Eurther reading

Cassidy, Frederic G. "How Eree Was the Anglo-Saxon Scop?" In Franciplegius, edited by J. B. Bessinger and Robert P. Creed, 75-85. New York: New York University Press, 1965.

French, W. H. "Widsith and the Scop." PMLA 60, no. 3

(1945): 623-630. Hollowell, Ida Masters. "Scop and Wodbora in OE Poetry." JEGP 77 (1978): 317-329.

SCOTTISH CHAUCERIANS The term Scottish Chaucerians—given to Robert Henryson, William Dunbar, Gavin Douglas, James I of Scotland, and others—though long used, is somewhat of a misnomer. These poets wrote in a different time and place than Geoffrey Chaucer, and while they generally followed him in meter and subject, they were not slavish imitators. Like Chaucer, however, they played an important part in establishing the vernacular tradition in literary pursuits. Further, they wrote for a varied audience in the high, middle, and low styles. There are also direct connections in subject matter. For instance, Henryson wrote a version of the Troilus and Cressida story called The Testament of Cresseid. William Dun-bar's "Tua Mariit Wemen and the Wedo" can be compared to "The Wife of Bath's Tale" because both works feature women talking candidly about sex, and in the spirit of Chaucer's The Legend of Good Women, Gavin Douglas wrote about Dido and Aeneas. These poets also specifically praise Chaucer for his rhetoric and style: Dunbar, for example, lists him in "Lament


Recent critics prefer the term makar to Scottish Chaucerian. Makar is a direct translation of the Greek word for poet into Middle Scots, and Henryson, Dunbar, and Douglas all used it to describe themselves. These poets are also part of a larger movement of MIDdle Scots poetry.

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