Further reading

Friedman, John B. "A Reading of Chaucer's Reeve's Tale."

The Chaucer Review 2 (1967): 8-19. Greentree, Rosemary, and T. L. Burton, eds. Chaucer's Miller's, Reeve's, and Cook's Tales: An Annotated Bibliography 1900 to 1992. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997.

Yager, Susan. "'A Whit Thyng in Hir Ye': Perception and Error in the Reeve's Tale." The Chaucer Review 28 (1994): 393-404.

Alessandra Petrina

REFRAIN In poetry, a refrain is a word, phrase, or complete line of verse repeated at the end of each stanza. The refrain usually refers to the main topic or theme, but occasionally it comprises nonsensical "filler" words (e.g., "tra la la"). It is often used in poems related to musical compositions, such as carols or folk ballads. See also burden.

RENAISSANCE See early modern v. Renaissance.

REVERDIE From the French reverdir, meaning "to become green again," reverdie is a genre that the-matizes the arrival of spring and all of the emotive associations that accompany the end of winter, especially love and gaiety. It emerged out of troubadour songs that often began by evoking springtime (the "springtime opening"). The genre is often marked by narrativity—for example, in an idyllic setting the singer meets a young woman on his path, and after describing her, he engages her in conversation. Reverdie became popular during the course of the 13th and 14th centuries in England. Examples include "Sumer Is Icumen In" and "Lenten ys Come with Love to Toune."

See also Middle English lyrics and ballads.

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