Further reading

Levine, Robert T. "Madame, Withouten Many Wordes." Explicator 38, no. 3 (1980): 46-49.

MADRIGAL Madrigals originated in Italy in the early 14th century as short love poems set to music. More specifically, madrigals are lyrics ranging from one to four three-line strophes followed by a two-line refrain (called a ritornello). Sixteenth-century madrigals are directly inspired by the early originals, though they exhibit entirely different music. Sometimes madrigals are referred to as pastoral songs, though the subject matter does not have to reflect this.

See also Campion, Thomas; canzone; Dowland, John.

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