Bibliography

Conniff, Brian. "Reconsidering Black Mountain: The Poetry of

Hilda Morley." American Literature 65:1 (1993): 117-130. Kizer, Carolyn. Proses. Port Townsend, Wash: Copper Canyon, 1993.

Linda V Russo

MOSS, HOWARD (1922-1987) Howard Moss was an important practitioner of formal verse in the mid-20th century. He also had an uncanny ability to envision nature—and by envisioning it, to transform it into an environment created by humanity—thus bringing it into the realm of civilization; he strove to formalize nature, in keeping with his view of what poetry should be. He once remarked, "What my poems are really about ... is the experience of hovering between the forms of nature and the forms of art" (29).

Moss set an example for his generation among poets who believed in explicit order, as well as for later poets who have identified themselves with new formalism. He was also the poetry editor at the New Yorker magazine from 1950 until shortly before his death, a position that allowed him influence over much of mainstream American writing.

Moss was born and raised in New York City. In 1942 he won Poetry magazines Janet Sewall David Award for his own poetry. His first book was published in 1946. He was inducted into the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1968 and won the National Book Award for poetry for his Selected Poems in 1971. His New Selected Poems (1984) was awarded the Lenore Marshall/Nation Poetry Prize in 1986, a year in which he also received a fellowship from the Academy of American Poets.

All of Moss's work possesses a subtle finish. His early and middle poems are end-rhymed and metered, his later work is freer—but all of it has a striking regularity of meter and tone. The prevalent themes in Moss's work involve fundamental issues, such as change in life, human relationships, loss, and death. He writes ably of "the difficulty of love, the decay of the body, the passing of time, and the inevitability of death," all set against "the inexhaustible beauty of the natural world," as Dana gioia has observed (102). He is, in fact, a great elegist who can portray attachment and loss with stunning acuity through graphic simplicity and bitter irony (see lyric poetry).

In "Elegy for My Sister" (1980), he painstakingly details his sister's fatal disease and her struggle to cope with it. Trying to rise from her bed, her leg breaks "simply by standing up"; her bones have been "[m]elted into a kind of eggshell sawdust" by chemotherapy. His metaphors go beyond physical distress to show the plight of the soul. And in "Elegy for My Father" (1954), intense pain, dying, and separation are made vivid through paradox. His father, for example, is freed from life by his pain, a "double-dealing enemy."

Moss's finely crafted verse is matched by his willingness to account for the peripatetic and otherwise insignificant details of living, making them, at times, monumental. In his work the truth peeks out through artifice.

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