Anaphora

Perhaps the commonest of all figures is simple anaphora, the repetition of an important word in successive phrases or clauses. This word is normally placed in the emphatic initial position, and it is noteworthy that the verb, whose 'normal' or default position in Indo-European was after the subject and object, happily stands initially in anaphora, as well as in other situations where it carries some thematic weight.113

The repetition may be just twofold, but it is quite commonly threefold, as in Y. 36. 4 vohu 6 a managhö, vohu 6 ä asö, vaghuyâ 6 a cistöis syao6anöiscä vacabïscâ, '(thee) with good mind, with good truth, with good thoughts, deeds, and words', cf. 36. 5, 39. 5; II. 5. 385-95 ¡ièv .. . Sè ... rXy Sè . .. ; Vafprüönismäl 4. 1-3 heill pü farir, heill pü aptr komir, heill pu â sinnom sér, 'safe go thou, safe come thou back, safe be thou on the way'; or fourfold, as in RV 4. 25. 5 priyâh sukCt, priyâ Indre manayûh, priyâh suprövih, priyo asya somï, 'dear is the doer of good, dear to Indra the pious, dear the attentive, dear to him the soma-bringer'; of ev, Il. 2. 382-4 ev ¡iév Tis ... ev Sè ... ev Se ris ... ev Se ris ... ; Tâin (I) 2936-8 Cü na hEmna Macha, Cü co ndelb cach datha, Cü chreichi, Cü chatha, 'the Hound of Emain Macha, the Hound with beauty of every colour, the Hound of spoils, the Hound of battle'.

One characteristic use of anaphora is to emphasize quantity, as in Il. 11. 494 f., 'many the withered oaks, many the pines that it bears off, and much the débris that it casts in the sea' (cf. 20. 326, 23. 30, Od. 1. 3, 9. 45, 22. 47, 23.

112 Il. 6. 374-86, cf. 1. 65/93, 16. 36 f./50 f.; Od. 2. 30-45, 11. 397-410; myth of Wasitta, J. Friedrich, Jahrbuch für kleinasiatische Forschung 2 (1952/3), 150-2 (CTH 346); MBh. 3. 61. 69 f.; Rm. 2. 10. 6/14; 5. 48. 6-11; Finnesburh 1-4; HelgakviSa Hundingsbana B 40 f.; Sassountsy David 158 f.; Chadwick (1932), 119, lines 79 ff.; 147, lines 117 ff.; Sulejman Fortic, The Capture of Budapest, in SCHS i. 227; Alija Fjuljanin, The Captivity of Osmanbey, ibid. 315; Avdo Mededovic, The Wedding ofSmailagicMeho, ibid. iii. 94; Rhesa (1825), 94/5 f., 114/15 f., 158/9, 176/7. There are several instances also in Ugaritic: West (1997), 198.

113 Cf. Gonda (1959), 128-65; Watkins (1995), 88, 107, 305, 502, 510 f.

304); Vafprudnismal 3. 1-3 figld ec for, figld ec freistada, figld ec reynda regin, 'much I have travelled, much have I experienced, much have I tried the gods'; Prymskvida 23. 5-6 figld a ec meidma, figld a ec menia, 'many treasures I have, many necklaces I have'.

Another is to underline the importance of a particular quality or possession: RV 4. 3. 10-12 rtena .. . rtena . .. rtena .. . 'through right', with which Watkins has aptly juxtaposed a passage from an Irish wisdom text, is tre fir flathemon ... is tre fir flathemon ... is tre fir flathemon .. ., 'it is through the ruler's truth that .. .';114 RV 6. 75. 2 dhanvana .. . dhanvana ... dhanvana . .. 'with the bow', with which the same scholar compares Archilochus fr. 2 iv Sopl . .. iv Sopl .. . iv Sopl .. ., 'in my spear';115 Il. 23. 315-18 ¿^ri . .. lirjn . .. ¡i^ri . .., 'through cleverness'.

In Indo-Iranian and Greek we find a form of anaphora in which a preverb is repeated in subsequent clauses with ellipse of the verb that it modified in the initial one: RV 1. 123. 6 ud Iratam sUmta, ut puramdhih, 'forth let come the bounties, forth the riches';116 Y. 57. 24 = Yt. 10. 92 aya daenaya fraoronta I Ahuro Mazda asava, I fra Vohu Mano, fra Asom vahistom, fra Xsadrom vamm, fra sponta Armaiti, etc.; Il. 18. 483 iv ¿ev yalav erev^', iv S' ovpavov, iv Se daXaooav.

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