Further reading

Bawcutt, Priscilla. Gavin Douglas: A Critical Study. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 1976.

-. The Shorter Poems of Gavin Douglas. Edinburgh: The

Scottish Text Society, 2003. Douglas, Gavin. Eneados. Edited David F. C. Coldwell. 4 vols. Scottish Text Society. Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1957-64.

Mark DiCicco

DOWLAND, JOHN (1563-1626) As a young man, John Dowland spent several years in Paris serving as clerk to the English ambassadors. During this time, he converted to Roman Catholicism. Returning to England, Dowland married and, in 1588, was admitted to Christ Church, oxford, where he earned a bachelor's degree in music. His reputation grew, as did his commissions; however, the coveted post of court lutenist eluded him, as Elizabeth I was reluctant to appoint a Catholic to any post. In 1594, Dowland departed for Rome, seeking education, experience, and further commissions. He became very well known and was respected across Europe. Ironically, upon his return to England after 1606, he found his own people disdainful of his music. In 1612, a weary Dowland was finally granted his wish and named a "King's lute." He died 14 years later.

Dowland composed a number of ayres, predominantly for voice and lute, and was one of the instigators of the genre, and composed madrigals as well. He was also the first person to earn a bachelor's degree in music from Oxford and Cambridge.

See also "Come Away, Come Sweet Love."

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