Complete English Grammar Rules
To give a complete account of this interaction, we should have to consider separately the different levels of linguistic organization-phonology, grammar, graphology, etc. - in relation to verse structure. We should also have to give attention to other foregrounded patterns, such as formal parallelisms. Furthermore, we should need to examine the manner of interaction between patterns. Briefly, one linguistic pattern may either be congruent with another, or may cut across it.17 As it is usual for linguistic patterns to coincide rather than to be at odds with one another, the second circumstance is the more interesting one. Here is a pronounced instance of syntax and verbal parallelism cutting across the line-divisions of verse d an account of the relation between verse form and grammar. 20 On a hierarchy of units in grammar, see halliday, mcintosh, and strevens, op. cit., 25. 22 On the correspondence between units of intonation ('tone-groups') and units of grammar, see halliday,...
Registers, like dialects, are different 'Englishes' they are distinguished by special features of semantics, vocabulary, grammar, sometimes even of pronunciation. For instance we recognize the sentence ' the bus we got on was the one he'd got off' as colloquial in tone because of a number of lexical and grammatical features Not that these rules of religious English, colloquial English, etc., have been ascertained to the extent of those of general English usage, which have long been codified in grammars and dictionaries. The conventions of such subdivisions of the language lie in more or less unanalysed feelings about what is appropriate in a certain situation. Medical students probably learn without special tuition that 'His tummy is all upset' or 'He's got a bit of a head' is not the sort of tiling to put in a medical report. Disregarding conventions of this kind does not lead to misunderstanding so much as to embarrassment or amusement. If on receiving a formal wedding invitation...
The late 1970s to the present, Charles Bernstein has helped develop the poetry and poetics of the language school. He is the key figure behind this literary movement, which includes a diverse range of poets who challenge the customary use of language. Language poetry questions conventional vocabulary, grammar, process, shape, syntax, program, or subject matter (Andrews ix). It answers to the earlier modernists, such as Ezra pound and Gertrude stein, who were known for their unconventional use of language. It is also influenced by postructuralist theories about the rupture between language and meaning and by Marxist notions about the class inequality embedded in language. By using language differently, Language poetry changes standard poetic forms, encourages multiple interpretations, and contests social and economic disparities. Bernstein continues to develop this poetry of innovation by reinventing it in different media textual, acoustic, operatic, and electronic. By continually rein
If this, or thoughts of such a weighty charge Make you resolve to keep yourself at large, For want of better opportunity, A school must your next sanctuary be. Go, wed some grammar-bridewell, and a wife, And there beat Greek, and Latin for your life With birchen sceptre there command at will,
By the 20th century, Robert Henryson was considered the most well-known and critically important of the Middle Scots poets, a group which usually contains Henryson, James I of Scotland, William Dunbar, and Gavin Douglas, along with some other minor names. However, Henryson's birth and death dates are unclear mainly because he was neither a well-known nor a popular writer while alive. Indeed, while most scholars' best guess is that his major period of production was around 1475, it can only be said with certainty that his work was in circulation sometime during the last half of the 15th century. Henryson lived in Dunfer-mline, in Fife, and he was master of the grammar school in the Benedictine abbey there. Dunbar's Lament for the Makaris was published in 1508 and refers to Henryson's death, causing scholars to estimate it to around 1506.
William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564. His father, John Shakespeare, was a glove maker who owned a leather shop. Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden, was a farmer's daughter related to minor gentry. At age seven, William Shakespeare entered grammar school with other boys of his social class, studying Latin among other things. In 1582, at age 18, he married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children, Susanna, Hamnet, and Judith. There is little known about Shakespeare's life during two major spans of time, commonly referred to as the lost years 1578-82 and 1585-92. The first covers the time after Shakespeare left grammar school until his marriage the second covers the seven years of Shakespeare's life when he was probably perfecting his dramatic skills.
You gave, but will not give again Until enough of paudeen's pence By Biddy's halfpennies have lain To be 'some sort of evidence', Before you'll put your guineas down, That things it were a pride to give Are what the blind and ignorant town Imagines best to make it thrive. What cared Duke Ercole, that bid His mummers to the market-place, What th' onion-sellers thought or did So that his plautus set the pace For the Italian comedies And Guidobaldo, when he made That grammar school of courtesies Where wit and beauty learned their trade Upon Urbino's windy hill, Had sent no runners to and fro That he might learn the shepherds' will And when they drove out Cosimo, Indifferent how the rancour ran, He gave the hours they had set free To Michelozzo's latest plan For the San Marco Library, Whence turbulent Italy should draw Delight in Art whoSe end is peace, In logic and in natural law By sucking at the dugs of Greece. Your open hand but shows our loss, For he knew better how to live. Let...
