarceration, his work is also a testament to the healing power of language. The complex heritage of Chicano culture is evident in Baca's poetry. In his memoir, he acknowledges William Carlos williams's common language and Walt Whitman's long adventurous lines. Furthermore, Baca's channeling of intense passion is informed by a Spanish language...

Design 125

Pablo Neruda, C sar Vallejo, Antonio Machado, and Lorca, many of whom Bly translated for publication. As part of its psychologized interest in the mind, deep image poetry was heavily influenced by foreign thinkers, writers, and spiritualists. Rather than trace its genealogy from contemporary English poetry, it saw itself as an inheritor of poetic prophetic practice that, as has been mentioned, it shared with contemporary surrealist poets in French and Spanish and that stretched back through...

Johnson Ronald 19351998 While

Ronald Johnson was influenced by Louis zukofsky and the black mountain school, especially Charles olson, he is unique in the visionary character of his poetry, most fully manifested in his long poem, ark, which took him 20 years to write. The technical innovation of his work, combined with the insistent strength of his insight into nature, language, and science, has established Johnson's position as one of the most original and compelling poets of the late the 20th century. Johnson was born in...

Poem For Speculative Hipsters 383

Mothering are among the most unshielded works Plath wrote. Here she lowers her masks and expresses emotion without excessive drama. In Magi (1960), Child (1963), and Balloons (1963), she shows the strength of her love as well as the depth of her dilemma How can she go on living without contaminating her children with the troublous wringing of hands (Child 1963 ) These mothering poems show ambivalence as well, but they are much more positive and less mediated than her poems of victimization and...

Hadas Rachel 1948 Rachel Hadas

Combines both traditional and postmodern poetic forms with a background in classical Greek, infusing commonplace topics with elegiac and transformational elements (see prosody and free verse). Her poems deal with universal issues of mortality, metamorphosis, and rebirth but also include personal moments of emotional vulnerability. Hadas has been influenced by James merrill, who turned away from the modernism of T. S. eliot to a poetics of transcendence. Born and raised in New York City, Hadas,...

Mullen Harryette 1953 Harryette

Mullen is a scholar and a poet whose poetry examines the intersection of gender, race, erotics, and the avantgarde. The linguistic and syntactic experimentation of her poetry places Mullen firmly in the avant-garde tradition that stretches from Gertrude stein to the poets of the language school. The racial concerns of her poetry also locate her in the rich tradition of African-American experimental poets, such as Norman H. Pritchard and Nathaniel mackey. Born in Alabama and raised in Texas,...

Tolson Melvin 18981966 Though

Melvin Tolson only published three volumes of poetry during his lifetime, he was internationally recognized as a major contributor to modernist poetics (see modernism) generally and to African diasporic modernity in particular. Such recognition led to Tolson's being selected to serve as poet laureate for the Republic of Liberia (1947) he is the only American poet to have been selected as laureate of another nation. More of Tolson's works have been published posthumously, and he is increasingly...

Hughes Langston 19021967 Lang

Ston Hughes is best known as a harlem renaissance poet whose lyrics celebrate and document 20th-century African-American life. Committed to expanding poetry's capacity to promote racial justice, his work consistently spoke to and communicated with people left to the margins of literary and political representation. In The Big Sea (1940), the first of his autobiographies, Hughes articulates his belief that literature should be a direct engagement with people T here came a time when I believed in...

Moss Thylias 1954 Thylias Moss is

An important figure in contemporary African-American poetry, a literary descendant of African-American poets Langston hughes, Robert hayden, and Gwendolyn brooks. Moss is ambivalent about being identified as a representative African-American poet, however, largely because she worries that this could reduce or oversimplify her own work and the works of others identified with this category. Her poetry's breadth spans religion, family, and racism together with references to far more eclectic...

Sobin Gustaf 1935 Gustaf Sobin is

A poet of trancendence, seeking through language ways in which things of the world can be transformed and elevated into exceptional beauty and delight. Influenced by Robert duncan, Robert creeley, and Ren Char, among others, his work bridges American and French poetic traditions. He has spent his life as a writer entirely in France, which provides the setting for much of his work. Born and reared in Boston, Sobin graduated from Brown University in 1957. He met the poet Ren Char, who invited him...

