The Church Growth Kit

Ministry Letters

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What is a church Let Truth and Reason speak, They would reply, The faithful, pure and meek, From Christian folds, the one selected race, I love thy church, O God For her my prayers ascend To her my cares and toils be given, Till toils and cares shall end. Love to the Church. T. Dwight. As some to Church repair, Not for the doctrine, but the music there. Essay on Criticism. A. Pope. Who builds a church to God, and not to fame, Will never mark the marble with his name. Moral Essays, Epistle III. A. Pope.

Sethelilly1 Sethelilly2 Sethelilly3 Sethelilly4

E26 Dear Mother, dear Mother, the Church is cold, t89 E26 But the Ale-house is healthy & pleasant & warm E26 Besides I can tell where I am use'd well, t90 E26 Such usage in heaven will never do well. t91 45 4 Original reading Such usage in heaven makes all go to hell. See textual note. E26 But if at the Church they would give us some Ale. E26 Nor ever once wish from the Church to stray, Then the Parson might preach & drink & sing. And we'd be as happy as birds in the spring And modest dame Lurch, who is always at Church, Would not have bandy children nor fasting nor birch.

At The Round Earths Imagind Corners Blow

The following year Astell published Letters Concerning the Love of God, dedicated to Lady Catherine Jones, and she published the second portion of her A Serious Proposal in 1697 in it she explained to her female audience how to pursue rational thought. Over the following decade Astell published tracts continuing to emphasize the natural equality of the sexes, managing to maintain balance between that belief and her continued support of the subjection of women to men. Her stance remained possible partly because she focused her claims on single women, remaining single herself. She lived out her life in Chelsea, supporting the founding of a charity school for girls that operated into the 19th century. A strong enough voice to be satirized by Jonathan Swift in the Tattler, Astell was later celebrated by Richard Steele in his The Ladies Library (1714). She apparently died of breast cancer and was buried in the Chelsea Church cemetery.

Absalom And Achitophel John Dryden

Dryden's choice of the Bible as allegory proved appropriate for his era. Most educated individuals agreed that the Bible could be used as a type of gloss to reveal truths civic, as well as religious. No one else, however, had seen the artistic possibilities in the way Dryden did. The parallel story, as Earl Miner explains, granted a sense of action that the poetry itself lacked. The rhyming couplets in Dryden's 1,031 lines framed only three incidents from the story of David's retention of rule. In the first, Achitophel tempts Absalom to overthrow his father. In the second, the two together tempt the Jews to participate in a revolt. And in the third, David makes a moving speech to his reunited subjects, concluding with the lines, For lawful pow'r is still superior found When long driven back, at length it stands the ground. In this couplet, Dryden expressed the belief, which a struggle with his own religious allegiance eventually confirmed, that the tradition of the Catholic Church...

Topics for Further Exploration

Scope The Moliere comedy discussed in lecture 9 is a reflection of the rising bourgeois sensibility of the French Golden Age. Though cautionary and pessimistic, however, Tartuffe, a play which borrows from the tradition of the commedia dell'arte, is also a vehicle of physical comedy. Slapstick with a message, Tartuffe exposes the theme of religious hypocrisy in a society where the Church is a powerful force.

Tradition and the Rise of the Universities

Two ways in which poetry returned to more traditional concerns that had been marginalized by modernism but that were not necessarily rooted in the contemporary world, and even marked a retreat from it, were in a revival of the poetry of meditation, and an associated claim for the moral duties of poets and poetry. Following The Waste Land, T. S. Eliot's poetry moved, with Ash-Wednesday and later Four Quartets, towards a more meditative vein, and following Eliot's conversion to the Anglican Church in 1927 his poetry became more explicitly concerned with linking moral and spiritual issues, and finding redemption through intellectual, spiritual, and physical discipline. Eliot's London journal The Criterion had an important influence on US as well as British poetry, and his editorial position at publishers Faber & Faber also governed which US poets received that important international distribution. Faber & Faber published the verse of Marianne Moore, for example, the volume carrying an...

Christs Victory In Heaven

The poet remained in the public eye through various biographies and a definitive two-volume edition of his works by Donald S. Hall in 1971. Peter Ackroyd's 1987 novel, titled simply Chatterton, aroused renewed interest, as did a collection of critical essays in 1999 edited by Nick Groom. His childhood home can be spotted on Pile Street in Bristol, across from St. Mary Redcliffe, still the largest parish church in the country. Although his works are out of print, libraries still have copies, and poems and excerpts, including a roundelay, or song, from Aella, are available in electronic version.

E118 E118 E118 E118 E118 E118 E118 E118 E118 E118 E118

Seeing the Churches at their Period in terror & despair O Swedenborg strongest of men, the Samson shorn by the Churches Shewing the Transgresors in Hell, the proud Warriors in Heaven Heaven as a Punisher & Hell as One under Punishment With Laws from Plato & his Greeks to renew the Trojan Gods, In Albion & to deny the value of the Saviours blood. But then I rais'd up Whitefield, Palamabron raisd up Westley, And these are the cries of the Churches before the two Witnesses ' Faith in God the dear Saviour who took on the likeness of men Becoming obedient to death, even the death of the Cross The Witnesses lie dead in the Street of the Great City No Faith is in all the Earth the Book of God is trodden under Foot He sent his two Servants Whitefield & Westley were they Prophets

From The Rebel Scot i

Nature herself doth Scotchmen beasts confess, Making their country such a wilderness, A land that brings in question and suspense God's omnipresence, but that Charles came thence But that Montrose and Crawford's loyal band Attoned their sins, and christened half the land. Nor is it all the nation hath these spots, There is a Church as well as Kirk of Scots, As in a picture, where the squinting paint Shows fiend on this side, and on that side saint. He that saw hell in's melancholy dream, And in the twilight of his fancy's theme, Scared from his sins, repented in a fright, Had he viewed Scotland, had turned proselyte. A land where one may pray with curst intent,

Jean Baptiste Poquelin Moliere 162273

Jean Baptiste Poquelin quit the study of law in 1643 to join a small theater. After being imprisoned for debt, he later took the name Moliere to spare his father a public embarrassment. Eventually, Moliere became the playwright and leading actor of a troupe that toured the provinces, returning to Paris in 1658. Tartuffe was first staged in 1664 at the royal residence of Versailles and later banned for its religious improprieties. Moliere married Armande Bejart in 1662, the daughter of his long-time mistress, Madeleine. The author of some three dozen plays and ballets, Moliere died of tuberculosis at the age of fifty-one, only hours after performing the lead role in The Imaginary Invalid. He was denied burial on church ground because he had been an actor.

Langston Hughes 19021967

Hughes's radical shift in the 1930s produced attacks upon his work in subsequent decades from various conservative groups. One of his most radical poems, Goodbye Christ, written in the Soviet Union and first published in 1932, became material for a long racist and anti-communist campaign against him in the 1940s and early 1950s. He repudiated the poem in the period of Joseph McCarthy's congressional inquiries into subversive activities, and was himself called before the McCarthy committee in 1953. In the poem, the church, kings, generals, robbers, and killers -, the rich, and the mass media are all dismissed as corrupt and manipulative. Make way for a new guy with no religion at all - A real guy named Marx Communist Lenin Peasant Stalin Worker ME - I said, ME But Hughes's anger and militancy even in the 1930s is tempered by an idealistic strain that is essentially amelioratist. In his well-known Let America Be America Again, even though America never was America to me, the loss is...

Drayton Michael 15631631 Michael

Drayton published his poetry from 1591 to 1630. He is often remembered for revising his previous works and publishing them under a different name. His first published work was Harmonie of the Church (1591). Drayton's later works were influenced by Edmund Spenser, especially in his pastoral series Idea the Shep-heards Garland. In 1594, he published Ideas Mirrour, sometimes referred to as Amours. England's Heroical Epistles (1597) has been considered one of Drayton's finest works. He also wrote one play, The First Part of Sir John Oldcastle. His other works include Ode to the Virginian Voyage Nymphidia, the Court of the Fairy and The Muses' Elizium.

Robert Lowell 19171977

In 1940 Lowell married novelist Jean Stafford, the first of his three troubled marriages. In the spring of 1941 they remarried in a Catholic church, Lowell having converted to Catholicism in the previous months. This further rebellion against his family's Protestant roots lasted until 1947, by which time he was divorcing and had renounced Catholicism (although he would return to the faith with fervor from time to time for the next two or three years).