The Poetics of Aristotle was the organon for all poetic technique through the second half of the eighteenth century, and the feared standard of critics until Boileau, Gottsched,1 and Lessing. It was the most effective instrument of philology for the interpretation, criticism, and evaluation of Greek literature. Together with grammar, rhetoric, and logic, the Poetics was a constituent of the curriculum of higher education. But then a new aesthetics, born of the spirit of the great period of German literature, came to guide Goethe and Schiller in their work it was also able to raise the level of understanding in Humboldt,' K rner,4 and the Schlegels, and to secure their aesthetic judgments. This aesthetics dominated the entire realm of German poetry Goethe and Schiller were its princely rulers while Humboldt, Moritz,5 K rner, Schelling, the Schlegels,
Part of Ginsberg's intention in these poems is to be true to actual events, and to bring an immediacy to the record of the authentic experience through the apparent spontaneity of the speaking voice, and the extremity of the passion behind the reciting of events. There is nevertheless a range of intensity, sometimes urgent, sometimes quiet, within the poems. Ginsberg also wants to short-circuit the usual processes of logic and categorization, which for him are the weapons of a dehumanizing culture that represses the sexual and creative potential of the individual. The erasing of such boundaries through - for example, the long lists, particularly in Howl, that refuse to use the grammar of subordination - is to be followed by a lifting of the reading consciousness
He attended local school and at age 12 entered the prestigious and challenging Jedburgh Grammar School, a 15th-century Latin school. Students also studied Greek, history, and math with the natural philosophy that passed for science in that era. Thomas began to write poetry as he studied, although none of his early work survived. He was probably inspired by the school stage plays, although his shy nature gained him a reputation as a dull and noncreative student. Sir William Bennett of Grubbet, a member of Parliament, adopted Thomson as his prot g . Thomson eventually adopted
We can go further, and point out that English verse is a hierarchical edifice of parallelisms, of which parallel segments of rhythm are the building bricks. The patterns of rhythm organize themselves into lines, which in turn enter into further structures of parallelism couplcts, stanzas, etc. Verse form, with its layers of structure, imitates the hierarchical organization of language itself into units of phonology, of grammar, etc. The difference between them, obviously enough, is that the constraints of verse form are adopted by the poet of his own free will, as a matter of convention, whereas the unit-by-unit grammatical and phonological organization of English
Thomas More was born in London on February 7, 1478, to John and Agnes More. The second of four surviving children, it is believed that More studied at St. Anthony's School in London, which was well known for producing scholars. He excelled in his studies, learning Latin grammar, logic, and debating skills. In 1490, his father sent him to study under John Morton, the archbishop of Canterbury and soon-to-be cardinal, who likely influenced the young man's decision to study at Oxford, where he enrolled in 1492. More spent only two years at oxford, supposedly being pulled out of his studies and away from the liberal university life by his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. More studied at the Inns of Court, and by 1501 he was a barrister.
Poetic Diction. (2nd edn.) London, 1952. Lit. brooke-rose, c. A Grammar of Metaphor. London, 1958. Lit. brooks, c. The Well-wrought Urn. New York, 1947. Lit. chatman, s. and levin, s. r., eds. Essays on the Language of Literature. Boston, 1967. gleason, h. a. Linguistics and English Grammar. New York, 1965. halliday, m. a. k., mcintosh, a. and strevens, p. The Linguistic Sciences
His education and would later be awarded an honorary Dr. title. After his father's death in 1731, Johnson taught grammar school to ease his family's debt during 1732 and then spent three years in Birmingham, where he published his first essays in the Birmingham Journal. His first book, a translation from a French account of a Portuguese missionary, appeared in 1735 under the title A Voyage to Abyssinia. He also married Mrs. Elizabeth Tetty Porter, a wealthy widow 20 years his elder, beginning a lifelong romance. The couple's efforts at starting a school failed, so they moved to London in 1737. One of their students, David Garrick, accompanied the Johnsons. He would later become one of England's most celebrated actors.
We have approached metaphor by way of absurdity metaphor, that is, has been treated as one of the possible answers to an enigma posed by apparent nonsense. It is now time to modify this point of view, by acknowledging that literal absurdity is not the only path that can lead to a figurative interpretation. Christine Brooke-Rose, who makes this clear in her important book A Grammar of Metaphor,12 notes how many proverbs are ambiguous as to literal or metaphorical interpretation. 'A rolling stone gathers no moss' and 'Empty vessels make the most sound' are both true, if trite, as literal propositions as proverbs, however, we understand them to refer figuratively to human character.13 12 c. Brooke-rose, A Grammar of Metaphor, London, 1958, 38.
Who climbs the grammar-tree, distinctly knows Where Noun, and Verb, and Participle grows, Corrects her country neighbour and, abed, For breaking Priscian's, breaks her husband's head. mood and figure bride one who is adept in the 'moods' and 'figures' of logic breaking Priscian's head violating the rules of grammar
In the notes to the selections, parentheses are used to enclose glosses and grammatical and other explanations. Square brackets are used to enclose Latin words omitted by an author for the sake of brevity, as well as English words that have no specific equivalent in the Latin original but that must be supplied in the translation. Square brackets also enclose references to numbered grammar and metrics points.
