Further reading

Hannay, Margaret P., Noel J. Kinnamon, and Michael G. Brennan, eds. The Collected Works of Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke. 2 vols. oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Hannay, Margaret P. Philip's Phoenix: Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

-. Silent But for the Word: Tudor Women as Patrons,

Translators, and Writers of Religious Works. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1985.

EXEGESIS Exegesis, the science of biblical interpretation, was heavily influenced in Europe by early


Christian theologians such as Gregory the Great and Augustine of Hippo. At times closely related to allegory, medieval Christian exegesis was often marked by the express attempt to situate all biblical content in its proper relationship to Jesus Christ. This "typological" approach would describe, for example, an Old Testament story, such as the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt, as a prefiguration of Christ's sacrifice, which liberated all people from enslavement to sin. Such systems are called the "Allegory of the Theologians." The most widely cited type of theologians' allegory, though by no means the only exegetical approach, is known as the quadriga, or the fourfold system of exegesis. Through this interpretive framework, biblical passages were revealed to have not one but four "senses" of meaning: literal, allegorical, tropological, and anagogical. A Latin couplet often used in medieval schools clarifies: Littera gesta docet, quid credas allegoria, / Moralis quid agas, quo ten-das anagogia (The literal teaches the deeds, the allegorical what to believe, the moral what to do, and the anagoge what to strive for). Such interpretation addresses the act of reading Scripture and its proper application to the individual life, both morally and in shaping one's eschatological outlook.

See also biblical allusions.

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