The Angels of igi2 and igy2

It is a long time since I flapped mv wings, a long time since I stood on the roof of my house in Lawrence, Mass., or Michael's in No. Andover, a little whiskey in one hand, the past slipping through the other, a little closer to the heaven of dreams, letting the autumn wind, or the spring wind, or maybe just the invisible breath of some woman lift me up. It is a long time since I have flown like a swallow, or even the clumsy pigeon, into another time, practicing miracles, dodging the branches of lost dreams that cut against the sky, and the rocks thrown by small bovs, finding the right nest under the eaves of some pastoral age even the poets have forgotten, or fluttering to a slow landing on some ledge above the buses and simple walkers of this world. It is a long time. From where we stood I could see the steeple of the French church. Further back, it was 1912, and I could almost see the tenements of the French women who worked the fabric mills, weaving the huge bolts of cloth,...

From A Satire Addressed to a Friend

If you for orders and a gown design, Consider only this, dear friend of mine, The church is grown so overstocked of late, That if you walk abroad, you'll hardly meet More porters now than parsons in the street. At every corner they are forced to ply For jobs of hawkering divinity And half the number of the sacred herd Are fain to stroll, and wander unpreferred.

Thomas Brown 16631704

This priest was well hung, I mean with a tongue, And bold sons of vice Would disarm in a trice And draw tears from a flint, Or the Devil was in't. If a sinner came him nigh With soul black as chimney, And had but the sense To give him the pence, With a little church-paint He'd make him a saint. He understood physic, And cured cough and phthisic,

Politics and religion

The poets of early modern England, from Donne to Marvell, were deeply engaged and stimulated by the period's political antagonisms and rich diversity of religious experience. Indeed, in their age politics and religion were thoroughly interconnected as Sir Francis Bacon observed, 'Matters of religion and the church in these times are become so intermixed with considerations of estate.'1 Since the time of Henry VIII's Protestant Reformation, which rejected papal authority, the king of England had assumed the supreme headship of the English Church and thus governed both state and church this was true for the Stuart kings of our literary period James I (1603-z5) and Charles I (1625-49) whose absolutist power was reinforced by the ecclesiastical hierarchy. As James I succinctly put it, 'No bishops, no king, no nobility' and his son, Charles I, fully agreed, observing that in the kingdom 'religion is the only firm foundation of all power'.2 The purpose of this essay, however, is not only to...

The English Sonnet II

Scope This lecture continues our investigation of the growth of the sonnet as a genre, discussing what innovations in form, language, and subject matter are made by Shakespeare's contemporary, John Donne, and then by Milton later in the seventeenth century. The eighteenth century was not a time for sonnet writing, so we jump to the nineteenth century to Wordsworth, who (an interesting fact) wrote more sonnets than any other major English poet (including his Ecclesiastical Sonnets, a history of the Church of England in sonnet form ), and to Shelley, whose few sonnets are extraordinarily rich and dense expansions of the form's limits.

Owen Maureen 1943 Maureen

Owen was an important participant in the mimeo (mimeograph copy machine) revolution that fundamentally shaped a second generation of new york school poets. A long-time member of the community of poets associated with the St. Mark's Poetry Project in the Bowery (see poetry institutions), she served for many years as program coordinator and, in 1969, began publishing an influential magazine, Telephone, in the church basement. In 1972 owen began a series of books through a press she called Telephone Books and published, early on in their careers, such notable writers as Fanny HOWE and Susan HOWE, and other writers such as Janine Pommy-Vega, Fielding Dawson, and Ed Friedman. Her own collagist poetry, which is inclusive, witty, and vivacious, reflects a personal ethic largely defined by her devotion to a sense of community.

From An Epistle written in the Country to the right honourable the Lord Lovelace then in town September 7J5

But now, whatever poets write, I'm sure the case is altered quite Virtue no more in rural plains, Or innocence, or peace remains But vice is in the cottage found, And country girls are oft unsound Fierce party rage each village fires, With wars of justices and squires Attorneys, for a barley straw, Whole ages hamper folks in law, And ev'ry neighbour's in a flame About their rates, or tithes, or game Some quarrel for their hares and pigeons, And some for diff'rence in religions Some hold their parson the best preacher, The tinker some a better teacher These to the Church they fight for strangers, Have faith in nothing but her dangers While those, a more believing people, Can swallow all things but a steeple. A salver then to church and king

Conversions I Eliot And Christianity

Eliot was baptized into the Anglican Church on 29 June 1927, and the following year he publicly announced his new affiliation in the preface to a volume of essays, For Lancelot Andrewes (1928). The essays were intended to mark a change of direction in Eliot's criticism, to 'indicate certain lines of development' that would be elaborated in later work, and to disassociate himself 'from certain conclusions which have been drawn from . . . The Sacred Wood'. He described the 'point of view' of his criticism as 'classicist in literature, royalist in politics, and anglo-catholic in religion' and the first essay, on Lancelot Andrewes, the seventeenth-century Bishop of Winchester (1555-1626), indicates how this might be distinguished from the point of view of his earlier criticism (1928a ix). In the essay's comparison of Andrewes and Donne, Eliot implies a distinction he made explicit elsewhere between philosophical poetry, in which 'a philosophical system is felt as a whole by the poet, when...

The Wanderings of Oisin Book III

Making way from the kindling surges, I rode on a bridle-path Much wondering to see upon all hands, of wattles and woodwork made, Your bell-mounted churches, and guardless the sacred cairn and the mth, And a small and a feeble populace stooping with mattock and spade, How the men of the sand-sack showed me a church with its belfry in air Sorry place, where for swing of the war-axe in my dim eyes the crozier gleams What place have Caoilte and Conan, and Bran, Sceolan, Lomair Speak, you too are old with your memories, an old man surrounded with dreams.

Shakespeares sonnets Sonnet 124 If my dear love were but the child of state William

The nature of his love has, in the end, left the speaker in dangerous company at the end of the 16th century. Queen Elizabeth I, though hardly a religious zealot or a rigid enforcer as was her half sister, Mary I, did assert her position as head of the infant Church of England. Recusants would and could be punished, and unrepentant Catholics were executed, especially in the last decades of her reign. Is the speaker then saying

Historical Perspective of the Preface

This is what you shall do Love the earth and sun and the animals, despise riches, give alms to every one that asks, stand up for the stupid and crazy, devote your income and labor to others, hate tyrants, argue not concerning God, have patience and indulgence toward the people, take off your hat to nothing known or unknown or to any man or number of men, go freely with powerful uneducated persons and with the young and with the mothers of families, read these leaves in the open air every season of every year of your life, reexamine all you have been told at school or church or in any book, dismiss whatever insults your own soul, and your very flesh shall be a great poem and have the richest fluency not only in its words but in the silent lines of its lips and face and between the lashes of your eyes and in every motion and joint of your body. (10)

St Olaf Haroldsson 10141030

In the late summer, 1014, Olaf crossing the sea in two ships of burden, overtook the young Earl Hakon unawares, who swore strong oaths to him to leave the land and never fight against Olaf. The following winter the Uplanders joined Olaf, and on Pahn Sunday, 1015, he vanquished Earl Sweyn (Eric's brother, left by him in charge of Norway), which battle gives Olaf the crown of Norway. His youth, his renown as a leader, his mother's energy which won him the help of the Uplanders, and even his name, helped to smooth his way. But he was no Olaf Tryg-gvason come back, as the people hoped, this short, thick-set, ruddy young man, that carried his head slightly stooping, like the hard thinker he was. Here was a lover of order, who drove the courts, enforced the laws with the strong hand, and who, as other kings in like case, ruled through poor men he could trust rather than the nobles whom he suspected who was the organiser of the public and the church-law and the severe scourge ot those that...

Wheelwright John 18971940 John

Nificant event in Wheelwright's life was his father's suicide in 1912. From this experience came a spiritual revelation that drew the teenaged Wheelwright to the Anglican faith. He became a socialist in 1932 and edited Arise, the Socialist Party's cultural venue. Two years later he was recognized by the Nation as one of the outstanding revolutionary poets in the United States. All the same he never abandoned his Anglicanism. His poems are fusions of high church belief and left-wing rhetoric. His published volumes are North Atlantic Passage (1925), Rock and Shell (1933), the sonnet sequence Mirrors of Venus (1938), Political Self-Portrait (1940), and the unfinished Dusk to Dusk, which appeared in its entirety in Collected Poems (1972).

