Further reading

Blake, Norman E. "English Versions of Reynard the Eox in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries." Studies in Philology 62 (1965): 63-77. Varty, Kenneth. Reynard, Renart, Reinaert, and Other Foxes in Medieval England: The Iconographic Evidence. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1999.

Lynn Ramey

RHYME ROYAL (CHAUCERIAN STANZA, TROILUS STANZA) This stanza form consists of seven lines of 10 syllables each, or pentameters, with a rhyme scheme of ababbcc. Geoffrey Chaucer was one of the first to use rhyme royal in "Complaint unto Pity," The Parliament of Fowls, and Troilus and Cri-seyde. In The Canterbury Tales, he used rhyme royal for "The Man of Law's Tale," "The Clerk's Tale, "The Prioress's Tale," and "The Second Nun's Tale," all of which focus on the suffering of a virtuous Christian. Because Chaucer was the first to use rhyme royal in English, it is sometimes, albeit rarely, called the Chaucerian stanza or the Troilus Stanza because of Troilus and Criseyde. The form remained popular in the 15th and 16th centuries and was used by William Dunbar, Robert Henryson, William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, and Sir Thomas Wyatt. Whereas it had been thought that rhyme royal took its name from the fact that James VI/I used it in The Kingis Quair, it has also been suggested that the name derives from the term ballad royal, which was used to denote the same verse form in the 14th century.

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