The Tablets Armand Schwerner

1999 A project of an epic scale comparable to Ezra pounds cantos and Louis zukofskys A, Armand SCHWERNERS The Tablets is a major poetic statement of the late 20th century see long and serial poetry . Its singular combination of deeply sincere cultural investigation and ironic self-parody, a poetic strategy Burt Kimmelman has called at once primeval and postmodern 70 , places the work within a complex matrix of contemporary aesthetic and spiritual concerns. On the one hand, the work engages the...

Cervantes Lorna Dee 1954 A

Leading member of her generation of Chicana o poets, Lorna Dee Cervantes writes poems that explore her experiences in complex and strikingly imagistic ways. Writing in Spanish and English, she responds to poetic traditions throughout the Americas. Although she has overcome economic, ethnic, and gender barriers, the memory of those struggles remains in her work. Born in San Francisco, Cervantes grew up in a poor Mexican-American community near San Jose, California. Educated at San Jose State...

Long And Serial Poetry The long

Poem has been the measure and the lifework of many significant 20th-century American poets. Yet the term long poem is a notoriously vague descriptor applied by poets and critics alike to poems of vastly different lengths and forms. One can discriminate, however, between those long poems in the 20th century that maintain the organizational structure of the epic and those that adopt the random and incomplete process of seriality. Epic poems by 20th-century poets adapt or renovate forms whose...

Dunn Stephen 141

Poems, which becomes a place for prophecy and spiritual exercises, where he can talk about the obligations of a spiritualistic poetics. The serial poems are imbedded in the context of the other poems, and here the idea of a large collage poem takes the form of a grand collage, collecting and modifying ideas and images in shifting relationships with other contexts. The conflicts raised in the cultural and poetry communities by the war in Vietnam dominate poems such as Up Rising, Passages 25 and...

Poem For Speculative Hipsters Leroi Jones Amiri Baraka

1964 First published in his second collection of poems, The Dead Lecturer, A Poem for Speculative Hipsters is the work of Amiri baraka's then LeRoi Jones's bohemian period of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Baraka was one of the contributors to The New American Poetry 1945-1960 1960 , an influential anthology of postwar experimental poetry see poetry anthologies . Like many of the poets included in this volume, he rejected the formalist, or academic, poetics still dominant in the United States...

Everson William

A Different Poem Rainer Maria Rilke's American Translators Randall Jarrell, Robert Lowell, and Robert Bly. New York Peter Lang, 1996. Perloff, Marjorie. The Poetics of Indeterminancy Rimbaud to Cage. Princeton, N.J. Northwestern University Press, 1983. --. 21st-Century Modernism The New Poetics. Malden, Mass. Blackwell Publishers, 2002. Rothenberg, Jerome, and Pierre Joris, eds. Poems for the Millennium The University of California Book of Modern and Postmodern Poetry. Vols. 1...

In Justspring E E Cummings

E. cummings's in Just-spring, one of his most popular poems, is derived mainly from imagism in that its main purpose is to re-create, in as few words as possible, the sensual particulars of a lyrical moment see imagist school but it also introduced much of the technical innovativeness, particularly with regard to the placement of words on the page, that Cummings pioneered and accomplished more than any other American modernist poet see modernism . First sketched as an exercise for a...

Waldman Anne 1945 Anne Wald

Man has been a dynamic voice in American poetry for more than three decades. While she has most commonly been associated with the BEAT writers, she also has been an active member of the post-Beat New York poetry underground. In her practice she reaches back to the archaic nature of poetry. She says of her work I want my poetry to be a sustained experience, a voyage, a magnificent dream, something that would take you in myriad directions simultaneously, and you could draw on all those other...

Kostelanetz Richard 1940

Richard Kostelanetz, though best known as a critic of literature and culture in general, is a pioneer in the fields of visual poetry and infraverbal poetry poetry in which what happens inside words is crucial the most impressive examples of his efforts were collected in his 1993 volume, Wordworks. His influences range from William Blake to Gertrude stein, Robert Indiana, and John cage. Among the many poets who have learned from his example are John Byrum, Jonathan Brannen, Crag Hill, G. Huth,...