Written On A Blank Space At The End Of Chaucers Tale Of The Flowre And The Lefe

The church bells toll a melancholy round, Calling the people to some other prayers, Some other gloominess, more dreadful cares, More harkening to the sermon's horrid sound. Surely the mind of man is closely bound In some blind spell seeing that each one tears Himself from fireside joys and Lydian airs, And converse high of those with glory crowned. Still, still they toll, and I should feel a damp, A chill as from a tomb, did I not know That they are dying like an outburnt lamp, -That 'tis their sighing, wailing, ere they go Into oblivion -that fresh flowers will grow, And many glories of immortal stamp.

Amoretti Sonnet 22 This holy season fit to fast and pray Edmund Spenser 1595 One of

The poem uses the Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet form, setting the situation up in the octave, although it employs the Spenserian sonnet rhyme scheme. During the holy season of Lent, men's attention should be focused on their devotion therefore, the speaker seeks some appropriate way to give service to his Saynt, who is his beloved and the object of his devotion. Instead of residing in a church, this saint's image resides in a temple located in the speaker's mind, so that day and night he can attend to her just as the priests attend to the statues of the saints found in churches. By setting up this comparison, the speaker clearly conflates religious and secular love.

Poetry In Performance Poetry in

Preexisting models for the oral performance of poetry in 20th-century America range from the ancient rhapsodists (the wandering poets in the time of Homer) and Brahmanic mnemonists (students who memorized and recited ancient Indian hymns), African, Oceanic, and American Indian oral chant and storytelling, and the Celtic and European bard and minstrel tradition, as well as early 20th-century European avant-garde performances, such as those of dadaist artists in Zurich's once-famous Cabaret Voltaire (see EUROPEAN poetic influences). While these models have been drawn upon in various ways by American poet-performers in order to formulate alternative poetry practices and to make poetry a public, communal, and sometimes a countercultural and radical political activity, the earliest historical examples of the performance of poetry in the United States are found in the primarily educational, yet still community-oriented practice of elocution and drawing-room recitation. Emerging in the...

Finch Annie Ridley Crane

Finch's poetry combines her interests in the feminine and in form. For example, in Eve, poems such as Running in Church, use an array of poetic forms, from chants to triple meters in order to invoke patterns and traditions of female power. Here the lines, You made the long corridors ring, tintinnabular echoes exploring the pounded cold floor, employ dactylic rhythms to emphasize a free feminine presence within the church's patriarchic, constrained

Light Shining Out Of Darkness

LOVE (3) George Herbert (1633) Love (3) joins the poems Dooms-day, Judgement, Heaven, and Death as the closing sequence to the grouping titled The Church within the collection The Temple by George Herbert. These final poems serve to complement some of the first poems, such as The Altar. Herbert opens using the altar, an icon that traditionally represented sacrifice and later the communion service. In Love (3), he closes reflecting on that same communion, a sacramental service that celebrates Christ's sacrifice for the sake of man. The poem is structured in 18 lines divided into three six-line stanzas. Lines 1, 3, and 5 in each stanza have a meter scheme of iambic pentameter, while lines 2, 4, and 6 are much shorter and reflect iambic trimeter. Herbert often used such a format, emphasizing contrast, perhaps between God's greatness and man's lack of such. As Christina Malcolmson explains, the Church of England had since the Reformation used the communion table to represent the last...

TV Room at the Childrens Hospice

I genuflected once, but only to flick the stove-latch and spring behind a bookcase through a memory-flash of church-darkness, incense-smoke mushrooming as the censer clanks and swings back toward the Living Host in His golden cabinet. A dull brown bird no bigger than my fist hopped modesdy out, twisting its neck like a boxer trying to shake off a flush punch. And there on my rug, dazed, heedless of the spodight, it stayed, and stayed, then settled down as if to hatch an egg it was hallucinating. So I scooped it into my two hands, crazed heart in a feathered ounce, and sat it outside on the dirt.

The Wife of Baths Prologue and Tale1

The Wife of Bath's prologue and tale have no link to a preceding tale and together occupy different positions in the many manuscript versions of The Canterbury Tales. Most scholars agree, however, that the Wife's powerful voice begins a sequence of tales dealing with marriage. In her prologue, the Wife draws on and often comically questions classical and Christian traditions of anti-woman and antimarriage discourse in various genres. At once embodying and satirizing common stereotypes of women drawn from Christian and classical authorities (whom she sometimes comically misquotes), the Wife speaks from a position shaped, she claims, by her experience, rather than by auctoritee. In so doing, she reminds us that many fewer women than men had access to literacy-and its cultural prestige-during the Middle Ages than do today. This was, in part, because fewer girls than boys received formal education, but also because literacy was commonly defined as mastery of Latin, the language of the...

Figure Of Speechin Concluding Stanza Of Forbidding Mourn

And concludes with a semicolon, signaling the reader that the initial thought remains incomplete. He selects men of virtue as his focus because their virtue assures them of everlasting life. Their souls may part with their bodies in complete confidence, even if those left behind do not want them to go. He tells his love in the next stanza that they should melt, and make no noise as they plan their separation, meaning they should not attract attention to themselves, not crying or making sigh-tempests. Creating an emotional scene would be treating their love in a profane manner, as then even the laity would learn of it. The use of the term laity, which refers to those who form a church congregation, allows Donne to suggest the two lovers are not on the same level as common people.

Hart Crane and the logic of metaphor

Much of the imagery Crane uses suggests the religious dimension he assigns to the bridge in addition to the images oflight and darkness, Crane uses the word immaculate - usually applied to the Virgin Mary - and describes the bridge as lifting the night in its arms, an allusion to Mary lifting Jesus from the cross. Like the bridge under whose shadows he waits, the poet remains sleepless - filled with creative expectation - as he hyperbolically figures the bridge as connecting everything from the Atlantic Ocean to the prairies' dreaming sod. The bridge is vaulting the sea in two senses it is building a protective vault, or arched ceiling, over the sea (also suggesting the vaulted architecture of a church or cathedral), and it is more actively vaulting, or jumping, across both space and time. In the final and most dramatic formulation of the poem, Crane proposes that the bridge Unto us lowliest sometime sweep, descend And of the curveship lend a myth to God. Crane's invocation to the...

The Long Nineteenth Century

The first variation surfaced in the two generations after Derozio, in the form of a gradual shift from racial hybridization to the kind of cultural hybridization involved in religious conversion. The most famous instance of his time was Michael Madhusudan Dutt, a student of Derozio's, who converted to the Church of England at age nineteen, broke off from his devastated Hindu family, and married twice across racial lines his first wife was an English girl who had grown up in the Anglican Michael Madhusudan Dutt and the other Dutt clan enacted a far-reaching cultural hybridization of India and Europe, of Hinduism and Christianity, without themselves being racial hybrids. The next two generations of indigenous poets in English in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and in the first quarter of the twentieth then developed some of the varieties of Anglicization and nationalism first imagined by Ramaswami, Derozio and Kashi Prosad Ghose. Two brothers, Manmohan and Aurobindo Ghose...

To The Thrice Sacred Queen Elizabeth

TO THE THRICE-SACRED QUEEN ELIZABETH Mary Sidney Herbert (countess of Pembroke) (1599) Mary Sidney Herbert (countess of Pembroke) dedicated her translation of the Psalms, a project begun by her poet brother Sir Philip Sidney, to Queen Elizabeth. Scholars describe the dedication as complex and brilliantly executed. Many dedications appended to works were responses to patronage, but Herbert needed no financial support for her project. Her dedication instead sought to celebrate a monarch Herbert honestly admired, despite the cool relationship the queen had with Herbert's brother for a time. A staunch Protestant as her brother was, Herbert desired to pay homage to the Protestant queen who had at one time been in peril because of her faith. As the head of the Church of England founded by her father, Henry VIII, to whom Herbert's own father was godson, Elizabeth proved the obvious choice as a figure to celebrate in the context of a religious translation. Herbert could also feel a kinship...

