World of Archangels
It is a long time since I flapped mv wings, a long time since I stood on the roof of my house in Lawrence, Mass., or Michael's in No. Andover, a little whiskey in one hand, the past slipping through the other, a little closer to the heaven of dreams, letting the autumn wind, or the spring wind, or maybe just the invisible breath of some woman lift me up. It is a long time since I have flown like a swallow, or even the clumsy pigeon, into another time, practicing miracles, dodging the branches of lost dreams that cut against the sky, and the rocks thrown by small bovs, finding the right nest under the eaves of some pastoral age even the poets have forgotten, or fluttering to a slow landing on some ledge above the buses and simple walkers of this world. It is a long time. From where we stood I could see the steeple of the French church. Further back, it was 1912, and I could almost see the tenements of the French women who worked the fabric mills, weaving the huge bolts of cloth,...
The death of Kansa brings to a close the first phase of Krishna's career. His primary aim has now been accomplished. The tyrant whose excesses have for so long vexed the righteous is dead. Earth's prayer has been granted. Krishna has reached, in fact, a turningpoint in his life and on what he now decides the rest of his career depends. If he holds that his earthly mission is ended, he must quit his mortal body, resume his sublime celestial state and once again become the Vishnu whose attributes have been praised by Akrura when journeying to Brindaban. If, on the other hand, he regards his mission as still unfulfilled, is he to return to Brindaban or should he remain instead at Mathura At Brindaban, his foster parents, Nanda and Yasoda, his friends the cowherds and his loves the cowgirls long for his return. He has spent idyllic days in their company. He has saved them from the dangers inherent in forest life. He has kept a host of demon marauders at bay. At the same time, his magnetic...
This summary abduction is more than Sisupala can bear. Troops career after Krishna. Armies engage. A vast battle ensues. As they fight, Rukmini looks timorously on. At last, Balarama vanquishes the demon hosts, 'as a white elephant scatters lotuses.' Sisupala and Jarasandha flee, but Rukmini's evil brother, Rukma, returns to the fray, strives feverishly to kill Krishna, fails and is taken captive. His life is spared at Rukmini's behest, but he is led away, his hands tied behind his back and his moustaches shaven off. Balarama intercedes and effects his release and Rukma goes away to brood on his discomfiture and plot revenge. Krishna now returns to Dwarka in triumph, is given a rapturous welcome and a little later celebrates his marriage with full ritual. 'Priests recited the Vedas, Krishna circled round with Rukmini. Drums resounded. The delighted gods rained down flowers demi-gods, saints, bards and celestial musicians were all spectators from the sky.'
WHO dreamed that beauty passes like a dream For these red lips, with all their mournful pride, Mournful that no new wonder may betide, Troy passed away in one high funeral gleam, And Usna's children died. We and the labouring world are passing by Amid men's souls, that waver and give place Like the pale waters in their wintry race, Under the passing stars, foam of the sky, Lives on this lonely face. Bow down, archangels, in your dim abode Before you were, or any hearts to beat, Weary and kind one lingered by His seat He made the world to be a grassy road Before her wandering feet.
Several other factors coincided with Cowley's revolution to ensure the longevity of the Pindaric ode in the eighteenth century. One was the simultaneous introduction into English poetry and criticism of the sublime see ch. 37, The Sublime . In 1652 appeared the first English translation of Longinus' powerfully influential treatise, Peri Hupsous ( On the Sublime ). Longinus, a Greek philosopher of the first century ce, explored the rhetorical effects of sublime style a grand and lofty mode of writing whose explicit purpose is to move its audience to heightened emotion. The Pindaric shared with the sublime an insistence on emotional transport and elevation. The critical precept and the poetic form corresponded remarkably. Rounding out this cluster of reciprocal influences was a poet Milton, a writer of the seventeenth century who for the eighteenth century embodied poetry's potential to attain celestial heights a native talent who had equaled or even surpassed ancient achievements.
History can show few princes so amiable and few so unfortunate as Shems Almaali Cabus. He is described as possessed of almost every virtue and every accomplishment his piety, justice, generosity, and humanity are universally celebrated nor was he less conspicuous for intellectual powers his genius was at once penetrating, solid, and brilliant, and he distinguished himself equally as an orator, a philosopher, and a poet. In such estimation were his writings held that the most careless productions of his pen were preserved as models of composition and we are told that a famous vizier of Persia could never open even an official despatch from Shems Almaali without exclaiming This is written with the feather of a celestial bird
In the second quatrain the golden (l. 3) sun, rather than creating more gold and sharing his love with the lover, permit s the basest clouds to ride With ugly rack on his celestial face (ll. 5-6). The beloved hide s (l. 7) from the lover behind the clouds, Stealing unseen to west with this disgrace (l. 8). The exact form of the disgrace that the beloved is suffering from, which led to the end of the relationship, is not mentioned in this sonnet. The third quatrain celebrates the actual relationship when the beloved did focus his attention on the lover before being masked by The region cloud (l. 12). The final couplet concludes the lament by stating that in spite of the beloved's actions the lover still loves the beloved.
