Gods and men two races

The opposition of celestial and terrestrial did, however, play a fundamental role in Indo-European thought and language: not in contrasting different orders of supernatural being, but in contrasting the gods with humankind. As the gods were *deiwds, the heavenly ones, man was 'the earthly', designated by a derivative of the old word for earth, *dheghom-ldhghm-.14 This is the source of words for 'man, human being' in various languages: Phrygian zemelos; Latin homo (cf. humus 'earth'), Oscan humuf, Umbrian homu; old Lithuanian zmuo, plural zmones; Gothic and Old English guma, Old Norse gumi, Old High German gomo (< proto-Germanic *guman);15 Old Irish duine, Welsh dyn, Breton den (< *gdon-yo-).16 In Greek the inherited word was replaced by

15 This survives in modern German Brauti-gam, English bride-groom (with intrusive r by false association).

16 Cf. Feist (1939), 225 f.; Gamkrelidze-Ivanov (1995), 720.

dvdpwnos (of obscure etymology), but in the poetic language mortals can be referred to as ini-xdávioi, literally 'those on earth'. The meaning is spelt out more fully in the formula xapal épxo^évwv avdpwnwv, 'men who go on the earth', or for example in the Eddic Fáfnismál (23. 4-6), manna peira er mold troda I pic qved ec óblaudastan alinn, 'of those men who tread the earth, I say you are the most intrepid'. The modern Lithuanian word for 'man' in the sense of 'human being' is zmogus, in origin a compound, 'earth-goer', combining the roots seen in Greek xa^ai and aivw.

In Indic, Phrygian, Italic, and Celtic tradition the ancient pairing of 'heavenly' (divine) and 'earthly' (human) was maintained with the original lexical roots. In RV 7. 46. 2 Rudra is said to have concern for both the earthly race and the heavenly: ksámyasya jánmanas .. . divyásya. In the Phrygian inscriptions there is much use of the formula ¡ie Sews k€ Ze^eXws k€ and variants, understood to mean 'among both gods and men'.17 Ennius has diuomque hominumque several times, and not only in adapting the Homeric nar^p avSprnv re demv re (Ann. 284, 591, 592, cf. 203 Skutsch). A Gaulish boundary stone of the second or first century bce designates a piece of land with the remarkable compound adjective teuoxtonion, rendered in the Latin version of the inscription as co(m)munem deis et hominibus.18 In Insular Celtic the derivative of proto-Celtic *gdonyo- had lost its inital velar and come to alliterate with the word for 'god', and so in early Irish texts we find for doíne domnaib scéo déib 'over worlds of men and (over) gods'; sech bid día, bid duine 'he will be both god and man'; arddu deeib dóen 'a man more exalted than the gods'; in an early Welsh poem as clywo a duw a dyn, 'let both God and man hear it'.19 In Germanic the two terms would have been *teiwoz and *gumanez, but in this coupling, at least, *teiwoz was replaced by *gudo, probably for the sake of alliteration;20 hence in the Edda we find god oll ok gumar for 'all gods and men' (Lokasenna 45. 3, 55. 6). In Snorri's prose the poetic gumar is also replaced, and he writes gudanna ok manna (genitive plural, Gylf. 21, al.).

17 W. M. Ramsay, Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts in Wien 8 (1905), Beiblatt, 107 f.; C. Brixhe in Gusmani et al. (1997), 45; A. Lubotsky in Mir Curad 419 f. with a Luvian parallel.

18 *Devoxdonion (masculine or neuter, agreeing with atom or atos = campum). M. Lejeune, Recueil des inscriptions gauloises, ii. 1 (Paris 1988), 36, no. E-2; Meid (1994), 22; Lambert (2003), 78-80; K. T. Witczak, SIGL 4 (2002), 103-5; J. N. Adams, Bilingualism and the Latin Language (Cambridge 2003), 188 f. X. Delamarre in his Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise (2nd edn., Paris 2003) takes the word as the genitive plural of a dvandva compound, 'gods-and-men'.

19 K. Meyer (1914), 10; Imran Brain 48; Campanile (1988), 28 no. 4. 3; Rowland (1990), 441 st. 88a.

In Greek the old Indo-European words had both given way to alternative vocables, but 'gods and men' (6eoi re Kal dvepes, etc.) is still a formulaic pairing in Homer. And the traditional antithesis between heavenly gods and terrestrial humans still appears, as when Odysseus says to Nausicaa, el (ev ris 6eos iaai, rol ovpavov evpvv exovaiv . . . el Se ris iaai porwv, rol inl x6ovl vaier^ovaiv . . .

'If you are one of the gods who dwell in the broad heaven, I reckon you are most like Artemis . . . but if you are of the mortals who live on earth, then thrice fortunate are your parents and brothers' (Od. 6. 150/3; cf. Hes. Th. 372 f.).

There are many references in the Rigveda to the 'race' or 'breed' of the gods: 10. 57. 5 daiviyo janah, cf. 1. 31. 17, 44. 6, 45. 9 f., etc.; 6. 22. 9 diviyo janah, cf. 9. 91. 2; 10. 63. 17 = 64. 17; 1. 71. 3 devan janma, cf. 6. 11. 3; 10. 64. 13—the only survival of an old genitive plural ending; 7. 42. 2 devbnam janimani, etc. We also hear of 'the race of gods and mortals' (1. 70. 6 devbnam janma martams ca), or 'the earthly race and the heavenly' (7. 46. 2, quoted above). Sometimes the phrase 'both races' is used, meaning gods and men (1. 31. 7; 2. 2. 4, 6. 7; 8. 52. 7). The words that I have rendered as 'race' are jana-, janas-, and jan(i)man-. The second of these corresponds exactly to Greek yevos, and in Greek epic we find several times the expression 6ewv (¡laKapwv, d6avdrwv) or dv6pwnwv yevos, with the same meaning as in the Veda.21 Pindar famously declared (Nem. 6. 1):

ev dvSpwv, ev 6ewv yevos' iK ^ias &€ nveo^ev (¿arpos dft^orefjoi.

The race of men is one, and of gods one; from one mother we both draw breath.

Here are the 'both races' of the Vedic poets.

The words ye'vos, jana-, etc. have Germanic cognates in Old High German chunni, Norse kyn, Old English cyn(n) (modern 'kin') and gecynd(e), cynd ('kind'). Corresponding to yevos dvSpwv we have Old Saxon manno cunni, Old English manna cyn(n) (Beowulf 701, 712, al.), Norse mannkind (Gylf. 9), our 'mankind'. The idiom was applicable to other orders of being too. Hesiod's Muses sang to Zeus of 'the race of men and of the powerful Giants' (Th. 50), and the poet of Beowulf speaks similarly of 'the race of Giants': 883 eotena cyn, 1690 gaganta cyn.

21 Hes. Th. 21, 33, 44, 50, etc.; fr. 204. 98; Hymn.. Dem 320; 'Eumelus' fr. 13. 1 West; Asius fr. 8. 2 W.; cf. Il. 6. 180 ^ S' ap e^v 6eiov yevos, oiS' dv6p^nwv; 12. 23 ri(j,i6ewv yevos dvSpojv.

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