Swift Jonathan 16671745 Born in

Also in 1692 Swift decided to complete his M.A. degree at Hart Hall, Oxford, and in 1694, he chose to enter the church. Doing so would allow him the practical means for support and was a common strategy for young scholarly men lacking financial means and future political prospects. He looked forward to a promised desirable appointment but instead was sent to serve on the northeastern coast of Ireland as vicar of three poor parishes. His main occupation was with the parish of Kilroot, near Belfast, where the bleak landscape and lack of career promise proved depressing. Kilroot had recently suffered a scandal leading to the excommunication or suspension of several clergymen for charges ranging from adultery to public drunkenness. These facts complicated Swift's acceptance into the community, as did the growing popularity of the rival Presbyterian sect. However, Swift's service to the Anglican Church would last more than a half-century, a testimony to the unshakable loyalty that would...

Upon The Death Of Mr King John

What follows is the extended metaphor described in Cleveland's time as a masculine type. It results in awkward and unfortunate imagery projected through FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE (FIGURE OF SPEECH), as well as rhyme, as the speaker says, I am no poet here my pen's the spout Where the rain water of my eyes runs out. Spouts generally ejected water from gargoyles, introducing a monstrous element into the image. While such figures often decorated churches, no connection to King's intention to become a clergyman is suggested. What follows extends the jarring water metaphor In pity of that name, whose fate we see Thus copied out his grief's hydrography. While hydrography means literally a description of water and is meant as a reference to King's ocean grave, its juxtaposition to the water reference of tears reduces its effectiveness. Both are salt water, but the figurative expansion of the tears to beads and then to the ocean is neither smoothly nor skillfully accomplished.

Batter My Heart John Donne 1633

Works to admit the deity, but to no avail but o, to no end. Although logic should move him to act, Reason your viceroy in me, me should defend, reason has been taken captive by the opposing force, and proves weak or untrue. The speaker offers a dual explanation for his incapacity to open the door to God's gentle prod. His use of logic lacks strength or proves false, causing the speaker to be betroth'd unto your enemy. Here Donne compares the promise through law of a woman to a man to his promise to God's enemy, or Satan. The comparison reflects on the biblical comparison of Christ to a bridegroom, with the church his bride.

T S Eliot and the wasteland of modernity

Though Thomas Stearns Eliot was born in St. Louis, Missouri, both sides of his family were descended from old New England stock. Eliot's paternal grandfather was a Unitarian minister who had founded the first Unitarian church in St. Louis as well as its chief institution of higher learning, Washington University. Eliot attended Smith Academy in St. Louis and Milton Academy in Massachusetts before entering Harvard in 1906. A precocious literary talent, Eliot began writing poetry while still a school boy, and by the age of twenty-two he had published several quite accomplished poems.

Canonization The John Donne

By titling his poem The Canonization, Donne prepares his readers for a religious poem but delivers something entirely different. He often utilized that technique, as in A Valediction, Forbidding Mourning, among others. Canonization in the Catholic Church occurs when individuals have proved themselves practitioners of heroic virtue. A person labeled as heroic is believed to have acted in an exceptional manner that ranks him above the common man, while one who practices virtue possesses a soul already redeemed by Christ, enabling him to reject things material in favor of things spiritual. Canonization preceded the granting of sainthood, and those deemed saints could be called upon by humans for intervention with God in important matters. Donne's choice of canonization as suggesting role models and intercessors proves vital to the meaning of his poem.

On Lord Holland Seat Near Margate Kent Analysis

Yet to his argument that poetry's voice is stifled in the public sphere, Gray makes an important exception Satire will be heard, for all the audience are by nature her friends (Corresp., 1 296). A contributor to the London Magazine agreed. Comparing the poems of mourning written after the death of Gray (1771) and after the death of satirist Charles Churchill (1764), the writer concludes that Churchill, although less deserving, commanded a greater share of the limelight in his day Gray's poetry was in so superior a stile, that it could be relished only by the few, whose taste is exquisite, and whose minds are cultivated to a high degree. . . . And hence we may remark that upon the death of Churchill, who was a popular poet, a poet who wrote to the times, there were many occasional publications whereas, upon the death of Mr. Gray, there has been only one. 67 Churchill himself, though, offered a different analysis of his contempo-raries' taste in literature. Throughout his career he...

Nymph Complaining For The Death Of Her Fawn The Andrew

Additional interpretations include political and religious meaning in the poem. Wanton troopers reflects a new term, trooper, which appeared first in the English language in 1640 in reference to soldiers of the Scottish Covenanting Army that invaded England to support Presbyterianism. The fawn could be seen as the English church doomed to death by civil war, or as England itself when life under a monarchy is destroyed by Cromwell's new order. Charles I himself may be the

E E Cummings and Robinson Jeffers in the 1920s

(also, with the church's protestant blessings The poem begins in striking fashion with a statement of its controlling metaphor or conceit. The souls of the Cambridge ladies (by which Cummings ironically indicates their minds, attitudes, and opinions) are compared to the decor of furnished rooms like the rooms to which they are compared, the women's minds are comfortable but unbeautiful, and they are filled with the furniture and bric-a-brac of inherited ideas that are never refurbished. These ladies still inhabit the nineteenth-century New England mindset represented by the church and the poetry of Longfellow (the epitome of comfortable literary conventionality) yet as the highly ironic fifth line suggests, they are not capable ofmaking a distinction between their unthinking religious belief in Christ and their equally unthinking acceptance of inherited literary taste. Though they are invariably interested in so many things (the word invariably undercutting the seriousness of such...

Lollardism Lollardy Wycliffism

Frustrated in his career, Wycliffe began advocating radical church reform, including an insistence on the Bible as the source of grace and ultimate authority, as well as a renunciation of priestly tithes and ecclesiasti cal holdings. He also supported the right of the Crown to levy taxes on church holdings. This garnered him powerful court supporters, including Richard II, the Black Prince, and John of Gaunt. Wycliffe also promoted lay education, particularly citing the need for a vernacular translation of the Bible. He began a translation in 1381 and had most of the Old Testament and the Gospels completed before his death in 1384. Lol-lardism grew apart from Wycliffe's positions after his death. In particular, practitioners came to reject all spiritual practices not found in the Bible, including the sacraments, and to sanction the priesthood of all believers.

Hind And The Panther The John

Dryden (1687) John Dryden wrote The Hind and the Panther in order to contribute to an ongoing dispute between Protestant and Catholic factions. While his exact date of conversion from devotion to the Church of England to Catholicism remains uncertain, it happened sometime during 1686, as in July of that year he was known to have attended mass. Many doubted his motivations, most believing he was moved by the practicality that had ruled his life, rather than by a passion for the Catholic faith. When Charles II died in 1685, he was succeeded by his Catholic brother, James, duke of York, a figure celebrated by Dryden in his poetry. Detractors accused Dryden of converting in order to gain religious favor. Samuel Johnson would write later in Lives of the English Poets (1779) while considering Dry den's conversion, He that never finds his error till it hinders his progress towards wealth or honour, will not be thought to love Truth only for herself. However, Dryden had questioned publicly in...

Excuse For So Much Writ Upon My Verses An Margaret Cavendish

Knowing that she may never return, the speaker walks through the church and her vital spirits freeze, Passing the vacant pulpit where the ashes of her infant sister sleep. She describes the church beams with paper garlands hung In memory of some village youth, or maid, adding that the sight draws from her the soft tear as she recalls how often her childhood mark'd that tribute paid. Here Seward reflects on the many deaths that were a part of the life of her youth. She adds a touching description of a pair of gloves, suspended by the garland's side, White as its snowy flowers. She concludes the penultimate verse by addressing her onetime home Dear village, long these wreaths funereal spread, Simple memorials of thy early dead in which her own siblings would have been included.

Questions to Consider

Metonymy usually distinguished from metaphor (as a figure of comparison), the term refers to substitution, the use of one item to stand for another e.g., The White House announced today. or, in William Blake's London How the chimney sweeper's cry Every blackening church appalls ( the church stands for the Anglican clergy or the force of the religious establishment, not only the actual edifice that a chimney sweeper might be in or near). A version of metonymy is synecdoche, the use of a part for a whole (e.g., All hands on deck ).

