Further reading

Child, Francis James, ed. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. 5 vols. 1802. Reprint, New York: Dover Publications, 1965.

BALLAD See ballad (folk ballads), ballad

STANZA, BORDER BALLADS, MIDDLE ENGLISH LYRICS AND BALLADS, ROBIN HOOD BALLADS.

BALLADE A ballade is a poem with three stanzas of seven, eight, or 10 lines, an envoi, amd a refrain. The lines are generally in either iambic tetrameter or iambic pentameter and rhyme. Traditionally, the envoi was addressed to the poet's patron.

The eight-line ballade is most standard. The 10-line ballade is sometimes called the ballade supreme and is predominantly a French verse form. The seven-line ballade is also known as the ballade royal. It consists of four stanzas of rhyme royal verse, all following the same pattern, all using the same refrain, and having no envoi.

The most well-known writer of ballades is François Villon (1431-1465?). Geoffrey Chaucer wrote several ballades, including the envoi-less "To Rosemunde." In the 16th century, Sir Philip Sidney experimented with the form, as did Edmund Spenser, among others.

See also envoi.

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