We now come to a series of figures involving repeated words. The first and simplest is iteration: an urgent or emotive word is uttered twice (or more) in succession. This is really an elementary tactic of language, not intrinsically a feature of the high style, though it can be employed deliberately for poetic purposes.105

Two particular uses may be mentioned here. One may be called liturgical-magical, where a word or formula is repeated to enhance its potency, as in AV 17. 6. 7 ud ihy ud ihi Surya, 'rise, rise, O Sun'; Y. 10. 20 gave nomo, gave nomo, 'homage to the bull, homage to the bull'; Hxnsa-Poris saga 8 brenni, brenni Blundketill inni 'let burn, burn, Blundketill within'; or in the Valkyries' song in Njals saga 157 (Edd. min. 59) vindum, vindum vef darradar, 'wind we, wind we the web of spears'.

The other may be called mimetic repetition. It expresses repeating or protracted action.106 So in RV 1. 12. 2 Agnim-Agnim havimabhih sada havanta, 'they keep invoking "Agni, Agni" with invocations'; 8. 12. 19 devam-devam vo avasa, Indram-Indram grnisam, 'laud the god, the god for your aid, (laud) Indra, Indra'. Very similar is Aeschylus, Ag. 1144 'Itvv 'Itvv aTivovaa, of the nightingale who is always lamenting 'Itys, Itys', and the parallel passages in later poets. A different example in the same broad category is Euripides, Bacch. 1065 KaTyyev yyev yyev ¿s /iXav niSov, 'he bent it down, down, down to the earth'; Iph. Taur. 1406 /aXXov Se /aXXov npos niTpas yiei aKa^os, 'further and further towards the rocks went the vessel'; Arist. Nub. 1288 nXiov nXiov Tapyvpiov alel ylyveTai, 'the money keeps getting more and more'. Similar expressions are commonplace in other languages, as in Old Irish moo assa moo 'more and more', messa assa-mmessa 'worse and worse'; Norse meirr oc meirr 'more and more', ey ok ey 'for ever and ever', etc.

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