In this instance, although a creature seems to disappear at a certain season, in actuality it winters in his lover's throat. Carew softens the harsh sound and image of throat by including in the phrase the descriptors sweet dividing throat, where dividing means harmonious. After the repeated refrain opening the fifth verse, the speaker adds, where those stars light, That downwards fall in the dead of night. His readers need no longer worry about the stars' fate, as they sit in his lover's eyes, and there Fixed become, as in their sphere. He not only suggests that her eyes are lit with a celestial light, but that they represent the entire universe, or sphere. The speaker concludes his rendition of answers to the question he asks others not to propose by saying, Ask me no more if east or west The phoenix builds her spicy nest, extending the use of birds as traditional symbols of women. The phoenix proves a crucial reference, as in mythology it builds its nest with spicy shrubbery...
The Homeric singer existed to tell forth 'the doings of men and gods' (Od. 1. 338). Having listened to the bard Lomaharsana, the chieftain Saunaka knew 'the celestial tales, the tales of gods and Asuras, all the tales of men and snakes and Gandharvas' (MBh. 1. 4. 4). Whether or not these phrases represent a Graeco-Aryan formula, the celebration of gods and men is not a bad summary of the Indo-European poet's principal obligations. The gods had to be addressed and hymned in worthy style, and it was naturally for the professional exponent of the verbal arts to compose the words. But it was not the gods who gave him his daily bread and his gifts of horses and cows. It was the mortal king or noble at whose court he performed, and he too required the poet's praises.
However, swift moons make good their celestial losses when we have gone down to where good Aeneas, to where rich Tullus and Ancus have gone , we are dust and a Shade. Who knows whether the gods are adding tomorrow's time to today's total All things that you have given to your own soul will escape the greedy hands of your heir. When once you have died and Minos has passed his august judgment on you, Torquatus, neither high birth nor eloquence nor piety will bring you back, for neither does Diana set the chaste Hippolytus free from the infernal darkness, nor is Theseus able to break the Lethean chains from his dear Pirithous.
As the celestial references continue, readers learn the hair shines like a star. That type of beauty had such power in Venus's world that it converted a planet into a star. Little wonder then that it could move a mere mortal to a stricken state. Feminist critics would find of interest the fact that the woman remains without face or voice during most of the poem, her hair combed forward to cover her face. Although the comparison to Venus suggests a degree of power, it arises from no facet of the woman's character or intelligence, but exclusively from her physical beauty.
Stanza 2 asks in nine lines, What passion cannot Music raise and quell with a reference to Jubal's striking the corded shell suggesting to readers another beginning, that of the playing of instruments. So stunned are Jubal's listeners by the celestial sound that they fall on their faces. Dryden again associates music with divinity, as his speaker notes Jubal's audience believed no Less than a god dwells Within the hollow of that shell. That stanza ends with a declaration of the theme, What passion cannot music raise and quell
(1595) As with many of his poems, Michael Drayton fashioned the theme of his erotic pastoral, Endimion and Phoebe, on others' work, including the decade's most famous poets and playwrights, Christopher Marlowe (Hero and Leander) and William Shakespeare (Venus and Adonis). In form, however, it reflected influence by the playwright George Chapman. Drayton's version more closely resembled those of Marlowe and Chapman in the use of heroic couplets. According to the Drayton scholar Richard Hardin, he also manipulated their styles so they would allow his emphasis on his Platonic theme, that the way to spiritual perfection begins in the study of the created universe. It reflects Marlowe's approach as it opens with a focus on the beauty of the pastoral setting, shaping an Arcadian paradise. Later, it reflects Chapman's philosophical style by focus on celestial matters. Hardin suggests that Drayton's poem offered something new to the world of poetry A philosophical epyllion sexual love, the...
