Further reading

Raleigh, Walter. The Poems of Sir Walter Raleigh. Edited by Agnes Latham. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1951.

Bednarz, James P. "The Collaborator as Thief: Raleigh's (Re)Vision of The Faerie Queene." ELH 63, no. 2 (1996): 279-307.

Cousins, A. D. "Raleigh's 'A Vision upon the Conceipt of the

Faery Queen.'" Explicator 41 (1983): 14-16. Koller, Katherine. "Spenser and Raleigh." ELH 1, no. 1

(1934): 37-60. Oram, William A. "Spenser's Raleighs." Studies in Philology 87 (1990): 341-362.

Brett Foster

METONYMY A poetic device, commonly employed in sonnets, wherein a detail or a noteworthy characteristic of someone or something is used to represent the whole. occasionally, metonymy involves the use of something closely related to the person or object to represent it. For instance, "wood" is a common use of metonymy for cross in religious lyrics such as "NoW Goth Sonne under wod."

See also synecdoche.

R. Jane Laskowski metrical preface to the pastoral care (ca. 890) Near the end of the ninth century, Alfred the Great completed a translation into Old English of Saint Gregory's Regula Pastoralis (Pastoral Care), a treatise concerning the duties and qualities appropriate to ecclesiastical leaders. Alfred affixed two prefaces to his translation: a lengthy preface in old English prose, describing the poor state of learning in England at the time and Alfred's motivations for providing the translation, and a very brief (only 17 lines long) preface in Old English verse.

The metrical preface briefly details the history of the Regula Pastoralis, describing how Gregory directed Augustine of Canterbury to bring the work to England in order to spread the ideas of Christianity to the "island-dwellers." The preface goes on to say that Alfred translated the work and had copies made of his translation in order to send it to English bishops, some of whom were unable to read the Latin original. Throughout, the poem employs the persona of the book itself, stating, for example that "King Alfred translated me." In this way, the poem is reminiscent of Anglo-Saxon riddles that often speak in the voice of the object being described.

Unlike the prose preface, which precedes it, the metrical preface has received very little scholarly attention. Many early studies of Anglo-Saxon poetry, in fact, treated the verse preface as a poorly written poem of little historical or literary interest. Recently, however, a few scholars have begun to reconsider it, and current studies have focused on the way Alfred mixes traditional poetic language and motifs with specific words and phrases more typical of learned Old English prose. By doing so, Alfred demonstrates his facility with both styles of writing and highlights his own abilities as an

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