Sun Michael Palmer 1988 Sun is the

Title of two poems from Michael palmer's book of the same name. The Sun poems address political ideas and history through the medium of language poetry. The first poem has the same number of lines as T. S. eliot's the waste land, a poem that scholars consider central to 20th-century modernism. However, Sun liberates modernist notions of collage and subtext from the conservative sensibilities that underscore Eliot's work. Palmer rejects the overt way that the political often inhabits the subject...

Female Voice Female Language

The ascribing of a specific meaning in American poetics to female voice and female language coincided with the emergence of the American second-wave feminist movement. Although this movement had important poetic precursors poets such as Elizabeth BISHOP, H. D., Amy LOWELL, Mina LOY, and Marianne MOORE had long been concerned with questions surrounding gender and the role of the woman poet attention to the specifics of a female voice and a female language gained real critical and creative...

Dove Rita 135

Then Dove has won many prizes and awards, including, for her most famous book, the poem cycle Thomas and Beulah a collection based on the lives of Dove's grandparents , a Pulitzer Prize in 1987. Dove was only the second African-American poet after Brooks to win a Pulitzer. In 1999 Dove was reappointed as special consultant in poetry for the 1999-2000 bicentennial year celebration of the Library of Congress. Since 1989 she has taught at the University of Virginia. Although the historical...

The Writer Richard Wilbur 1976

One of the most praised poems in Richard Wilbur's collection The Mind-Reader, The Writer is both typical of Wilbur's scrupulous metaphors and unusual in its relaxed form. Wilbur is known for his careful and adroit formalism, so this poem seems unusual, as it neither rhymes nor adheres to a meter. Wilbur's tercets three-line stanzas are in a loose or accentual meter moving freely between iambic and anapestic feet , with three, five, and three beats per line see prosody and free verse . This is...

Welish Marjorie 1944 Marjorie

Welish is a poet, painter, and art critic. An important contemporary innovator, she is often considered alongside new york school poets, such as Barbara guest and John ashbery, with whom her early work has been compared. But, like Guest's, Welish's recent books have turned in the direction of language poetics. Theoretical and disjunctive, melodic and complex, her poems can seem difficult to approach. The emphasis is on process and the multiple ways we make meaning. Born in New York City, Welish...

Silko Leslie Marmon 1948

Although Leslie Marmon Silko is best known as a novelist, her fiction brings together poetry and prose to form a rich, evocative literary voice. As James wright observes, poems rise out of the text of her first novel, Ceremony 1977 I t is astonishing, goes a Wright letter to Silko, to see your mastery of the novel combined with a power of poetry within it Silko and Wright, 5 . While Laguna Woman 1974 is Silko's only published collection of poetry other publications include poetry, but are mixed...

Blackmur Richard Palmer

P Blackmur's allusive and psychologically complex poetry of the mid-20th century reflects the influence of earlier poets of modernism, such as Ezra pound, T. S. eliot, and Hart crane. Black-mur's credo, that only within order can you give disorder room Fraser 86 , is reflected in his carefully crafted poems on themes commonly explored in the personal lyric see lyric poetry , including love, death, loneliness, frustration, and faith, while a number of his later poems reflect more...

Prosody And Free Verse Traditional

English prosody depends on identifying syllables and stresses or accented and unaccented syllables . To indicate which syllables receive emphasis, the convention is to use an acute accent ' and for syllables receiving less emphasis to use a breve . The first line of Robert frost's Birches would thus be scanned as follows When i see birches bend to left and right. Against this underlying rhythm, which operates throughout the poem, a reader might add less repetitive rhythmic emphasis appropriate...

Zukofsky Louis 19041978 Louis

Zukofsky came to early public attention with his leadership of the objectivist movement in the early 1930s, but nonetheless he spent much of his career in obscurity. only in the 1960s, when his poetry began to be published in widely available editions, did he achieve some recognition as an important poet, and only since his death has a larger readership come to recognize Zukofsky as a major figure in 20th-century poetry, a crucial bridge between the high modernism of Ezra pound, William Carlos...

