Further reading

Honan, Park. Christopher Marlowe: Poet and Spy. Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 2005. Hopkins, Lisa. Christopher Marlowe: A Literary Life. Hound-

mills, U.K.: Palgrave, 2000. Kuriyama, Constance Brown. Christopher Marlowe: A Renaissance Life. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2002. Riggs, David. The World of Christopher Marlowe. New York: Henry Holt, 2004.

Bruce E. Brandt

MARY I (1516-1558) queen of England Mary Tudor was born in 1516 to King Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, whom Henry divorced after breaking from the Roman Catholic Church. Thereafter, Mary was declared illegitimate by Parliament. Despite this turn of events, however, Mary eventually assumed the throne in 1553, after the death of her young half brother, King Edward VI, and after defeating, with strong support, the claim made by the Protestant Lady Jane Grey ("the nine day queen"). In doing so, she became, in the summer of 1553, the first undisputed queen to rule England. As queen, Mary's overriding concern was to reconcile her country with Rome and bring back the Catholic faith.

In 1554, the 37-year-old queen married her younger cousin, Philip of Spain, son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (King Charles I of Spain). Mary was besotted with Philip; unfortunately, her affection was not returned to the same degree. Even more unfortunately, Mary's subjects resented Philip, seeing in him a symbol of their great rival, Spain. Two false pregnancies, likely caused by the disease that would eventually kill her (ovarian cancer), did nothing to secure her position. As her health deteriorated, Mary was forced to consider the question of succession, and eventually agreed to pass the crown to her half sister, who became Queen Elizabeth I. On November 16, 1558, Mary died.

Despite their personal difficulties, both Mary and Philip enjoyed poetry, music, and the arts, so witty and intelligent individuals populated their court. Though the great writing of Mary's reign tended to be ecclesiastical and political rather than poetic, a number of poets, mostly those who were Catholic or had Catholic sympathies, rose to prominence or began their careers under Mary, including John Heywood, Nicholas Grimauld (1519-62), Thomas Tusser (152480), George Cavendish (1494-ca.1562), and Thomas Sackville, earl of Dorset (1536-1608). The most important poetic developments of Mary's reign, however, were not compositions, but rather the assembly of two key anthologies: A Mirror for Magistrates, under the auspices of the Roman Catholic John Way-land, and Tottel's Miscellany.

further reading

Loach, Jennifer. Parliament and the Crown in the Reign of

Mary Tudor. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986. Loades, D. M. Mary Tudor: A Life. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.

-. The Reign of Mary Tudor: Politics, Government, and

Religion in England, 1553-1558. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979.

Melissa A. Harris and Michelle M. Sauer

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