Elizabeth Bishop, The Complete Poems, 1927-1979 (New York, 1983).

Bonnie Costello, Elizabeth Bishop: Questions of Mastery (Cambridge, MA, 1991). Susan McCabe, Elizabeth Bishop: Her Poetics of Loss (University Park, PA, 1994). Anne Stevenson, Five Looks at Elizabeth Bishop (London, 1998). Thomas Travisano, Elizabeth Bishop: Her Artistic Development (Charlottesville, 1988).

John Berryman was born John Smith in the town of McAlester, in southeastern Oklahoma. His parents' marriage was a troubled one, and in 1926 his father, John Alleyn Smith, shot himself near the window of his son's room. The event haunted Berryman for the rest of his life, and appears often in his poetry, particularly in his later work. One of the Dream Songs (235) pleads:

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