Gray The Marketplace And The Masculine Poet

To be a poet is a school thing, a skirt thing, a church thing. In 1767, an anonymous pamphlet appeared entitled The Sale of Authors, a Dialogue, in Imitation of Lucian's Sale of Philosophers. Written by naval official Archibald Campbell, this pamphlet features Apollo and Mercury conducting an auction among booksellers for the premier writers of the day, including James Macpherson, John Wilkes, Charles Churchill, and Thomas Gray. With its magnified sense of poets' powerlessness in the commercialized literary culture of midcentury England, Campbell's text seems a typical attack on the vigorously expanding book trade. Yet while satirizing the transformation of writers into commodities, and emphasizing the diminished social stature that accompanies this change, Campbell manages to capture with some accuracy the defining features of Gray's literary career. Most obviously, he calls attention to the poet's departure from current norms of masculine behavior Gray's effeminacy, moreover, was...

H D Hilda Doolittle 18861961

D. was born Hilda Doolittle, the only surviving daughter of Dr. Charles Leander Doolittle and Helen Eugenia Wolle Doolittle, in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Her mother was a musician and was active in the Moravian Church. Her father was an astronomer and mathematician who was eventually appointed director of the observatory at the University of Pennsylvania. This combination of influences art concatenated with symbols, rituals, and secrecy from her mother's side and with science from her father's were perhaps the strongest forces working to create the poet H. D. would become. In Philadelphia she met Pound the two were briefly engaged to be married, but the greater effect of Pound upon H. D. was to encourage her expression through poetry. H. D. was also introduced to William Carlos WILLIAMS during this time. In 1911 she sailed to Europe and never returned to the United States to live. Through Pound she met other poets and authors, including F. S. Flint and Richard Aldington they soon...

More Sir Thomas 14781535

During the last years of his life, More served as lord chancellor under Henry VIII however, he resigned the position in May 1532, in disagreement with Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and separation from the Roman Catholic Church. When More refused to swear an oath upholding Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn and, later, to support the Act of Supremacy, Henry had him imprisoned in the Tower of London. On July 6, 1535, Sir Thomas More was beheaded for high treason. His steadfast adherence to the tenets of his religion, even when facing certain death, earned him canonization in 1935.

Religio Laici Or A Laymans Faith

The search for a religious authority troubled many as they groped to understand and distinguish between various religious beliefs. Dryden examined three approaches in his poem, that of deists, Catholics, and those who exercised private judgment, apart from any creed. He finally deems the Anglican Church to be superior to all three. The traditional choice for worship was Catholicism, but the scandal and corruption within that church bothered many. Dryden points out that the tradition offered by the Catholic Church should be desirable, providing stability in its recorded historical precedent, when he writes in lines 350-353, However, the Church did not revere its own tradition. Newer splinter divisions, to whom Dryden refers as partial Papists, wandered from the church's original values. in so doing, they convinced themselves they were the whole church, rather than just one faction The partial Papists wou'd infer from hence Their church, in last resort, shou'd judge the Sense. Dryden...

Virgil Publius Virgilius Maro

The imagery, allusions, and titles used in lyrics to describe Mary are remarkably conventional. They often draw from the natural world and from old Testament biblical images that the Christian church reads as prefigurations of Mary and Christ's birth. For example, the Virgin is accompanied by or aligned with the dawn, a dove, a rose without thorns, a lily among thorns, a fountain, or a sealed door or garden. The lyric Marye, mayde mylde and fre is particularly rich in biblical allusions, with Mary as the Burning Bush, as dew, and as other common prefigurations. The epithets most frequently used for the Virgin refer to her role as maid, mother, queen, or, at times, all of these at once.

The Nature and Development of Satire

Satire is the art of holding up to ridicule an individual, or an institution (such as the Church or the government), or a more abstract entity such as humankind. Early English verse satirists, for example Thomas Lodge, John Marston, and Joseph Hall, writing at the close of the sixteenth century, were not receptive to the idea that satire was an art. Satire's muse, they considered, was a snarling muse, fueled by anger and indignation. The satirist's vocation was to pinpoint abuses, identifying immoral individuals and corrupt institutions, and to speak out about them as plainly as possible. Satire is telling it like it is. Sophisticated rhetorical devices that might transform raw indignation into a verbal art, the play of witty intelligence over a subject, could only obstruct the expression of direct criticism. It is unsurprising that the work of Marston and Hall attracted the notice of the censors, and that it was burnt by the public hangman.

Rochester John Wilmot Second Earl Of 16481680 John Wilmot

Wilmot patronized various poets, including George Villiers, earl of Buckingham, who engaged in a public dispute with the poet laureate John Dryden. Villiers was a member of Wilmot's Merry Gang, so dubbed by the poet Andrew Marvell. That group was believed to have executed the savage physical attack against Dryden that almost killed him. Despite such suspicions, the group held the public's fascination from about 1666 to 1680, the year of Wilmot's death, a result of advanced syphilis and the effects of alcohol. Returning home to die in Elizabeth's care, he apparently underwent a religious conversion, something long desired by his mother. This supposed act of piety became a useful weapon for the church, which publicized it widely.

The Shepheards Calender Maye Eclogue

Edmund Spenser (1579) Maye is the first eclogue in Edmund Spenser's The Shepheardes Calender to focus on the politics of the Elizabethan church. (The other ecclesiastical eclogues are Julye and September. ) It is an allegorical dialogue between the two shepherds, Piers and Palinode, who are identified in the Argument as representations of Protestant and Catholic clerics. In this context, Catholic means priests who are considered superficially or insufficiently reformed by the more zealous Protestants whom Piers represents. Piers is not a Puritan, however. to condemn the shepherds who are celebrating the season after Palinode describes them admiringly in sensuous detail. In Piers's view, these shepherds should be tending to their flocks, meaning those in their spiritual care. Palinode then accuses Piers of envy and argues against austerity one must enjoy what is good in life while it lasts. Piers counters that shepherds must live for others, not themselves. Then he makes an appeal for...

Edward Young 16831765

Some go to church, proud humbly to repent. And come back much more guilty than they went. One way they look, another way they steer, Pray to the gods, but would have mortals hear, And when their sins they set sincerely down, They'll find that their religion has been one.

ELEGY to the memory of an

She invites the speaker to move close and points to a nearby glade. Then the speaker notices her bleeding bosom, in which the visionary sword gleams. He stops to wonder whether heaven considers loving too well a crime, particularly if it results in one's acting a Lover's or a Roman's part. He references a Roman to suggest suicide. The Catholic Church, of which Pope remained a devout member, considered suicide a mortal sin, but Pope reveals his compassion in questioning that edict for the sake of the homeless spirit.

Jonathan Swift 16671745

Desponding Phyllis was endued With ev'ry talent of a prude She trembled, when a man drew near Salute her, and she turned her ear If o'er against her you were placed, She durst not look above your waist She'd rather take you to her bed, Than let you see her dress her head In church you heard her through the crowd, Repeat the absolution loud In church, secure behind her fan, She durst behold that monster, Man There practised how to place her head, And bit her lips, to make them red Or, on the mat devoutly kneeling, Would lift her eyes up to the ceiling, And heave her bosom, unaware, For neighb'ring beaux to see it bare. With omens oft I strove to warn thy swains, Omens, the types of thy impending chains, I sent the magpie from the British soil, With restless beak thy blooming fruit to spoil To din thine ears with unharmonious clack, And haunt thy holy walls in white and black. What else are those thou see'st in bishop's gear, Who crop the nurseries of learning here Aspiring, greedy,...

Cartwright William 16111643

Cartwright also wrote several plays produced on stage. They included a comedy, The Ordinary (1634) two tragicomedies, The Siege and The Lady-Errant, both in 1636 and, probably his most successful, The Royal Slave (1636). The Royal Slave featured the sacrifice of kin by a powerful figure. Enacted before King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria at Christ Church, Oxford, the play was labeled the best ever performed. Its celebrated production included music composed by Henry Lawes, friend to John Milton, and design by the incomparable Inigo Jones. Cartwright produced no creative work after 1638, having answered a call to the church. Gaining a reputation for his dramatic and spirited sermons, he often expressed his Royalist leanings, praising King Charles I in a Passion sermon at Oxford, where in 1642 the monarch would establish a temporary court as the Protestant revolution gathered force. Cartwright gained a reputation as a diligent scholar, spending up to 18 hours daily in study. In...

