Bibliography

The Complete Poems and Plays of T. S. Eliot (London, 1969). Selected Prose of T. S. Eliot, ed. Frank Kermode (London, 1975).

Ronald Bush, T. S. Eliot: A Study in Character and Style (New York, 1983). Maud Ellmann, The Poetics of Impersonality: T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound (Cambridge, MA, 1987).

Helen Gardner, The Composition of Four Quartets (New York, 1978).

In the title of his 1941 book of critical essays The New Criticism, John Crowe Ransom supplied a name to a movement. "New Criticism" argued for discovering meaning in close textual analysis of the internal relationships within a work (usually a poem), rather than its context within a period, or within its author's oeuvre. Such a view of the function of criticism, and the writing of poetry that mirrored its values, had been developing out of Ransom's work and that of others since the 1920s, and in 1941 was about to enter the two decades of its greatest influence. The critics whom Ransom discussed in the book, along with his own views, were among the most influential in the movement: I. A. Richards, William Empson, Yvor Winters, and T. S. Eliot. Ransom's immediate affinities, however, were with a group of southern poet-critics known as the Fugitives and centered initially upon Vanderbilt University. Ransom's own poetry mostly had been written by 1927, when he published his third volume of verse, although in turning to criticism and editorial work he continued to revise his poems. In fundamental ways the

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