Creeley, Robert. Foreword to Trumpets from the Islands of Their Eviction, edited by Martin Espada. Tempe, Ariz.: Bilingual Press, 1994. Espada, Martin. Zapata's Disciple: Essays. Cambridge, Mass.:

South End Press, 1998. Gonzalez, Ray, ed. Touching the Fire: Fifteen Poets of Today's

Latino Renaissance. New York: Anchor Books, 1998. Ratiner, Steven. "Martin Espada: Poetry and the Burden of

History." Christian Science Monitor (6 March 1991): 16. Shorris, Earl. Latinos: Biography of a People. New York: WW Norton, 1992.

Snehal Shingavi

ETHNOPOETICS The term ethnopoetics signifies an informal movement in poetry and scholarship. Coined by Jerome ROTHENBERG, it refers narrowly to collaborations among poets, anthropologists, linguists, and literary scholars during the late 1960s and 1970s. Ethnopoetics has come to designate writing that reflects a heightened awareness of the artfulness of oral and traditional poetries and the ways in which diverse verbal arts illuminate world cultures; this writing can also reflect innovative theorizing and the practice of transcription or translation .

POETRY ANTHOLOGIES edited by Rothenberg—Shaking the Pumpkin (1991) and Technicians of the Sacred (1985)—helped bring attention to oral poetry and other ancient literary forms generally neglected within literary and academic circles. The availability of

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