The speaker continues to stress that those who achieved more than the men at his feet have no effect on Death. Even if the dead at some time dreamed of greatness or knew a celestial fire, they were not allowed to act on that passion. Comparisons to gems lost in the unfath-omed caves of ocean and flowers born to blush unseen note the unfulfilled promise to be merely one more trick of nature. However, as expressed in the 17th stanza, that may not be a bad thing
The opposition of celestial and terrestrial did, however, play a fundamental role in Indo-European thought and language not in contrasting different orders of supernatural being, but in contrasting the gods with humankind. As the gods were *deiwds, the heavenly ones, man was 'the earthly', designated by a derivative of the old word for earth, *dheghom-ldhghm-.14 This is the source of words for 'man, human being' in various languages Phrygian zemelos Latin homo (cf. humus 'earth'), Oscan humuf, Umbrian homu old Lithuanian zmuo, plural zmones Gothic and Old English guma, Old Norse gumi, Old High German gomo ( proto-Germanic *guman) 15 Old Irish duine, Welsh dyn, Breton den ( *gdon-yo-).16 In Greek the inherited word was replaced by
These appear to be fragmented survivals of an Indo-European complex of ideas. The Indic Dyaus is 'all-knowing' (AV 1. 32. 4 visvavedas-, cf. RV 6. 70. 6), and this is doubtless because of his celestial nature. As Raffaele Pettazzoni showed in a wide-ranging study,21 omniscience is not an automatic privilege of gods. It is predicated primarily of sky and astral deities, because they are in a position to see all that happens on earth. In India it is another god of celestial nature, Varuna, or the pair Mitra-Varuna, that supervises justice, It is hard to say which was original. Mitra-Varuna are certainly an old-established firm, already attested in the fourteenth-century treaty between Hatti and Mitanni. It would not be difficult to suppose that as Zeus grew in importance among the Greeks he took over the supervision of justice from another celestial god or gods who faded out of sight. On the other hand the deified Sky, *Dyeus, was from the beginning suited to serve at least as a witness...
Went otherwise unnoticed, but hesitant to claim that noticing such things brought the power to do more than move with the flow of time and sensation out of which human experience is composed. Such poetry posited the relativity of all moments of lived experience, examined the problems with claiming a perspective that went beyond the experience of such moments, and faced living with the probability that human perspective was inevitably limited. The range of such poetry, articulated within contemporary versions of the meditative tradition and following on in particular from the poetry of Wallace Stevens, W. H. Auden, and the later work of T. S. Eliot, can be seen in the poems of John Ashbery and James Merrill. Ashbery's poetry records the moment-by-moment engagement of consciousness with the outside world and with memory. Merrill's The Changing Light at Sandover sought to put the limited human perspective into the context of the wider vision offered by the world of spirits and angels...
The Bricklayer throws his trowel by, And now builds mansions in the sky The Cobbler, touched with holy pride, Flings his old shoes and last aside, And now devoutly sets about Cobbling of souls that ne'er wear out The Baker, now a poacher grown, Finds man lives not by bread alone, And now his customers he feeds With pray'rs, with sermons, groans and creeds The Tinman, mov'd by warmth within, Hammers the Gospel, just like tin Weavers inspir'd their shuttles leave, Sermons, and flimsy hymns to weave Barbers unreaped will leave the chin, To trim, and shave the man within The Waterman forgets his wherry, And opens a celestial ferry The Brewer, bit by frenzy's grub, The mashing for the preaching tub Resigns, those waters to explore, Which if you drink, you thirst no more The Gard'ner, weary of his trade, Tired of the mattock, and the spade,
The references here to celestial flames, sublime ideas, and inspiration suggest Roscommon's attraction not to a poetry of order and reason but to one of grandeur and elevated flight. As he argues, the classical inheritance does not preclude fire and sublimity in modern verse - rather, it is through the inspiration of Virgil that contemporary poets can strive to create their own lofty works. Such interest in the sublime can also be found in Pope's Essay on Criticism. Alongside the attraction to Horatian conversation and visions of Aristotelian order, we can also see Pope's enthusiasm for the rapturous mode of the Longinian sublime. This is most clearly encapsulated in his famous praise of the critic who can From vulgar Bounds with brave Disorder part, And snatch a Grace beyond the Reach of Art (ll. 155-6).
And the original Archangel or possessor of the command of the heavenly host, is calld the Devil or Satan and his children are call'd Sin & Death But in the Book of Job Miltons Messiah is call'd Satan. For this history has been adopted by both parties It indeed appear'd to Reason as if Desire was cast out. but the Devils account is, that the Messi PL 6 ah fell. & formed a heaven of what he stole from the Abyss
Writers from the sixth century on, as noted in the last chapter, testify to the Germanic reverence for rivers, springs, and trees. Procopius (Bell. Goth. 2. 15. 23) reports that the people of Thule, by which is meant some part of Scandinavia, 'worship many gods and demons, celestial, aerial, terrestrial, and marine, as well as certain powers said to exist in the waters of springs and rivers'. His wording is too vague to reveal whether these powers manifested themselves in female human form. In later Germanic folklore there are water sprites of both sexes, the males being apparently more prominent.26
According to a Russian text of 1261, the gods to whom the Lithuanian pagans sacrifice include 'Telyavelik, the smith (Ky3He who forges the sun . and sets it up in the sky'.124 This seems to have been conceived as a daily event. A series of Latvian folk songs refer to a celestial smith, working at his forge in heaven, or sometimes in or beside the sea the sparks fly, the cinders fall to earth. He is making a crown for his sister, a crown, a gold belt, or a ring for the Daughter of the Sun, spurs for the Sons of God, etc.125
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