Figurative Language In Holy Willies Prayer

While Burns's use of dialect may challenge the untrained eye and ear, it also adds charm and authenticity to a poetry form that grew from an oral tradition. The subject matter and themes of his ballads often mirrored Burns's concerns, as is seen in Holy Willie's Prayer. The Willie of the title accused Gavin Hamilton in 1785 of stealing from the fund for the poor that he had been appointed to manage. The poem celebrates Hamilton's acquittal, although Burns published it after his friend's death. Burns's lifestyle separated him from the Church of Scotland's Calvinistic beliefs in predestination, which promised Willie salvation. Song For A' That and A' That echoes Burns's disenchantment with the events of the French Revolution, although he still believed in its causes.

New York Farrar Straus Cudahy 1959

The poems and prose of Life Studies set up multiple connections through recurring themes and motifs. These interweaving connections provide a counterpoint to the more linear narratives, such as the shift in the book's poetics, the family histories, and the poet's move away from the community of beliefs offered by the Catholic Church (one subject of the first poem Lowell had converted to Catholicism in 1940, itself an act of rebellion against his family's long association with the Calvinism of Boston history. Beyond the Alps describes a train journey from Rome to Paris, in effect leaving the Church behind, as well as the idealism represented by the mountains. In 1950, the date of this poem, Everest was still unscaled. This and the other three poems of Part One are representative of Lowell's earlier style. Inauguration Day January 1953 describes the beginning of the Eisenhower presidency, and what Memories of West Street and Lepke in Part Four terms the tranquillized Fifties (Lowell's...

Chatterton Thomas 17521770

By age 14 Chatterton apprenticed with an attorney named John Lambert and became interested in the historical documents of his church of St. Mary Redcliffe. He learned to recreate aristocratic pedigrees and coats of arms and transferred his interest in that hobby to his writing. He became so adept at such forgery that, according to Dix, he delighted a vain member of the community by telling him he had discovered his family pedigree traced from a remote period. When he presented a book to the man with his family's coat of arms

Critical Debates

Scholarship of the past three decades has enriched and complicated our understanding of eighteenth-century political history. Debates that began in the 1980s and still reverberate today have challenged traditional preconceptions of the eighteenth century as a period of stability and complacency. Linda Colley's pioneering work on British-ness, which stimulated wide-ranging discussions of national identity, examined the ways in which the 1707 Act of Union forged a sense of nationhood in which distinctive Scottish, Welsh, and Irish allegiances were subsumed under a larger sense of Britain as a Protestant nation pitted against Catholic France (Colley 1992). Britain's growing confidence as an imperial power has been the subject of some broad-ranging studies of empire see ch. 2, Poetry, Politics, and Empire . Revisionist historians such as J. C. D. Clark, debating the nature and impact of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, have argued controversially that England remained a static,...


Every one lets forth his sprite, In the church-way paths to glide. Midsummer Night's Dream, Act v. Sc. 1. SHAKESPEARE. For night's swift dragons cut the clouds full fast, And yonder shines Aurora's harbinger At whose approach, ghosts, wandering here and there, Troop home to churchyards. Midsummer Night's Dream, iii, 2. SHAKESPEARE.

Cartwright William

Carter met Samuel Johnson through her work for the periodical and became friendly with Thomas Birch, a critic who may have been an anonymous voice praising Carter's works he also hoped she would marry him. She followed her father's advice to live quietly if she hoped to marry but had no intention of doing so, turning down one suitor because he had published poetry that exhibited too light and licentious a turn of mind. She corresponded with the countess of Hertford and gained many admirers of her poetry. Carter arose early in the morning to study, depending upon, so the story goes, a local church sexton to pull a string hanging out her window that was attached to a bell at her bedside to awaken her. She circulated anonymously Ode to Wisdom, and Samuel Richardson published it in his famous epistolary fiction Clarissa (1747) without knowing the author's identity, for which he later apologized, as he used it without her permission. In the first example of a woman's educating a man at...


Just in this Moment when the morning odours rise abroad And first from the Wild Thyme, stands a Fountain in a rock Of crystal flowing into two Streams, one flows thro Golgonooza And thro Beulah to Eden beneath Los's western Wall The other flows thro the Aerial Void & all the Churches Meeting again in Golgonooza beyond Satans Seat Just at the place to where the Lark mounts, is a Crystal Gate It is the enterance of the First Heaven named Luther for The Lark is Los's Messenger thro the Twenty-seven Churches That the Seven Eyes of God who walk even to Satans Seat Thro all the Twenty-seven Heavens may not slumber nor sleep

From Hudibras

For his religion it was fit To match his learning and his wit 'Twas Presbyterian true blue, For he was of that stubborn crew Of errant Saints, whom all men grant To be the true Church Militant What makes a knave a child of God, And one of us A livelihood. What renders beating out of brains, And murther godliness Great gains. What's tender conscience 'Tis a botch That will not bear the gentlest touch, But breaking out, dispatches more Than the epidemical'st plague-sore. What makes y'encroach upon our trade, And damn all others To be paid. What's orthodox, and true believing Against a conscience A good living. What makes rebelling against kings A Good Old Cause Administ'rings. What makes all doctrines plain and clear About two hundred pounds a year. And that which was proved true before, Prove false again Two hundred more. What makes the breaking of all oaths A holy duty Food, and clothes. What laws and freedom, persecution B'ing out of pow'r and contribution. What makes a church a den...

Crowe Ransom

Ransom was born in Pulaski, Tennessee, the son of a Methodist minister. After graduating from Vanderbilt in 1909 he attended Christ Church, Oxford, as a Rhodes scholar, returning to Vanderbilt to begin teaching in 1914. His education included extensive study in Greek and Latin texts in the original languages. He returned to Europe for two years with the United States army, finishing in 1919, the year in which he published the first of his three books of poems, Poems About God. However, Ransom chose never to republish these early poems.

Compound words

Nominal composition was a characteristic feature of Indo-European, and the language provided its users with a set of templates according to which new compounds could be formed whenever required, just as in modern English we can freely improvise new compounds on the patterns of 'dishwasher', 'mind-bending', 'kitchen-cum-diner', 'pro-hunting', or 'ex-convict'. In the ancient languages many compounds came into being to serve commonplace needs. Early examples can be reconstructed from Sanskrit durmanas- Avestan dusmanah- Greek Sva ev s, all meaning 'ill-spirited' in one sense or another, or from Vedic sudina- Greek evSia, evSieivos, 'good sky, fine day', with its antonym surviving in Old Church Slavonic duzdi, Russian go gt 'rain'. There is nothing intrinsically poetic about these.


Regarded as the founder of Methodism, John Wesley was a High Churchman who forged his religious constancy as a counter to the worldliness of university life at Oxford, where he studied in the 1720s. He was deemed a Methodist by his friends for following a strict religious regime, and in 1738 underwent an enthusiastic conversion in which he was struck by a conviction of the love of a personal Saviour ( Jay 1983 3). Personal salvation took second place only to his will to save others, and Wesley initiated a huge conversion project, in which hundreds of thousands of believers were transformed by their own physical and emotional experience of God (Hempton 1984 12). Wesley's discovery of singing as a way to aid conversion was made during his voyage to Georgia just before his own enlightenment on board ship were a group of Moravians whose mystical Puritanism attracted the preacher far more than the latitudinarian tone of his home church. Collecting and translating their


A lazy lolling sort, Unseen at church, at senate, or at court, Of ever-listless idlers, that attend No cause, no trust, no duty, and no friend. There too, my Paridell she marked thee there, Stretched on the rack of a too easy chair, And heard thy everlasting yawn confess The pains and penalties of idleness. The Dunciad, Bk. IV. A. POPE.


With the advent of secular poetry in Russia, the need for a distinct poetic language became imperative. One of Lomonosov's seminal ideas was to apply the classical notion of three styles (high, middle, low) to the Russian literary language. Since Lomonosov felt that poetic language should be maximally differentiated from spoken language, he gave pride of place to the high style, which was based on words borrowed from Church Slavonic (the Russian recension of Old Church Slavonic, a written language devised in the ninth century in order to translate liturgical texts from Greek). By Lomonosov's day, Church Slavonic was already distant from the Russian vernacular, but nonetheless comprehensible to the educated public, who encountered it in church and scripture. Distant yet understandable, with nHK eT pKOBt h epTOr. Church and court rejoice. korov - the standard genitive plural of cows - in favor of the Church Slavonic krav. These two words are identical in meaning, but worlds apart in...


