Juxtaposition of opposed terms

In the collocations surveyed above, the words juxtaposed are grammatically parallel and the ordering of syntactic elements in the sentence is not affected. In what follows we shall be dealing largely with juxtapositions of words that have different syntactic roles, especially of nouns or adjectives in different cases. In unmarked discourse they would not necessarily stand side by side. Their juxtaposition, which serves to emphasize the relationship between them, is a stylistic choice; it is part of what makes the thing into a figure.

In the most basic type, two opposed terms—often from the same root, but one with the negative prefix--are set together in different cases. Interaction between immortals and mortals is often so pointed up in the pagan literatures: RV 1. 90. 3 amsta martiyebhiyah, '(you) immortals to (us) mortals', cf. 1. 138. 2; 4. 1. 1, 2. 1; 5. 18. 1; 6. 5. 5i 9. 4; 8. 48. 12; 10. 91. 11, 95. 9; 3. 9. 1

118 Watkins (1995), 262 with references. The phoneme [p] was lost in Celtic, and il- is in fact the Irish cognate of puru-, pouru-, noAv-.

devám mártasah, '(we have chosen you,) mortals a god', cf. 4. 2. 10, 5. 2, 11. 5; 5. 17. 1; Il. 2. 821 dea potwi evvr¡de¡aa, 'goddess bedded with mortal'; 22. 9 dvr¡Tos ewv deov ap potov, '(why do you pursue me,) a mortal (pursuing) a god?'; Hes. Th. 942 ad^vaTov dv^r'; epitaph of Naevius, immortales mortales si foret fas flere, 'if it were proper for immortals to weep for mortals'. To the same category belong RV 1. 33. 5 áyajvano yájvabhih 'the impious (contending) with the pious'; Y. 49. 4 fsuyasu afsuyanto, 'non-stockraisers among stockraisers'; Hes. Op. 490 o^apÓTr¡s npioinp^T^i, 'the late-plougher (might rival) the early-plougher'.

This last example opposes two compounds, both probably coined ad hoc, with the same second element and contrasted fore-elements.119 We may compare the two that appear in a disjunctive phrase at Y. 31. 12, midahvaca va arasvaca va, 'one of false words or one of straight words'. Elsewhere (Op. 471 f.) Hesiod opposes evdr¡poavvr¡ to KaKod^poavv^, and the poet of the Odyssey (22. 374) evepyír¡ to KaKoepyír¡. The phrase quoted above from Y. 49. 4 is continued by yaesqm noit huvarstais vqs duzvarsta, 'through whose not (doing) good works the ill works prevail'.

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