Adrienne Rich, The Fact of a Doorframe: Selected Poems 1950-2001 (New York, 2002).

Claire Keyes, The Aesthetics of Power: The Poetry of Adrienne Rich (Athens, GA, 1986). - 145

Alice Templeton, The Dream and the Dialogue: Adrienne Rich's Feminist Poetics (Knoxville, TN, 1994).

Craig Werner, Adrienne Rich: The Poet and her Critics (Chicago, 1988). Liz Yorke, Adrienne Rich: Passion, Politics, and the Body (London, 1997).

Gary Snyder's poetry combines the many facets of his interests and activities - writer, teacher, student of Oriental philosophy and religion, physical laborer, and concerned environmentalist. In poetry that is disciplined and focused in its language and its record of lived experience, there is a celebration of the whole grandeur of nature, from ants living in decaying wood to mountain ranges off to the far horizon. Snyder's world is one of interconnections, as he illustrates in his well-known poem "Axe Handles." In making an axe handle with his son Kai, he remembers a phrase from Ezra Pound: "When making an axe handle / the pattern is not far off," then a fourth-century Chinese "Essay on Literature," then a translation of the essay by his own teacher, Shih-hsiang Chen, to draw the conclusion:

Snyder was born in San Francisco, but grew up in Washington State and Oregon. He graduated from Reed College in 1951 with a degree in anthropology. His first poems were published at Reed in student publications. He began graduate work in anthropology at Indiana University in the fall of 1951, but stayed only one semester. He returned to San Francisco, worked summers as a mountain forest fire lookout, and ended a short-lived first marriage. By 1953 Snyder had made a commitment to a serious exploration of Oriental culture and languages, and began three years of study at the University of California at Berkeley. He also began to meet poets associated with the San Francisco Poetry Renaissance and the Beat movement. He met Philip Whalen in 1952, Kenneth Rexroth in 1953, and Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac in 1955. He shared a cabin for some months with Kerouac, and is represented as Japhy Ryder in Kerouac's account of the experience in The Dharma Bums (1958).

Alice Templeton, The Dream and the Dialogue: Adrienne Rich's Feminist Poetics (Knoxville, TN, 1994).

Craig Werner, Adrienne Rich: The Poet and her Critics (Chicago, 1988). Liz Yorke, Adrienne Rich: Passion, Politics, and the Body (London, 1997).

And I see: Pound was an axe, Chen was an axe, I am an axe And my son a handle, soon To be shaping again, model And tool, craft of culture, How we go on.

In 1956 Snyder made his first trip to Japan and studied under a Zen master. Before returning to San Francisco in 1958 he worked on board a ship as a wiper in an engine room, visiting Europe, and the Middle and Far East. The following year he returned to Japan and stayed there, with brief returns to the US, and a six-month stay in India, for most of the next decade, immersing himself in the study of Zen Buddhism.

In 1959 Snyder published the first of his more than 16 books of poetry and prose, Riprap, followed the next year by Myths & Texts. Some of the experiences behind the poems in the first book came from his work in the summer of 1955 on a trail crew in Yosemite National Park, and his work the previous summer at a lumber camp. The world of labor, language, discipline, and respectful, quietly celebratory observation is caught in the opening lines of the title poem:

Lay down these words Before your mind like rocks.

placed solid, by hands In choice of place, set Before the body of the mind in space and time: Solidity of bark, leaf, or wall riprap of things:

Snyder's own annotation explains that a "riprap" is "a cobble of stone laid on steep slick rock to make a trail for horses in the mountains."

In these and subsequent volumes Snyder explores such connections, sometimes in narrative, sometimes in a vignette that brings the experienced world into close-up. His work also takes up concern for the future of the earth's ecosystem, the world of nature and the outdoors so central to his poetry and way of life. This concern is sometimes accompanied by the evocation of a past that allowed a more primitive, respectful treatment of the natural world than the present. Some poems celebrate sexual desire and fertility, which for Snyder is part of what connects humans to the natural world around them (as in "Beneath My Hand and Eye the Distant Hills. Your Body" from 1968, and "It Was When" from 1969, which describes the conception of his son.)

In 1965 Snyder's second marriage ended, and in 1967 he married for a third time, to Masa Uehara, a relationship that went on to last for 20 years. In 1968 he returned to the United States. His volume The Back Country was published in that year, and he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. The following year the publication of Earth House Hold told something of his travels. In 1974 he published what for some readers is his finest book, Turtle Island, which was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. In 1987 he was inducted into the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. His No Nature: New and Selected Poems (1992) was a finalist for the National Book Award, and he was awarded the Bollingen Prize for Poetry for the 1996 publication of his open form journal poem Mountains and Rivers Without End, the first sections of which he had begun writing in 1956, and began publishing in 1965. In addition to his own poems, he has published a number of translations from ancient and modern Japanese poets, and also Cold Mountain Poems (1965) from the T'ang dynasty Chinese poet Han-shan.

Snyder has lived since 1971 in "Kitkitdizze," a house he built himself in the remote foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains in California. He has occasionally taught at colleges and universities, most recently at the University of California, Davis.

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