When loyalty no harm meant, A furious High Church man I was, And read the Declaration The Church of Rome I found would fit The Church of England's glory, Another face of things was seen, I damned, and moderation, And thought the Church in danger was, From such prevarication.

Lute Song See ayre

Among Lydgate's first significant works is the Troy Book, a translation in couplets of Guido delle Colonne's Historia destructionis Troiae, which supplements the original poem in order to produce a full narrative of the fall of Troy. The Siege of Thebes, Lydgate's next major work, is framed as a Canterbury tale and functions as a precursor to Geoffrey Chaucer's The Knight's Tale. While abroad in France, Lydgate composed Pilgrimage of the Life of Man (1428) and the Danse Macabre (ca. 1430), a translation of a French text inscribed on the cloister walls of the Church of the Holy Innocents in Paris.

Jorie Graham b 1951

Jorie Graham was born in New York City, but spent her childhood in Italy, much of it, she has said, peering into the churches of Rome and looking at the many paintings within their chapels. Graham's mother was a painter and sculptor and her father a theological scholar. Commentators have traced the combination of spiritual quest, moral purpose, and insistent claims of the importance of art in Graham's poetry to these early influences, while she has acknowledged her early and abiding interest in similar issues in the work of W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, and Wallace Stevens.


Eliot's and Pound's mature work is profoundly concerned with the maintenance of culture. Whether we agree or disagree with their definitions of culture and their recommendations for its protection, their insistence on its importance for all parts of society is one of the most valuable elements of their legacy. Both poets wrote treatises on culture Pound published Guide to Kulchur in 1938 Eliot published Notes towards the Definition of Culture in 1948. But what do they mean by this famously difficult word For Eliot, culture is 'a way of life', which includes 'all the characteristic activities and interests of a people'. For mid-twentieth-century Britain Eliot suggests an indicative list of 'Derby Day, Henley Regatta, Cowes, the twelfth of August, a cup final, the dog races, the pin table, the dart board, Wensleydale cheese, boiled cabbage cut into sections, beetroot in vinegar, nineteenth-century Gothic churches and the music of Elgar'. It is also closely related to religion, in fact...


Why said Mrs Nannicantipot I dont think its prophane to say hang Pharoh. ah said Mrs, Sinagain, I'm sure you ought to hold your tongue, for you never say any thing about the scriptures, & you hinder your husband from going to church--Ha Ha said Inflammable Gass what dont you like to go to church. no said Mrs Nannicantipot I think a person may be as good at home. If I had not a place of profit that forces me to go to church said Inflammable Gass Id see the parsons all hangd a parcel of lying-- O said Mrs Sigtagatist if it was not for churches & chapels I should not have livd so long--there was I up in a Morning at four o clock when I was a Girl. I would run like the dickins till I was all in a heat. I would stand till I was ready to sink into the earth. ah Mr Huffcap would kick the bottom of the Pulpit out, with Passion, would tear off the sleeve of his Gown, & set his wig on fire & throw it at the people hed cry & stamp & kick & sweat and all for the...

Ioofrom The Author

When with much pains this boasted learning's got, 'Tis an affront to those who have it not. In some it causes hate, in others fear, Instructs our foes to rail, our friends to sneer. With prudent haste the worldly-minded fool, Forgets the little which he learned at school The elder brother, to vast fortunes born, Looks on all science with an eye of scorn Dependent breth'ren the same features wear, And younger sons are stupid as the heir. In senates, at the bar, in church and state, Genius is vile, and learning out of date. Is this O death to think is this the land Where merit and reward went hand in hand, Where heroes, parent-like, the poet viewed By whom they saw their glorious deeds renewed Where poets, true to honour, tuned their lays, And by their patrons sanctified their praise Is this the land, where, on our Spencer's tongue, Enamoured of his voice, Description hung Where Johnson rigid gravity beguiled, Whilst Reason through her critic fences smiled Where Nature list'ning stood,...

Chudleigh Lady Mary

The Chudleighs lost their first child, Mary, then had three sons, Richard, George, and Thomas Richard died at age three. They also lost their youngest child, a daughter named Eliza Maria, an experience that provided the subject for a later poem. Church records indicated the loss of a fourth child as well. Isolated from other women, Chudleigh kept her contacts through correspondence with Mary Astell, whom she greatly admired John Norris and Elizabeth Thomas, and she also wrote verse. In 1697 John Dryden wrote to his publisher that I felt in my pocket, & found my Lady Chudleighs verses which this Afternoon I gave Mr. William Walsh to read in the Coffee house. Referring to the commendatory verses in his own translation of Virgil, Dryden wrote that Mr. Walsh agreed with him regarding Lady Chudleigh's poetry, that they are better than any which are printed before the Book. He added that the famed playwright William Wycherley agreed with his assessment. CHURCH MONUMENTS 69

Lycidas 259

Dublin in 1637, his many friends were strongly moved. They combined their poems to honor their fallen friend, Milton terming his piece a Monody in which he bewails the loss of his friend. He also puts his elegy to political use, employing it to foretell the ruine of our corrupted Clergy then in their height. The collection adds little personal information regarding King, other than that he had proved a decent scholar who had chosen to serve the church. That choice allowed Milton to characterize King in his pastoral as a good shepherd caring for his sheep, the familiar biblical analogy that applied to Christ. The speaker then moves into a rant regarding the foul contagion of the clergy. In contrast to the good shepherd Lycidas, these clergy shove away the worthy bidden guest have Blind mouths a skillful use by Milton of synesthesia and scarce themselves know how to hold A Sheep-hook. Lines 128-129 adopt the metaphor of a wolf to expand criticism of the Catholic Church Besides what the...


Posthumously published in 1633, The Temple includes 160 poems, which Herbert carefully arranged to dramatize the central Christian concept of the believer's body as the temple of the Holy Ghost (Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, 6.19). Designed to illustrate the myriad links between the human temple and the Church of England that Herbert served its doctrines, its rituals, even the physical construction of its churches Herbert's book begins with the poem The Church Porch and proceeds to a long section called The Church, from which the following poems are taken. called The Church, this poem, like Easter


Religious, punctual, frugal, and so forth His word would pass for more than he was worth. One solid dish his week-day meal affords, An added pudding solemnized the Lord's. Constant at church and change, his gains were sure, His giving Rare, save farthings to the poor. Moral Essays, Epistle III. A. POPE. To the very verge of the churchyard mold

Eliot Thomas Stearns

Louis, Missouri. He attended Harvard University (1906-10) and studied at the Sorbonne (1910). There he read the symbolists, who believed that language, particularly the use of symbol, is the vehicle for transcendence and allows the reader's imagination, by use of association, allusion, and allegory, an alternate reality. He returned to Harvard to pursue a dissertation on F. H. Bradley, whose book Appearance and Reality (1893) made an impression, by Eliot's own account, on Eliot's prose style. Eliot eventually settled in London (without a Ph.D.) in 1914, where he met Pound and T. E. Hulme, whose writings and theories on imagism extended the symbolist influence the imagist school's dry hard image became the new vehicle for transcendence (Stead 38), enacting what Bergson called a true understanding of experience that is reflected by an immediate datum of consciousness. In other words, truth is found in the contemplation of whatever is present. Eliot was confirmed in...

Eurther reading

Dowriche frames her narrative within the context of what many Protestants believed was a multinational Catholic conspiracy to crush Protestantism. This context drives the poem's political implications. As citizens of the sole European nation headed by a stable, militarily powerful, Protestant monarch (Elizabeth I), radical Protestant reformers believed that England had a responsibility to withstand this conspiracy, both by actively supporting European Protestants, and by instituting further church reforms at home. Perhaps because of its use of poulter's measure (couplets that rely on alternating hexameter and heptameter lines), the poem was earlier dismissed as simplistic. Its heavy-handed portrayal of the Protestant-Catholic conflict reinforces this impression. Recently, however, feminist critics have reexam-ined this view of early modern women writers, and Dowriche's poem is now examined more favorably. She is particularly adroit in utilizing multiple poetic expressions, woven into...

