Further reading

Cornelius, Michael G. "Robert Henryson's Pastoral Burlesque 'Robene and Makyne' (1470)." Fifteenth-Century Studies 28 (2003): 80-96. Greentree, Rosemary. "Literate in Love: Makyne's Lesson for Robene." In Older Scots Literature, edited by Sally Mapstone, 61-69. Edinburgh: John Donald, 2005. Petrina, Alessandra. "Deviations from Genre in Robert Henryson's Robene and Makyne." Studies in Scottish Literature 31 (1999): 107-120.

Alessandra Petrina

ROBERT I THE BRUCE (1274-1329) king of Scotland Robert the Bruce—later Robert I, king of Scotland—was the son of Robert de Brus (d. 1304), the sixth lord of Annandale, and Marjory, countess of Carrick (d. 1290). He was born on July 11, 1274, at Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire. John Barbour's poem The Bruce (1375) provides one version of Robert the Bruce's story.

The Bruce family laid claim to the Scottish throne through its relation to David I of Scotland, but their claim was rejected in 1292. Robert then sought to make himself more appealing by aligning himself with William Wallace in the Rebellion of 1297, and by identifying himself with Scottish independence.

On March 25, 1306, Robert seized the Scottish throne. After England's Edward I died on July 7, 1307, Robert began the reclamation of Scotland, including waging a civil war against opposing Scottish nobles, and consolidated his power. On June 23-24, 1314, Scottish forces met and defeated English forces under Edward II at Bannockburn, though Edward II escaped. Bruce continued raiding in the north of England until 1328, when Edward II recognized Scotland as independent in the Treaty of Edinburgh.

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