Juxtaposition of like terms polyptoton

Common as such antithetical combinations are, they are less abundant than collocations of like terms. In the great majority of cases it is a noun or adjective that is juxtaposed with the same word in a different case (governed perhaps by a preposition). But there are also instances with verb forms, especially with an opposition of active and passive action, as in RV 8. 84. 9 nákir yám ghnánti, hánti yáh, 'whom none slay, (but) who slays'; Il. 4. 451 OAAVvtwv Te Kal oAAvpevwv, 'killing and being killed' (cf. 11. 83); 18. 309 Kaí Te KTavéovTa KaTCKTa, 'and he slays him who would slay'; Aesch. Sept. 961 naidels enaiaas—av 8' edaves KaTaKTavwv, 'stabbed, you stabbed.—And you were killed, that killed'; Y Gododdin 1128 cyd ryladded wy, wy lladdasant, 'before they were slain, they slew'; Llawsgrif Henregadredd 60a4 ef wanei wanwyd, 'he who would slay was slain'; Togail Bruidne Dá Derga 783 génait 7 ní génaiter, 'they will kill and not be killed'.120

With nouns and adjectives we may use the term polyptoton, which also covers the rarer instances where three or four cases of the same word are employed in a single sentence. Three principal uses of the figure may be

120 Cf. Gonda (1959), 246, and for further Irish and other material Watkins (1995), 258, 260, 262, 326-9.

distinguished: in elative expressions; to express accumulation or continuity; and to express the matching status or reciprocal relationship of the referents.

(a) Elative expressions. A superlative may be combined with a genitive plural of the same word: RV 2. 33. 3 tavästamas taväsam 'strongest of the strong', cf. 1. 5. 2, 11. 1; 2. 24. 3 devffnam devätamaya, 'most godly of the gods'; 3. 51. 4 ^fuffm .. . nrtamam, 'most manly of men', cf. 4. 25. 4; Yt. 10. 141 aojistanym asti aojistom, tancistancim asti tancistom, 'of the mightiest he is the mightiest, of the strongest he is the strongest'; Aesch. Supp. 524 ¡aKapwv ¡laKaiprare Kai reXewv reAetorarov Kpdros, 'most blessed of blessed ones and most powerful of powers'; Soph. OT334 w KaKwv KaKtore, 'most villainous of villains'; Phil. 65 eoxar eoxarwv KaKa, 'utmost of utmost ills'; CIL i.2 9 duonoro(m) optumo(m); Plaut. Cas. 793 pessumarumpessuma, Men. 817 mise-rorum miserrimus; Martial 1. 100. 2 mammarum maxima mamma; Lithuanian geriu geriäusiasis, 'best of the good'.

A comparative may be used with an ablative of the same word: RV 6. 47. 29 dfrad dävfyah, 'further than far'; 1. 114. 6 svfdoh svädfyah, 'sweeter than sweet'; 10. 176. 4 sähasas cid sähiyfn, 'stronger even than the strong'; Y. 43. 3 vaghous vahyo, 'better than the good'; 51. 6 vaghous vahyo . .. akft asyf, 'better than the good . .. worse than the bad'; Sappho 156 xpvow xpvoorepa, 'golder than gold'; Aesch. fr. 391 oofiov oo^wrepos, 'cleverer than clever'(?); Soph. OT 1301 ¡eiZova (¡,aooova Blaydes) . .. rwv ¡laKiorwv, 'further than the furthest'; Plaut. Asin. 614 melle dulci dulcior, 'sweeter than sweet honey', cf. Truc. 371; Amph. 907 stultior stultissumo, 'a bigger fool than the biggest'; English 'whiter than white'.121

An elative phrase is occasionally formed from a simple adjective or noun with its own genitive plural: RV 10. 128. 7 dhfttl dhftfnffm, 'the creator of creators'; Taittirfya Brahmana 2. 6. 8. 3 devanam devsm,, 'the god of gods' (of Indra); Aesch. Pers. 681 w mora ntorwv '(most) trusty among the trusty'; Soph. OT 465 app^r' app^rwv; OC 1238 KaKa KaKMv; in the Carmen Saliare, diuom deo supplicate 'pray to the god of gods'; Plaut. Truc. 25 summa summarum, Cure. 388 reliquiarum reliquias; Petr. Sat. 37. 8 nummorum nummos; Florus 1. 22 urbem urbium, 2. 26 barbari barbarorum; Hyndluliod 1. 1 mxr meyia . .. rocr rgcra, 'maid of maids ... darkness of darknesses'.122

(b) Expressions of accumulation or continuity: CHLI i. 49 Karatepe 1. 41 ff., 'and I made horse upon horse, and I made army upon army, and

122 Cf. Hofmann (1930), 49-61 (with abundant Norse and Baltic material); Gonda (1959), 263-5; Brigitte Gygli-Wyss, Das nominale Polyptoton im älteren Griechisch (Göttingen 1966), 30. Aeschylus' ava£ aviiKrwv (Supp. 524) imitates Near Eastern divine titles, see West (1997), 557 f.

