Contents

Acknowledgments viii

How To Use This Book x

Chronology: Significant Dates and Events, 1900-2000 xii

Introduction 1

Some Historical and Cultural Contexts of

Twentieth-Century American Poetry 7

The Romantic Legacy and the Genteel Tradition 9

Transatlantic Connections 14

Tradition and the Rise of the Universities 19

Rebellion in the Fifties and Sixties: The Two Anthologies 22

The Poetry of Change 25

A Rich Diversity 28

Writers 31

Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935) 33

Robert Frost (1874-1963) 36

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967) 40

Wallace Stevens (1879-1955) 42

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) 46

Ezra Pound (1885-1972) 50

H.D. (Hilda Doolittle; 1886-1961) 55

Robinson Jeffers (1887-1962) 58

Marianne Moore (1887-1972) 60

John Crowe Ransom (1888-1974) 68

Claude McKay (1890-1948) 70

Hart Crane (1899-1932)

74

Langston Hughes (1902-1967)

78

Louis Zukofsky (1904-1978)

82

Robert Penn Warren (1905-1989)

84

George Oppen (1908-1984)

87

Theodore Roethke (1908-1963)

89

Charles Olson (1910-1970)

92

Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979)

95

John Berryman (1914-1972)

98

Robert Lowell (1917-1977)

101

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000)

105

Robert Duncan (1919-1988)

108

Richard Wilbur (b. 1921)

111

Denise Levertov (1923-1997)

113

James Dickey (1923-1997)

116

A. R. Ammons (1926-2001)

118

Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997)

120

Robert Creeley (b. 1926)

124

Frank O'Hara (1926-1966)

126

James Merrill (1926-1995)

129

John Ashbery (b. 1927)

131

Galway Kinnell (b. 1927)

134

W. S. Merwin (b. 1927)

136

Anne Sexton (1928-1974)

139

Adrienne Rich (b. 1929)

141

Gary Snyder (b. 1930)

146

Sylvia Plath (1932-1963)

148

Amiri Baraka (b. 1934)

152

Sonia Sanchez (b. 1934)

154

Audre Lorde (1934-1992)

156

Susan Howe (b. 1937)

158

Louise Gl├╝ck (b. 1943)

159

Jorie Graham (b. 1951)

161

Gary Soto (b. 1952)

162

Rita Dove (b. 1952)

Robert Frost, North of Boston (1914) 169

Ezra Pound, ed., Des Imagistes: An Anthology (1914) 174 Edwin Arlington Robinson, The Man Against the Sky:

A Book of Poems (1916) 178

Claude McKay, Harlem Shadows (1922) 187

Wallace Stevens, Harmonium (1923)

William Carlos Williams, Spring and All (1923)

Marianne Moore, Observations (1924)

Hart Crane, The Bridge (1930)

Elizabeth Bishop, North & South (1946)

Ezra Pound, The Pisan Cantos (1948)

Theodore Roethke, The Lost Son and Other Poems (1948)

Allen Ginsberg, Howl and Other Poems (1956)

Robert Lowell, Life Studies (1959)

Donald Allen, ed., The New American Poetry (1960)

Sylvia Plath, Ariel (1965)

John Berryman, The Dream Songs (1969)

Amiri Baraka, Black Magic: Sabotage, Target Study, Black Art;

Collected Poetry 1961-1967 (1969) Galway Kinnell, The Book of Nightmares (1971) Anne Sexton, Transformations (1971) John Ashbery, Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1975) Adrienne Rich, The Dream of a Common Language:

Poems 1974-1977 (1978) Carolyn Forche, The Country Between Us (1981) James Merrill, The Changing Light at Sandover (1982) Rita Dove, Thomas and Beulah (1986)

Topics

Twentieth-Century American Poetry and Other Arts Continuities and Nationality in Twentieth-Century

American Poetry American Poetry and a Century of Wars The Twentieth-Century American Long Poem Anthologies: Polemical and Historical

Guide to Further Reading Index

190 195 200 204 208 211 215 219 223 228 232 236

240 243 246 250

253 256 259 263

267 269

276 282 287 294

304 310

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