Burning The Small Dead Gary

SNYDER 1968 Gary snyder's Burning the Small Dead is collected in his book The Back Country, published by New Directions in 1968. As in many of the poems collected in the book, Burning the Small Dead explores the character of a particular place, regardless of whether that is Snyder's home on Turtle Island in California, the Pacific Northwest, or Japan. Deeply influenced by Zen Buddhism and Japanese poetry and art, Snyder applies the tenets of mindfulness as he observes small branches burning in...

Poetry Institutions Although poetry

Institutions have existed since the early 20th century, with the advent of writing programs in American universities, these institutions have greatly proliferated, becoming crucial for readers to decide which poets are important. The need for such institutional guidance has grown as poetry itself has fragmented into disparate schools and subcultures. As Dana GIOIA states in his seminal essay Can Poetry Matter 1991 , American poetry now belongs to a subculture. To maintain their activities,...

Bidart Frank 1939 Frank Bidart

Writes poems of great philosophical and emotional depth. They show us interior landscapes of desire and loss, crime and self-punishment, righteousness and forgiveness. More recently they have been concerned with love and artistic creation. Although he belongs to no poetic school, Bidart's affinities include Robert lowell, Elizabeth bishop, and Robert pinsky. Louise gl ck has called Bidart one of the great poets of our time in a blurb for his 2002 volume Music Like Dirt. Of Basque-American...

Walcott Derek 1930 Derek

Cott is a playwright and poet of contrasts a Caribbean poet who weaves together the patois of his native St. Lucia and the poetic styles, themes, and diction of classical Greece and the European tradition. Walcott's work contains references to and echoes of Homer, Virgil, Shakespeare, Dante, John Donne, William Blake, Charles Baudelaire, and T. S. ELIOT. By refusing to choose between Europe and the Caribbean, Walcott creates a truly brilliant hybrid voice and identity. Although he does not...

Foster Jeanne Robert 18791971

Jeanne Robert Fosters poetry contrasts the importance of the individual and the natural world against the devaluation of human life and the exploitation of nature inherent in what the 20th century came to define as progress. Her dramatic narratives and monologues recreate the hardships and joys of a people whose birthright was a low-roofed farmhouse or a log shanty n.p. . Seemingly a regionalist poet of the Adirondack area, Foster embodies a modernist trend toward understatement, powerful use...

Miles Josephine 19111985 In her

Scholarly work, Poetry and Change 1974 , Josephine Miles writes, The poet is a person in place and time, sharing in a language, participating in a culture 3 . Miles's body of work reflects a mind engaged in the 20th century, from her poetry's distinct modernism to her later involvement in the social movements of the 1960s. The colloquial language in which her poetry delights demonstrates her immersion in the everyday life of her era, but the precision of her diction and the dispassion of her...

Brathwaite Edward Kamau

1930- One of the most important poets of the Western Hemisphere, as Amiri BARAKA noted in a blurb to his 1994 volume, Middle Passages, Edward Kamau Brathwaite belongs to a select group of key and influential epic-making Caribbean poets and scholars who have significantly influenced American letters others include Derek walcott and Edouard Glissant. Braithwaite's work addresses the postcolonial conditions of culture and language in the Caribbean it also comments upon the worldwide African...

Ammons Archie Randolph

Ammons, one of the most popular and prolific poets of the latter half of the 20th century, managed to be both a member of the academy and a renegade, the heir to Robert frost in his descriptions of domesticated nature and of William Carlos williams in his generosity of spirit and freedom with poetic form. A prolific poet, he wrote numerous collections, including a volume called The Really Short Poems of A. R. Ammons 1990 and five book-length poems Tape for the Turn of the Year...

Languages And Speculative Linguistics

Cyberpoetry transcends national boundaries, since it does not rely on a single language or set of letter forms. In this way it is similar to international concrete poetry and visual poetry. However, high-level programming languages are English-based. Computers are operated by predominantly English words. Some poets, such as John Cayley, employ this linguistic interchange and physicality by writing poems that execute as code. Cyberpoems can employ the substance of the Internet or of virtual...