Mie

Vedic

Greek

Nom.

*D(i)yéus

D(i)yáus

Zevs

Voc.

*D(í)yeu

D(í)yaus

Zev

Acc.

*D(i)yëm

D(i)yám (Dívam)

Zyv (AíFa)

Gen.

*Diwós

Divás

AiFos

Dat.

*Diwéi

Divé

AlFeí (Myc. di-we)

Loc.

*Dyéwi/Diwí

Dyávi/Diví

AiFí

Various forms of the name are recognizable in Phrygian Tiy-,1 Thracian Zi-, Diu-, Dias-, etc. (in personal names),2 Messapic Zis or Dis.3 In Latin the simple form is almost restricted to the oblique cases Iouis (older Diouis), etc., but the old nominative is preserved in the name of the specialized deity Diiis Fidius. The usual nominative is supplied by the originally vocative compound Iup(p)iter, 'father (D)ius', but another nominative form, Diespiter, survived beside it in old and poetic Latin.4 Other Italic languages too have agglutinations of the ancient name with 'father'; compare the genitive Dipoteres on a fifth-century bce Sabellian amphora, Marrucinian loues patres

1 Haas (1966), 67, 86, 143; A. Lubotsky, Kadmos 28 (1989), 84 f.; id. in Gusmani et al. (1997), 127; C. Brixhe, ibid. 42-7.

2 Kretschmer (1896), 241; I. Duridanov in Meid (1998), 562.

3 Krahe (1955-64), i. 86; Haas (1962), 16, 171, 177.

4 On the relationship of the forms see K. Strunk in Serta Indogermánica (Festschr. für G. Neumann; Innsbruck 1982), 427-38.

(also genitive), Oscan Dipatir, and Umbrian Iupater and Iuvepatre.5 A similar compound appears also in Illyrian Deipaturos, recorded by Hesychius as a god among the Stymphaioi.6

The name *Dyeus originated as one of a number of words built on the root *di /dei 'give off light' and located in the semantic sphere 'brightness of heaven, heaven, daylight, day'.7 Latin dies 'day' is in origin the same word as Iu(piter), though it developed a quite separate declension, starting from the old accusative diem. The old nominative still survives in the phrase nu-dius tertius 'the day before yesterday', literally 'now (it is) the third day'. The sense of 'day' also appears in Vedic dive-dive 'day by day', Greek evSlos (< *ev-SiFyos) 'in the mid part of the day', Armenian tiw 'bright day', Old Irish die 'day', Welsh heddyw 'today', etc. In some forms relating to 'day' the *di root is extended by -n- instead of -w-, as in Vedic dinam 'day', Latin n(o)undinum, Old Irish noenden 'nine-day period', Old Church Slavonic dim, Lithuanian diena 'day', etc.

The -w- forms are more typically associated with the (bright diurnal) sky. Vedic dyau-, besides being the name of a god, is the common word for 'heaven'. The word occurs once in the Avesta, in reference to Angra Mainyu's falling from heaven (Yt. 3. 13), and we may recall Herodotus' statement (1. 131. 2) that the Persians call the whole circle of the sky 'Zeus'. Greek evSios, evSia refer to a 'good sky', that is, fine, calm weather; they have their counterpart in Church Slavonic duzdi, Russian go^gt (< *dus-dyu-), 'rain'.

Besides *dyew-/*diw- MIE had the adjectival form *deiwo- 'celestial', which, as we saw in the last chapter, was the common term for 'god'. In part of the Indo-European area it may have been used as a synonym of *dyew-, as *deiwos was the source of the Finnish loan-word taivas, Estonian taevas, 'sky', and also of the Lithuanian Dievas, Latvian Dievs, whose role in the mythological songs, as we shall see later, parallels that of the Vedic Dyaus and Greek Zeus.8

5 E. Vetter, Handbuch der italischen Dialekte (Heidelberg 1953), 186, 218; H. Rix in

D. Q. Adams (ed.), Festschrift for Eric P. Hamp, ii (JIESM 25, Washington 1997), 144-9; id. in Per Aspera ad Asteriscos: Studia Indogermanica in honorem Jens Elmegard Rasmussen (Innsbruck 2004), 491-505; Tab. Iguv. IIa. 7, 18, 22, IIb. 24.