Anne Sexton

Gone, I say and walk from church, refusing the stiff procession to the grave, letting the dead ride alone in the hearse. It is June. I am tired of being brave. single word gone represents her inability to make any public comment about her parents' death. The word cuts in two ways the parents are gone to the grave, but she too is already gone, mentally and spiritually absent from the scene, as she walks out of the church. Instead of joining in the funeral procession and thus participating in the expected rituals of mourning, Sexton refuses the stiff procession to the grave and instead drives to Cape Cod. This escape into a new landscape - one which suggests the desire to be surrounded by sea and sky rather than by artifacts of the human world -allows her to regain at least a partial sense of being alive.


Church and King Riots aimed at Joseph Priestley's beliefs concerning religious toleration and his political radicalism lead to the destruction of much property, including Priestley's house Mozart dies Hazlitt dies Carlyle, On History Charles Lamb, Album Verses Palmer, Coming from Evening Church Tennyson, Poems, Chiefly Lyrical

Eliots Four Quartets

Native land three of the poem's four sections are set in England, and the elegiac style is a definitive return to English poetic tradition. Since the publication of The Waste Land, his social and religious beliefs had changed dramatically he had converted to Christianity and become a member of the Anglican Church. Not surprisingly, the poem is saturated with both the language and the history of England. Nevertheless, the influence of The Four Quartets on the development of American poetry cannot be doubted in the work of Theodore Roethke, for example, we see clear echoes of the poem. Though Roethke claimed to reject the meditative T. S. Eliot kind of thing, 1 he turned in his later works such as North American Sequence to an intensely meditative style reminiscent of the Four Quartets.

The Couplet

A consistent feature of Pope's and Dryden's major couplet poems is their ability to sustain two patterns of signification throughout a single text. The best known manifestation of this has been categorised as the mock heroic, in which individuals and objects are established as phenomena that inhabit a real, contemporary, continuum outside the text while their presence within the text is distorted and transformed by images and patterns of association drawn mainly from classical literature, the bible or myth. The juxtaposition or reconciliation of images drawn from the immediate context of the utterance with those from distant historical, religious or cultural contexts is a common feature of most poems (it corresponds with Jakobson's distinction between the syntagmatic-paradigmatic axes) Donne's transposition of the flea with the marriage bed and the church is an obvious example. But in the Augustan couplet poem the effect of narrative cohesion effectively controls and disciplines the...

Loves Secret

So he took me thro' a stable & thro' a church & down into the church vault at the end of which was a mill thro' the mill we went, and came to a cave, down the winding cavern we groped our tedious way till a void boundless as a nether sky appeard Here said I is your lot, in this space, if space it may be calld, Soon we saw the stable and the church, & I took him to the altar and open'd the Bible, and lo it was a deep pit, into which I descended driving the Angel before me, soon we saw seven houses of brick, one we enterd in it were a PL 20 number of monkeys, baboons, & all of that species chaind by the middle, grinning and snatching at one another, but witheld by the shortness of their chains however I saw that they sometimes grew numerous, and then the weak were caught by the strong and with a grinning aspect, first coupled with & then devourd, by plucking off first one limb and then another till the body was left a helpless trunk, this after grinning & kissing it with seeming...

The Little Vagabond

Dear mother, dear mother, the church is cold, But the alehouse is healthy and pleasant and warm Besides I can tell where I am used well, Such usage in heaven will never do well. But if at the church they would give us some ale, And a pleasant fire our souls to regale, We'd sing and we'd pray all the livelong day, Nor ever once wish from the church to stray. Then the parson might preach, and drink, and sing, And we'd be as happy as birds in the spring And modest Dame Lurch, who is always at church, Would not have bandy children, nor fasting, nor birch.

Religion And Poetry

The religious beliefs which shaped and were articulated by this poetry were themselves often closely interconnected with the world of politics and state power. Thus Laudianism, with its new and controversial emphasis on ceremonial religion, was promoted by the court of Charles I in the 1620s and 1630s. In this section, I want to highlight, using select examples from the period's poetry, some of its principal religious currents, including two conflicting religious movements within the English Church that heightened tensions in earlier seventeenth-century Protestant England Calvinism and Laudianism. In the early seventeenth century, Calvinist theology was by and large the orthodox creed of English Protestantism it dominated the Church of England and, indeed, James I himself was Calvinist, though his son, we shall see, would be influenced in the 1620s and 1630s by conflicting and hostile religious developments. The popularity of the Geneva Bible (1560), which...

Gods and Goddesses

The Indo-Europeans, it is clear, spoke both about 'the gods' collectively and about gods as individuals. They perhaps had their different words for different categories of supernatural being. But the most important term, one that has left representatives in nearly all branches of the Indo-European family, was based on the root *diw dyu, which denoted the bright sky or the light of day. In MIE it took the form *deiwos, plural *deiwos. From this come Vedic deva-, Avestan dacva-, Old Phrygian devos (Neo-Phrygian dative-locative plural Sews), Oscan deiva-, Messapic deiva, diva 'goddess', Venetic deivos 'gods', Latin deus, proto-Germanic *tawaz,1 Old Irish dia, Old Church Slavonic divu 'demon', Old Prussian deiws deywis, Lithuanian Dievas, Latvian Dievs. A derivative deiwios seems to be attested in Mycenaean de-wi-jo, de-u-jo-i.2 In Anatolian we find forms derived from *dyeus Hittite sias, sian- 'god', a declension built on the old accusative *sifin similarly, with thematic stem, Palaic...

Concepts Of Poetry

Of several words for singing, one that is common to east and west is *gehi Vedic ga 'sing', g&tha 'song' (Avestan gad a) Lithuanian giedoti 'sing', giesme 'song of praise' Slavonic gudu 'sing with a stringed instrument' Old English gieddian 'sing', giedd, gidd 'song, poem, saying, riddle, tale'. The root *sengwh which provides the common Germanic word (Gothic siggwan, German singen, English sing, song, etc.) must once have had a wider distribution, as, besides Church Slavonic sqtb, it lies behind the Greek poetic word *songwha. In the Homeric language this is used only of prophetic utterances issuing from a god, but the Doric lyric tradition preserved its older sense of musical sound from voices or instruments. The root *kan prevailed only in Italic and Celtic, where it is associated with charms and spells as well as poetry Latin cano, carmen * can-men Old Irish canaid 'sings', cetal 'song', Welsh cathl, *kan-tlon. But it has left traces in Greek Kav-axr 'clangour' and in the Germanic...

Mock Heroic

Secchia Rapita, published pseudonymously in 1622, and depicting a feud, fomented by the seizure of a bucket, between two thirteenth-century Italian peoples the Modenese and the Bolognians. The poem went through numerous editions in the next century and a half, and was translated into English in 1710 by John Ozell, who inserted into his long title the annotative detail A Mock-Heroic Poem, The First of the Kind. The earliest work to capitalize on Tassoni's seems to have been the French poet Boileau's heroi-comical poem Le Lutrin (from 1674), which recounts a feud between the priest and choirmaster of a French church, in which the former tries to reinstall an old reading-desk expressly so as to obscure his rival from the sight of the congregation. There are several early renderings into English, though the first full translation, once more by Ozell, is in 1708.

Robert Lowell

They march on their soles up Main Street white stripes, moonstruck eyes' red fire under the chalk-dry and spar spire of the Trinitarian Church. Here, as James Breslin suggests, Lowell makes his first movement toward an authentic connection with otherness. 6 The skunks present such a comical sight, marching unabashedly up Main Street and sticking their heads in cups of sour cream, that Lowell cannot maintain the high seriousness of his nocturnal vision. The pun on soles ( souls ) suggests that these physical creatures are unconcerned with human forms of religious and moral doubt they simply go about their business, in contrast with both the chalk-dry and spar morality of the Trinitarian Church and the social and political realities represented by Main Street. Charles Altieri sums up the symbolic significance of the skunks By returning to the prereflective natural order . . . Lowell makes the skunk embody the determination and self-concern of all living beings and beyond that, as...

Crowley Robert 131

The adulterous nature of courtly love stood in direct contrast to the church's teachings on adultery, but many scholars believe that the prevalence of arranged marriages required outlets for the expressions of romantic love denied within the context of marriage. Generally, courtly love was considered an idealized state and an achievable one, though consummation was not strictly excluded. It was, of course, reserved strictly for nobility and became tied to chivalry.

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