Contents

Abbreviations x

Note on Translations Quoted xiii

Introduction 1

The Indo-Europeans in space and time. Chronological parameters. —Sources.—Considerations of method.—Conclusion.

1. Poet and Poesy 26

The poet. Status, training, rewards.—Concepts of poetry. Poetry as recall. Poesy as construction. Poesy as weaving. Poesy as carpentry. The ship of song. The chariot of song. The song takes off.—Versification. Graeco-Aryan metre. Other Indo-European metre. Alliteration. Metrical terminology. Poetic prose. Verse in a prose setting.—Occasions and genres. Hymns and praise poetry. Narrative poetry. Personation. Invectives? Codifications. Assemblies and contests.

2. Phrase and Figure 75

Vocabulary and phraseology. Compound words. Kennings. Epitheta ornantia. Various idioms.—Narrative gambits.— Similes.—Figures. Polar expressions ('merisms'). Positive reinforced by negated opposite. Epanadiplosis. Epanalepsis. Questioner's suggestions negated in turn. Anaphora. Anaphora of first element of compounds. Juxtaposition of opposed terms. Juxtaposition of like terms (polyptoton). The priamel. Behaghel's Law; the Augmented Triad.

3. Gods and Goddesses 120

Upper and lower gods. Gods and men: two races. Characteristics of divinity. Relations with mankind.—Gods' names.—Female deities. 'Mothers'.—Some individuals. *Aryomen. Some Western goddesses. Velesu, Velinas, and others: a dubious equation. Heteronymous homologues.—Mythical themes. The mighty infant; the typical weapon. The gods' assembly. Getting about. El Dorado. The divine smith. The food of the gods. The language of the gods. Predecessors and antagonists. Assaults on heaven.

4. Sky and Earth 166

The divine Sky. Father Sky. The all-seeing, all-knowing god.—The divine Earth. Mother Earth. Attributes of Earth. Earth and the dead.—Sky and Earth as a pair. Bull and cow.—Children of *Dyeus. The divine Twins. A one-parent family?

5. Sun and Daughter 194

The divine Sun. The Sun as a deity. Attributes; the all-seeing god. Oaths by the Sun.—The Sun's motion conceptualized. The solar wheel. The solar steed(s). The solar boat. The dark side of the sun. How old is all this?—Further mythical motifs.—Cultic observance. Salutation of the rising and setting sun. A taboo.—Dawn (and Night). Attributes; imagery. Dawn's lovers. The Dawn goddess and the spring festival.— The Daughter of the Sun. The Vedic evidence. The Baltic and Slavic evidence. The Greek evidence. Daughters of the Sun in other traditions. Astronomical interpretations. Ritual aspects.— Conclusion.

6. Storm and Stream 238

The god of thunder. Perkunas. Fiiprgynn. Perrin. Possible cognates in south-east Europe. Parjanya, Indra. Tarhunna. Zeus, Jupiter, Heracles. Taranis, Thor. The thunder-weapon. The Water Dragon. Visvarupa and his cows. Trisiras, Ullikummi, Hrungnir.—Wind gods.—Fire gods. The Fire in the Waters. The acquisition of fire.—The Waters.

7. Nymphs and Gnomes 280

A god of ways and byways.—Nymphs. Indian nymphs. Iranian, Lycian, Armenian. Greek, Roman. Albanian. Germanic. Celtic. Slavonic. Baltic.—Elves, Dwarfs, and Satyrs. Beings with elements of animal physique. Dancers and mischief-makers. Dwarfs and manufacturers.—Giants. Multiple heads and limbs. By their works shall ye know them. Strange meeting.— Conclusion.

8. Hymns and Spells 304

Invocatory hymns. Calling the god. Praise of the god's status and powers. Narrative elements. 'Hear us.' 'Look on us.' 'Come.'

'Come with-.' Finding range and direction. Prayers.—Magic, charms. Incantations: style and delivery. Nine as a sacral number. Herbs. Maledictions. Healing. Legendenzauber.

9. Cosmos and Canon 340

Cosmology. Heaven and earth. Stony skies. Body imagery. World pillar, world tree. The cosmic serpent. The land of the blest. Celestial river. Moon and stars.—Cosmogony. Before heaven and earth. The solitary Twin.—Canon and catechism. Proverbs.— Riddles. Year riddles.—The World Wide Web.

10. Mortality and Fame 375

The origin of humankind. Human and animal lifespans.--The Fates. Images of destiny. --Death. Death as sleep; death as a journey. Crossing the water. Gates, border control. Beware of the Dog. Pastures and herds. Going to join the fathers. All Souls Day.—Transcending mortality through fame. Names. Fame won in combat. Fame valued above life. Fame conferred and sustained by poetry. The embedding of names in poetry. A thesaurus of glory.

11. King and Hero 411

Kings. The Queen. King and horse. King and priest. The king's qualities. The king's justice and the land's fertility. The king's liberality.—The hero. His exceptional nature. Birth and infancy. Boyhood feats. Bigger animal challenges. The hero in dialogue.— The hero and women. Winning a bride. The sword in the bed. Winning her back; the Husband's Return.—The hero and his son. The Sohrab and Rustum motif. The hero's child as object of pathos.—How to kill a hero. Invulnerability; the weak spot.— Conclusion.

12. Arms and the Man 447

The war-band. Cattle raids. Strongholds.—The hero as warrior. Predicates. Alarming symptoms. Eagerness to fight. The vow of abnegation.—Weapons.—Horses. Chariots.—Battle narrative: setting the scene. --The time frame. --Speeches. Altercations. Exhortations. --Events on the field. Divine participation. Archers. Chariots. Single combat. Doom and downfall. Vindictive victory.—Similes.—The hero's funeral. Laments. Suttee. Funeral games.

Elegy on an Indo-European Hero 504

Bibliography Index

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