Further reading

Magennis, Hugh. Images of Community in Old English Poetry. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Treharne, Elaine, ed. and trans. "The Ruin." In Old and Middle English: An Anthology, 84-87. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2000.

Susannah Mary Chewning RUNES See FUTHARK ALPHABET.

RUTHWELL CROSS (ca. seventh century)

A large stone cross standing 17 feet, 4 inches tall, now housed in the town of Ruthwell (near Dumfries), Scotland, this artifact is highly significant to English history. Its intricately engraved faces feature biblical scenes as well as verse fragments in Latin. Most significantly, 156 lines of The Dream of the Rood, a dream vision, appear on the east and west faces in the futhark alphabet. Though evidence is scanty, most scholars believe the cross was constructed around 650-850 c.e.

See also Brussels cross.

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