I made shield upon shield'; RV 1. 53. 7 yudhtl yudham .. . purtl puram, 'fight after fight ... citadel after citadel'; 2. 24. 15 viresu vir&m upa, 'sons upon sons'; Il. 14. 130 ¿ft e'XKei ¿'Xkos, 'wound upon wound'; 19. 290 SexeTai kqkov ¿k KaKov, 'trouble succeeds trouble'; Hes. Op. 361 apiKpov ¿nl apiKpwi, 'a little upon a little', 644 ¿nl KepSei KepSos, 'profit upon profit'; in Umbrian, Iguv. VIa. 20 pir pureto, 'fire from fire'; IV. 16 asa asam-a, 'from altar to altar'; Y Gododdin 246 ar beithing beithing, 'destruction upon destruction'; 645 a lychwry lychwr, 'from light to light', i.e. from dusk to dawn; poem in Fled Bricrenn 48 (cf. 52) 'battle on battle, exploit upon exploit, head upon head he heaps'; poem in Acallam na Senorach 3368, 3375 Stokes glind do glind . .. a hor and-or, 'from glen to glen .. . from border to border'; Beow. 931 wunder after wundre; Hdvamdl 141. 4-7 ord mer af ordi ordz leitadi, verc mer af verki vercs leitadi, 'word found me word from word, deed found me deed from deed'; Salih Ugljanin, The Song of Baghdad (SCHS ii, no. 1) 975 zub po zubu, 'tooth upon tooth'; Demail Zogic, Alija Rescues the Children of Alibey (SCHS ii, no. 24) 754 dan po danu, konak po konaku, 'day followed day, night's rest followed night's rest'; Sulejman Makic, The Battle of Temisvar (SCHS ii, no. 27) 290 dan po danu, zeman od zemana, 'day followed day, week followed week'.

(c) Expressing matching status or reciprocal relationship.123 Here are some of the commonest categories:

God to god, a god among gods, etc.: RV 1. 1. 5 devo devebhih, cf. 1. 13. 11, 31. 1, 9, 136. 4, 160. 1, 169. 8, and often; 1. 123. 10 esi devi devdm, 'you go, goddess, to god', cf. Hes. Th. 380 ded dewi evvrdeiaa, 'goddess bedded with god'; 405 ded deov ¿v ft>iX6TrjTi'; Od. 5. 97 ded deov; Campanile (1988), 25 no. 1. 8 deeib dia, 'a god among gods'.

Mortal to mortal, man to man, etc.: RV 1. 147. 5 mdrto mdrtam; [Hes.] Scut. 6 dvrTal dvrTois; Il. 15. 328, 16. 306 dv^p e'Xev avSpa; Hdvamdl 47. 6 madr er mannz gaman, 'man is a man's pleasure'.

Men of a particular trade or condition: RV 6. 32. 3 kavibhih kavih sdn, 'with the seers himself a seer'; Od. 10. 82 noipeva noip—v, 'shepherd to shepherd'; Il. 23. 318 rvoxos nepiyiveTai rvioxoio; Hes. Op. 23 yeiTova yeiTwv, 25 f. Kepapevs Kepapei, TeKTovi t€ktwv, nTwxos nTwx^n, aoiSos aoiSwi.

Brother to brother: MBh. 6. 44. 2 bhrdta bhrataram; Aesch. Sept. 674 Kaaiyv—Twi Kaais; Vglundarkvida 23. 3 brodir d brodur; Igor 77 rekosta bo bratu bratu, 'brother spoke to brother'; SCHS ii, no. 24. 1299 da brat brata poznat' ne mogase, 'brother could not recognize brother'. Cf. Beowulf 1978 maid wii mczge, 'kinsman beside kinsman'.

Friend to friend:124 RV 1. 26. 3 sakha sakhye, cf. 1. 53. 2, 75. 4; 3. 4. 1, etc.; Y. 62. 8 haxa hasg, cf. Vd. 18. 26; Hes. Op. 183 eraipos eraipwi; Pind. Nem. 4. 22 fiiAoioi yap fiiAos ¿Adwv; Aesch. Cho. 89 napa fiiAys fiiAwi, cf. Eum. 999, etc.; Havamal 42. 1-3 vin sinom scal madr vinr vera, oc gialda gigf vid giof, 'a man shall be friend to his friend and repay gift with gift'.

All with all: RV 4. 1. 18 visve visvasu duriyasu devixh, 'all the gods in all houses'; Heraclitus B 41 mivra Sid mivrwv, 'all things through all things'; Oscan inscr. no. 40. 12 Buck eisunk uhftis sullum sullas 'all the wishes of all of them'.

Willing with the willing: RV 10. 15. 8 usann usadbhih; Od. 3. 272 ideAwv edeAovoav, cf. 5. 155; Aesch. Supp. 144 deAovoa S' av deAovoav; [Aesch.] Prom. 218 ekwv ekovti. ¿kwv is cognate with the Vedic word.

One to another: RV 7. 103. 3 anyo anyam, cf. 2. 18. 2; 3. 33. 2; 10. 97. 14; Y. 53. 5 anyd ainim; Greek dAAos dAAov, Latin alius aliud, etc.

