Positive reinforced by negated opposite

Modern politicians often emphasize a concept by adding 'not (the opposite)': 'the many, not the few'; 'the future, not the past'. This is an ancient figure that can be documented especially, though not exclusively, from the Graeco-Aryan traditions.103 I give a selection from many examples.

From Vedic: RV 7. 59. 12 mrtyor muksiya, mämrtät, 'may I free myself from death, not from non-dying'; 8. 62. 12 satyäm .. . tndram stavöma, n,^nrtam, 'let us praise Indra in truth, not in falsehood'; AV 5. 13. 4 ähe mriyäsvs, mil jivih, 'die, snake, do not live'.

From Avestan: Y. 30. 3 äsca hudäghö oros visyätä, nöit duZdäghö, 'and between them well-doers discriminate rightly, not ill-doers'; 46. 8 ya öm hujyötöis pöyat, nöit duzjyötöis, 'such as to keep him from good living, not from bad living'; 48. 5 huxsadrö xsontym, mö no dusxsadrö xsOntö, 'let good rulers rule, do not let bad rulers rule us'.

From Old Persian: DB iv 44 hasiyam, naiy duruxtam, 'true, not false'; DNb 7 röstam daustö amiy, mida naiy daustö amiy, 'I am a friend of right, I am not a friend of wrong'.

From Greek: Hes. Th. 551 yvw p ovS' ^yvoi^ae SoAov, 'he recognized the trick and did not fail to recognize it'; II. 1. 416 ¡ivwdd nep, ov ti ¡dAa 'for a short time, not for very long'; 5. 816 ipew enos ovS' iniKevaw, 'I will say my word and not withhold it'.

In an old Dutch juridical formula: ic ghebiede lust ende ic verbiede onlust, 'I demand attention, and I forbid inattention'. From an Old Irish prayer: dö-m-thi äes, ni-m-thi bäs, 'may life come to me, may death not come to me'. From a Gaelic song: 'I lie down with God, and God will lie down with me; I will not lie down with Satan, nor shall Satan lie down with me.'104

In certain cases the instinct to create a figure of this type has provoked the coining of an irregular negative substantive: Y. 31. 10 at hö ayä fravarota vöström .. . nöit, Mazdö, avastryö .. . humorotöis baxstö, 'of these two (the cow) chose the herdsman .. . The non-herdsman, Wise One, .. . enjoys no good regard'; 31. 17 vldvä vödusö mraotö, ma ovödvä aipi dobavayat, 'let the knowing one speak to the knowing, let the unknowing delude no longer'; Hes. Op. 355 swt^i ¡lev TIS e'SwKev, dSwTrji S' ov Tis e'SwKev, 'to the giver one gives, to the non-giver none gives'.

103 H. Humbach, MSS 14 (1959), 23-33; Gonda (1959), 87-108; Schmitt (1967), 266-9; Campanile (1977), 104-7.

104 Dutch formula adduced by E. Schwyzer, Zeitschrift für Indologie und Iranistik 7 (1929), 105; Irish text edited by Campanile, SSL 6 (1966), 161, 10 f.; Gaelic song in Carmichael (1928-59), i. 80 f.

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