For Diane and Jane as always

The Facts On File Companion to 20th-Century American Poetry

Copyright © 2005 by Burt Kimmelman

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact:

Facts On File, Inc. 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

The Facts On File companion to 20th-century poetry/[edited by] Burt Kimmelman. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8160-4698-0 (alk. paper)

1. American poetry—20th century—History and criticism—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title: Companion to 20th-century poetry II. Kimmelman, Burt. III. Facts On File, Inc.

PS323.5.F33 2004 811'.509—dc22


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Text design adapted by James Scotto-Lavino Cover design by Cathy Rincon

Printed in the United States of America VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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