Miscellaneous (selection): RV 1. 102. 1 maho mahim, 'of the great (god) a great one (song)', cf. 2. 33. 8, 15. 1, etc., beside Il. 16. 776, 18. 26 ¡¿eyas ¡leyaAwori; RV 1. 173. 2 vfsa vfsabhih, 'the bull with the bulls'; 5. 68. 4 rtam rtena, 'truth with the truth'; Y. 53. 4 asauni asavabyo, 'as a truthful woman the truthful'; 43. 5 akom akai, vagvhim asim vaghaovc, 'evil for the evil one, a good reward for the good'; Faliscan vase inscription, no. 152 Pisani (sixth century) Titias duenom duenas, 'nice thing of nice Titia'; Havamal 31. 3 gestr atgest, 'guest at guest', cf. 32. 6; Helgakvida Hundingsbana A 5. 5 hrafn kvad at hrafni, 'quoth raven to raven'; Vafprudnismal 33. 4 fotr vid foti, 'foot with foot'; Heidreks gatur 18 (Edd. min. 113, Hervarar saga 10) elr vid kvan kona, mxr vid meyiu mog of getr, 'woman begets with woman, girl with girl bears a son'; ibid. 24 a sat nar a nai, blindr reid blindum, 'a corpse sat on a corpse, the blind rode the blind'.

The figure is much favoured for the decription of close order or confrontation in battle: Tyrt. 19. 15 aoniSas evKVKAous aonioi rvnr[, 'round shields against shields'; Hildebrandslied 38 ort widar orte, 'spear-point against spear-point'; Beowulf440 lad wid ladum, 'foe against foe'; Maxims B 53 f. fyrd wid fyrde ... lad wid lade, 'army against army, foe against foe'; Elene 1181 wrad wid wradum, 'enemy against enemy'; Edd. min. 87. 2. 1 bordumk einn vid einn, 'we fought one to one', cf. Hervarar saga 3; Volundarkvida 27. 3 brast rond vid rond, 'shield smashed against shield'.

In this context of urgent action on the battlefield there is a tendency, common to the Indian epics, Greek and Latin, Old Irish, and Serbo-Croatian heroic poetry, to pile up a series of polyptota. In two passages of the Iliad this compound figure is used of a battle line in close order: 13. 130 f. ^pd^avres

Sopv Sovpl, aaKos aixKei npodeXv^vwi 'covering spear with spear, shield with layered shield'; 16. 215 aanls ap' aanls epeiSe, Kopvs Kopvv, avipa S' dvyp, 'shield pressed shield, helmet helmet, and man man'. Tyrtaeus employs similar language where the two front lines are clashing (11. 31-3):

Kal noSa nap noSl Oels Kal ¿n aanlSos danlS' ¿pelaas,

¿v Se Xofiov Te Xofiwi Kal Kvvir/v Kvvirji Kal aTipvov aTipvoji nenXn^ivos.

And planting foot by foot, and pressing shield on shield, bringing crest close to crest and helm to helm and breast to breast.

The Iliadic example at 11. 150, neZol ^ev ne^ovs oXeKov t^evyovTas dvdyKni, Innns S' Innnas, foot-soldiers were destroying foot-soldiers as they fled, and chariot-fighters chariot-fighters, has many striking parallels in the Mahabharata, for example at 4. 31. 8, ratha rathaih samajanmuh padatais ca padatayah, sadibhih sadinas caiva gajais' capi mahagajah, chariots engaged chariots, foot soldiers other foot soldiers, riders attacked riders, elephants elephants.125

In Latin epic there are several examples, beginning with Ennius, Ann. 584 premiturpedepes atque armis arma teruntur, who is no doubt following Greek models rather than a native Italic tradition.126 It is less certain that Classical influence must be invoked to account for Irish instances such as

I mbiat faebra fri faebra I ocus findne fri findne.

When edges shall be against edges I and shields against shields.

Wrist to wrist and palm to palm, tunic to tunic they stand, shield to shield and frame to frame [etc.]127

125 See also 6. 43. 79, 111. 41; 7. 19. 37, 31. 73, 72. 19, 139. 6; 8. 8. 9, 16. 32, 33. 56, 36. 5; 9. 8. 10, 22. 58; 10. 8. 92; Rm. 5. 44. 37. Battles involving chariots were a development of the early second millennium, so this component in the parallel must be due either to independent evolution from a common original pattern or to Mycenaean contact with Indo-Iranian poetry (a possibility I have adverted to elsewhere).

126 See Otto Skutsch, The Annals ofQ. Ennius (Oxford 1985), 724-6.

127 Cath Cairnn Conaill ed. W. Stokes, ZCP 3 (1901), 208; poem in Fled Bricrenn 53. Cf also Tain (I) 2308 dobert fobairt bidbad fo bidbadaib forro co torchratar bond fri bond 7 mede fri mede, 'he made upon them the attack of a foe upon his foes so that they fell, sole of foot to sole of foot, and headless neck to headless neck'.

Nor does it come into question for the verse employed more than once by the guslar Salih Ugljanin:

konj do konja, junak do junaka. horse by horse and hero by hero.128

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