6 Hesych. S 521. The Stymphaioi or Tymphaioi were a mountain people of Epirus, on the borders of Thessaly and Macedonia. Aei- perhaps represents *De from a vocative *Die. Cf. Krahe (1955-64), i. 54, 64; Mayer (1957-9), ii. 39; C. de Simone, JIES 4 (1976), 361 f.

7 On the whole complex cf. C. Watkins in Mayrhofer et al. (1974), 101-10; J. Schindler, RE Supp. xv. 999-1001; Haudry (1987), 29 f., 36-8, 40-4; Gamkrelidze-Ivanov (1995), 196, cf. 211;

E. Seebold, HS 104 (1991), 29-45; S. Vanseveren, ibid. 111 (1998), 31-41; B. Schlerath in Meid (1998), 91-3.

8 Cf. von Schroeder (1914-16), i. 528; Haudry (1987), 44. The Germanic *Tlwaz (Norse Tyr, etc.) also goes back to *deiwos (cf. Chapter 3, n. 1). But he does not seem to be the old Sky-god, and it is preferable to suppose that he once had another name, which came to be supplanted by the title 'God'.

But in general we may say that MIE had *dyeus (Dyeus) for 'heaven (Heaven)', whether considered as a cosmic entity or as a divine figure, and *deiwos for 'heavenly one, god'.

In Anatolian the picture is a little different. The thematic stem *deiwo- is not found. The reflex of * dyeus (Hittite sius) does not mean 'heaven' but either 'god' in general or the Sun-god. In an Old Hittite text, the Proclamation of Anitta, there is a deity Sius-summi, 'Our God', who has been shown to be the Sun-god.9 There is also a set of forms with a dental extension, Hittite siwat- 'day', Luwian Tiwat-, Palaic Tiyat-, 'Sun, day', going back to a proto-Anatolian *diwot-.10 The underlying sense of 'heavenly brilliance' is still recognizable; the identification with the sun must be secondary, not inherited from PIE.

The Greek Zeus is king of the gods and the supreme power in the world, his influence extending everywhere and into most spheres of life. There is little reason, however, to think that the Indo-European Dyeus had any such importance. He was the Sky or Day conceived as a divine entity. He was the father of the gods (see below), but not their ruler. In the world of the Rigveda Dyaus has no prominence. Not one of the 1028 hymns in the corpus is addressed to him alone, though six are addressed to him and Earth as a pair. He has no mythical deeds to his credit. He can do what the sky does: he roars and thunders (RV 5. 58. 6; 10. 44. 8, 45. 4, 67. 5); the rain is his seed (1. 100. 3; 5. 17. 3). But he is not even the major storm-god. That is Indra. We shall see in Chapter 6 that the god of thunder and lightning was a distinct figure in the Indo-European pantheon, not identified with the deified Sky.

In Greece this storm-god's functions have been taken over by Zeus. The poetic attributes of Zeus as the storm-god, as well as some other features of his image as exalted ruler, show the influence of Near Eastern poetry and theology.11 But the starting-point was his celestial nature. Most of the formulaic epithets applied to him in epic verse refer to this: cloud-gatherer, thundering on high, god of lightning, delighting in the thunderbolt, he of the dark clouds. In other texts he appears as the source of rain (Zevs op ptos, Zevs vet), and he is equally the god of the unclouded sky (Zevs a'idpios) or of the fair wind (Zevs ovptos).

9 E. Neu, Der Anitta-Text (Studien zu den Bogazkoy-Texten 18, 1974), 116-31; Gurney (1977), 9-11. In later Hittite texts sius, siun- has the general sense 'god', as does Lydian civs, civ-. On the Hittite forms see E. Laroche, JCS 24 (1967), 174-7; C. Watkins (as n. 7), 103-9.