Grammar and word choice once again, as I have already suggested, it is important to examine a poet's diction and to ask why he chooses certain words instead of other, almost equivalent ones. What do we make of host, golden, wealth, show, and the lines A poet could not but be gay In such a jocund company
Prosody (the study of versification) is an area which, like grammar and rhetoric, has suffered from scholars' disillusionment with traditional theory, and their failure to replace it with an agreed alternative. Harvey Gross is a spokesman of current perplexity on this subject when he says at the beginning of his book Sound and Form in Modern Poetry 'The prosodist attempting the hazards of modern poetry finds his way blocked by the beasts of confusion. Like Dante he wavers at the very outset of his journey. He finds four beasts no general agreement on what prosody means and what subject matter properly belongs to it no apparent dominant metrical convention such as obtained in the centuries previous to this one no accepted theory about how prosody functions in a poem and no critical agreement about the scansion of the English meters.'1 Certainly matters are not so clear-cut as they were when the rules of Latin scansion were religiously applied to English verse, on the mistaken...
Elsewhere she praises the jazz musician John Coltrane for not taking the route of mainstream white commercial music. The poems in these and other early books experiment with idioms and with sound arrangements, using these and slang, dialect, and profanity, to undermine conventional grammar, spelling, and syntax in an attempt to capture black speech rhythms. The poem blk wooooomen chant from her second book, for example, contains the lines
Grammar Since knowledge of a language is traditionally condensed into two kinds of book, the dictionary and the grammar book, we may start by observing that to know a language competently, a speaker is required to have memorized a vocabulary in that language, and to have learnt a set of rules showing how the items of the vocabulary are to be used in constructing sentences. These two parts, the lexicon and the grammar, together comprise the formal aspect of the language. But dictionaries and grammar books do not entirely restrict themselves to specifying the lexicon and grammar in this sense. They also give other kinds of information a learner needs to know how to pronounce and write the forms of the language, that is, how to give them physical realization and also what they mean. Thus three main types of rule have to be known rules of form, of realization (phonological or graphological), and of semantics.
A fter the collapse of Rome in the fifth century a.d., the survival of many Ix. Latin authors was largely a matter of chance (see page xv). Many quotations from lost poetic works were preserved in prose writers. Cicero, for example, was fond of quoting from Ennius and other early poets in his letters and philosophical treatises. Still, the main source of information on what has been lost is grammarians and writers on antiquities, who quote from earlier literature to illustrate the meaning of a word, a point of grammar, or some facet of Roman history or society. These quotations, which may consist of a single word or run to several lines, have been collected by scholars and classified under the original authors' names.
To the extent that any use of language consists in obeying rules, regularity or 'ruledness' is a property of language in general, both inside and outside poetry. One of the ways in which language shows itself to be reducible to rule is in the possibility of segmenting a text into structurally equivalent units for example, syllables (in phonology) and clauses (in grammar). Thus a text can be analysed as a pattern, on different layers, of repeated similar structures
Poet Eumolpus in Petronius, saepius poetice quam humane locutus es. Watkins cites a Middle Irish treatise on grammar and poetics, the Auraicept ne n-Eces, in which 'arcane language of the poets' and 'language of the Irish' are recognized as two of the five varieties of the Gaelic tongue.9
The study of versification can claim to be the oldest and most enduring branch of English literary criticism. The language and methodology of George Gascoigne's 'Certayne Notes of Instruction concerning the Making of Verse or Rhyme in English ' (1575) might superficially seem to have little in common with Paul Kiparsky's 'Stress, Syntax and Meter' published, exactly four centuries later, in 1975. But both share the same objective of determining how the stress patterns of ordinary language can be organised into the phenomenon known as metre. Consult T.V.F.Brogen's excellent bibliography English Versification 15701980 and you will find that hardly one of the four hundred years between these essays passed without someone writing something about the metres of English poetry. Such proliferation is both intriguing and depressing. Intriguing because each of these studies will, if only by implication, be grounded upon the phenomenal status of the poetic line, and this testifies to the claim...
Loose concatenations of words and clauses rather than the logically subordinated grammar of the New Critical poem. More broadly it showed itself in a preference for structures based on juxtaposition and accumulation like lists and narratives, rather than the more syllogistic organization typical of forties poems. Poems in the fifties no longer centred themselves on a single metaphor that rigorously determined all its details. Instead they often favoured metonymic associations between images and ideas, connections based on accidental features of proximity, contiguity or succession. Tidy containment gave way to unruly sprawl, most prominently in Allen Ginsberg's Howl (1956), with its long Whitmanesque lines and wildly associative inventories.
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