Section Ii

The Book of Poetry from1 the time of Confucius till the gknekaii acknowledgement of the present text.

1. Of the attention paid to the study of the Book of Poetry from the death of Confucius to the rise of the Ts'in dynasty, we have abundan t evidence in the writings of his grand-son Tsze-sze, of From Confucius to > Mencius, and of Seun K'ing. One of the acknow. the dynasty of Ts'in. f ledged distinctions of Mencius is his acquaintance with the «des, of which his canon for the study of them prefixed to my volumes is a proof; and Seun K'ing survived the extinction of the Chow dynasty, and lived on into the times of Ts'in.1 : 2. The Poems shared in the calamity which all the other classical Works, excepting the Yih, suffered, when the tyrant of Ts'in issued his edict for their destruction. But I have shown, in the prolegomena to vol. I., that only a few years elapsed between the

The Poems vrere ail recovered(_ execiUion of his decree and the establish-after the Ores of Ts'in. > ment of the Han dynasty, which distinguished itself by its labours to restore the monuments of ancient literature. The odes were all, or very nearly all, recovered;2 and the reason assigned for this is, that their preservation depended on the memory of scholars more than 011 their inscription Upon tablets and silk.8 We shall find reason to accept this statement.

3 Three different texts of the odes made their appearance early Three different texts, in the Han dynasty, known as the She of Loo, of Ts'e, and of Han; that is, the Book of Poetry was recovered from three different quarters.

[i.] Lew Hiii's catalogue4 of the Works in the imperial library of the earlier Han dynasty commences, 011 the She King, with a Collection of the three Texts in 28 chapters,B which is followed by two Works of commentary on the Text of Loo.6 The former of The Text of Loo. them was by a Shin P'ei,7 of whom we have some account in the Literary Biographies of Han.8 He was a native of Loo, and had received his own knowledge of the odes from a scholar of Ts'e, called Fow K'ew-pih.9 He was resorted to by many disci-

1 Prolegomena to vol. II., p. 81. 2 In the last section reference was made to the number of the odes, given by Co.nfucius himself as 800. He might mention the round number, not thinking it worth while to say that they were 305 or 811. The Classic now contains the text of 805 pieces, and the titles of other 6. It is contended by Choo and many other scholars, that in Confucius' time the text of those six was already lost, or rather that the titles werenames of tunes only. More likely is the view that the text of the pieces was lost after Confucius' death. Sec in the body of this volume, pp. 267,268. 8 jiHlU'l^^iii^l'til ^WLpfa'^fiffl&Yf ;-,ee Pftn Koo's note «PPcm1wl to tlic <*talogue of

Lgw Hin, Section 4 Proleg. Vol. 1. p. 5. 6 H -j" /V

A "if pies whom he taught to repeat the odes, but without entering into discussion with them on their interpretation. When the first emperor of the Han dynasty was passing through Loo, Shin followed him to the capital of that State, and had an interview with him. The emperor Woo,10 in the beginning of his reign (b.c. 139), sent for him to court, when he was more than 80 years old; and he appears to have survived a considerable number of years beyond that advanced age. The names of ten of his disciples are given, all inen of eminence, and among them K'ung Gan-kwoh. A little later, the most noted adherent of the school of Loo was a Wei H3en, who arrived at the dignity of prime minister, and published 'the She of Loo in Stanzas and Lines.111 Up and down in the Books of Han and Wei are to be found quotations of the odes, which must have been taken from the professors of the Loo recension; but neither the text nor the writings on it long survived. They are said to have perished during the Tsin dynasty (a.d. 265—419). When the catalogue of the Suy library was made, none of them were existing.

[ii.] The Han catalogue mentions five different works on the She of Ts'e.12 -This text was from a Yuen Koo,18 a native of Ts'e, The Text of Ts*, about whom we learn, from the same chapter of Literary Biographies, that he was one of the Great scholars of the court in the time of the emperor King (b.c. 155—142),14 a favourite with him, and specially distinguished for his knowledge of the odes and his advocacy of orthodox Confucian doctrine. He died in the next reign of Woo, more than 90 years old; and we are told that all the scholars of Ts'e who got a name in those days for their acquaintance with the She sprang from his school. Among his disciples was the well known name of Hca-how Ch'e-ch'ang,18 who communicated his acquisitions to How Ts'ang,16 a native of the present Shan-tung province, and author of two of the Works in the Han catalogue. How had three disciples of eminence,—Yih Fung, SSaou Wang che, and K'wang Häng.17 From them the Text of Ts'e was transmitted to others, whose names, with quotations from their writings, are scattered through the Books of Han. Neither

text nor commentaries, however, had a better fate than the She of Loo. There is no mention of them in the catalogue of Suy. They are said to have perished even before the rise of the Tsin dynasty.

[Hi.] The Text of Han was somewhat more fortunate. The Han catalogue contains the titles of four works, all by Han Ying,18 whose The Text of Han Ying. surname is thus perpetuated in the text of the She which emanated from him. His biography follows that of How IVang. He was a native, we are told, of the province of Yen, and a 'Great scholar' in the time of the emperor W&n (b.c. 178—156),19 and on into the reigns of King and Woo. 'He laboured,' it is said, 'to unfold the meaning of the odes, and published an "Explanation of the Text," and "Illustrations of the She," containing several myriads of characters. His text was some what different from the texts of the She of Loo aind Ts'e, but substantially of the same meaning.'19 Of course Han founded a school; but while almost all the writings of his followers soon perished, both the Works just mentioned continued on through the various dynasties to the time of Slung. The Suy catalogue contains the titles of his text, and two Works on it;20 the T'ang those of his text and his Illustrations;21 but when we come to the catalogue of Sung, published in the time of the Yuen dynasty, we find only the Illustrations, in 10 Books or chapters; and Gow-yang Sew tells.us that in his time this was all of Han that remained. It continues, entire or nearly so, to the present day, and later on in these prolegomena there will be found passages of it sufficient to give the reader a correct idea of its nature.

4. But while these three different recensions of the She all disappeared with the exception Of a single fragment, their unhappy fate was owing not more to the convulsions by which the empire was often rent, and the consequent destruction of literary monuments, such as we have witnessed in our own day in China, than to the appearance of a fourth Text which displaced them by its superior a fourth Text; that of Maou. correctness, and the ability with which it was advocated and commented on. This was what is called the Text of Maou. It came into the field later than the others; but the Han catalogue contains the She ot Maou in 29 chapters, and a commen-

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