10 Melchert (1994), 209, 214, 231, al. A Luwian theophoric name Tiwazidi occurs on a tablet of the sixteenth century from Inandik: Neu (as n. 9), 54 n. 51. The Urartian Sun-god dSi-u-ini is evidently a loan from Hittite: Gamkrelidze-Ivanov (1995), 793; I. M. Diakonov, JIES 13 (1985), 136 with 171 n. 52.

At Rome Jupiter likewise enjoyed sovereign status, but his original connection with the sky has left traces, especially in the poetic language. Iuppiter is used with some freedom to mean the sky, especially in the phrase sub Ioue 'in the open air', for which the prose equivalent is sub diuo.12

The most obvious characteristic of the sky, apart from its brightness, is its vastness. In the Rigveda 'big, great' (máh) is a frequent epithet of dyáu-'heaven', and in a few places it attaches to Dyaus as a divine figure:13

mahí Dyáuh Prthiví ca na I imám yajñám mimiksatam.

May great Heaven and Earth water this sacrifice for us. (1. 22. 13)

When he had made seed for great Father Heaven. (1. 71. 5)

I will sing a great (song) for great Heaven (and) Earth. (3. 54. 2)

The related word péyas is often applied to Zeus in Homer and elsewhere, as well as to ovpavos, the lexical replacement for 'sky', and to Ouranos as a god (Hes. Th. 176, 208). It is not a standard epithet of gods.

Another Homeric formula is Aids op pos, 'Zeus' rain', that is, the rain that comes from the sky (Il. 5. 91, 11. 493, etc.). There is a parallel formula in the Rigveda, Divó vrstí-, 'Dyaus' rain' (2. 27. 15; 5. 63. 1, 83. 6, 84. 3; 6. 13. 1).14 The Vedic cognate of op pos, abhrám, appears in close association with this phrase at 5. 84. 3, yát te abhrásya vidyúto I Divó vársanti vrstáyah, 'when the rain-cloud's lightnings (and) Dyaus' rains rain on you'. Compare also 9. 87. 8, Divó ná vidyút stanáyanti abhráih, 'like Dyaus' lightning thundering with the rain-clouds', or perhaps 'like the lightning thundering with Dyaus' rain-clouds'.

The genitive Aios can also be attached to the clouds: Il. 2. 146 narpos Aids ¿K vefieÁáwv. A similar collocation occurs in the Latvian mythological songs, but with a slightly different sense, as debes-, the Latvian cognate of Greek véfios, means 'heaven' (though Lithuanian debesis = 'cloud'). There we find the phrase Dieva debesim, 'to God's heaven'.15

Several times in the Iliad there is reference to the house of Zeus, Aids 8ápos or Aids ... 8rn or Srnpa Aios, where the gods regularly gather. There is no corresponding *Divó dáma- in Vedic, but one of the Latvian songs (LD

12 See the passages quoted in the Oxford Latin Dictionary s.v. Iuppiter, §2.

14 Compared by Durante (1976), 97.

15 LD 25804 (Jonval no. 78); cf. 34042 (Jonval no. 130). I owe this and the following comparisons to an uncompleted dissertation by Mr Didier Calin, made available to me by the kindness of Michael Meier-Brügger.

34127, Jonval no. 7) tells of an oak growing from the top of God's house (Dieva nama) that not even the stroke of Perkon (the thunder-god) causes to tremble; nams 'house' is the same word as Sopos. In another song a girl is told that her deceased mother is sitting in God's house (posâ Diva nameyâ) and embroidering (LD 4993 var. 4, Jonval no. 948).

The Vedic Dawn is said to open the doors of heaven (dvârau divah) with her brilliance (RV 1. 48. 15; cf. 113. 4). Several of the Latvian songs m ention the Dieva durvis (door) or namdurvis (house-door). In some cases it is where the souls of the dead go, but one song has the door in a cosmological context analogous to that of the Vedic passage:

A qui les chevaux, à qui la voiture auprès de la porte de la maison de Dieu (pie Dieviya namdurêm)?

Ce sont les chevaux de Dieu, la voiture de Dieu, ils attendent que Saule (the Sun) s'y asseye.16

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