Douglas Gavin

Scotland—to land at England's ports. Elizabeth will also not allow invasion by "seditious sects" (l. 27), a reference to Roman Catholicism—seditious because the Pope had excommunicated Elizabeth and declared that any potential murderer would not be committing a mortal sin to kill her.

In the last stanza, we learn that Elizabeth's sword of state may be rusty from lack of use because her reign has not previously been threatened. She will not hesitate to use it, however, to "pull their tops who seek such change" (l. 31). "Pull" is probably a misprint for "poll," a practice by which the tops of trees were cut off to keep them from growing too tall. Elizabeth will not hesitate to lop the heads off anyone who thinks he or she can stand above the queen. The last Latin line, "Vivat Regina," means "Long live the queen"—Eliza-beth's hope and, perhaps, her threat.

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