Memorygrabber Family History Workbook

Memorygrabber Downloadable Life Story Workbook

With The Journal and Memorygrabber created by DavidRM Software, you can quickly and easily create a memoir for yourself, your family, and future generations. Memorygrabber is a 321 page downloadable life story workbook. It is ideal for writing an autobiography or for getting an aging parent or grandparent to finally open up and get those cherished family stories preserved for the ages. This workbook will ask questions that will make you dig deep. Memorygrabber quickly installs itself in The Journal and arms you with an arsenal of memory grabbing questions, topics, activities, games, resources, lists-to-create and more! Memorygrabber will walk you through, step by step, and show you how to build your life timeline, and even conduct family history interviews with parents, grandparents and others. Memorygrabber is also a virtual self-interview kit designed for you to tell your story when you just don't feel like writing or typing. For some, it is easier to tell the story, instead of writing it. So it's up to you how you use this versatile package. More here...

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George Oppen 19081984

Critics differ on whether Oppen's later career reflects a synthesis of his political and artistic concerns, or whether it acknowledged that neither could finally bring fundamental change. But in returning so successfully to verse, Oppen provided an important link for younger poets to the work of Williams and Pound, and the restraint, clarity, craftsmanship, and emphasis upon essentials in his work remain an important influence on many poets. His Selected Letters (1990) provide an invaluable record of objectivism and its influence also valuable is Mary Oppen's biography of the couple's relationship and political activities, Meaning A Life An Autobiography (1978).

Ferlinghetti Lawrence 161

Hejinian's book-length poem My Life (1987) became one of the most successful examples of this. This lengthy poem, in which each stanza corresponds to a year of the poet's life, complicates poetic autobiography's reliance on narrative and lyrical self-knowledge by stressing the physicality, the patterning, and the unreliability of memory. At the same time this attention to the sensuality of memory, suggested in repeated phrases, such as a pause, a rose, something on paper, enriches what this form can be assumed to contain. The scrutiny given in such experimental writing to the politics of representations of women in a variety of social and historical contexts means that, despite its controversial relationship to many of the assumptions about second-wave feminist poetry, it remains committed to many of aims of the women's movement as they have developed during the past 30 years.

The Biographical Fallacy

Two exhibits will demonstrate the violence done to these texts when they are approached as versified autobiography. The first, 'Pusan Liberty', by the neglected Beat writer William Wantling, is one of the finest English-language poems to come out of the Korean conflict, comparable to the best First World War poetry in its perception of contending soldiers as alike victims of their respective political and military masters. The poem offers a clear example of the way in which Beat literature's defining note of alienated authenticity is artistically constructed rather than being the result of the author vomiting personal experience direct upon the page. (A comparison might be made with Stephen Crane's classic war novel The Red Badge of Courage, whose central character, Henry Fleming, remains nameless for most of the story's duration, being referred to simply as 'the youth'.) This is not just a matter of Wantling presenting his experiences as representative so that the subjective or...

New York Albert and Charles Boni 1914

Alfred Kreymborg, in his Troubadour An Autobiography (1925), recounts the story of how the manuscript of Des Imagistes turned up at his door in 1913, mailed from London by Pound with instructions to set this up just as it stands (p. 204). Kreymborg, who had been involved with an earlier avantgarde journal in New York, was in the process of starting a new venture, The Glebe, in the summer artists' colony of Grantwood, New Jersey, with painters Man Ray and Samuel Halpert. Kreymborg had asked John Cournos in London if he could hunt up material, and Cournos had spoken to Pound. A secondhand printing press donated by Ray's employer arrived shortly after the manuscript, but the press was damaged upon delivery and Kreymborg went in search of printers in New York. He eventually teamed up with Albert and Charles Boni, proprietors of the Washington Square bookshop, who agreed to finance the journal and allow Kreymborg to edit it. The Bonis published the volume in February 1914 as the second...

From The Authors of the Town

First, let me view what noxious nonsense reigns, While yet I loiter on prosaic plains. If pens impartial active annals trace, Others, with secret hist'ry, truth deface Views, and reviews, and wild memoirs appear, And slander darkens each recorded year. Each Prince's death to poison they apply, No Royal Mortals sure by nature die, Fav'rites or kindred artful deaths create, A father, brother, son, or wife is fate. In a past reign was formed a secret league, Some ring, or letter, now reveals th'intrigue A certain Earl a certain Queen enjoys,

Tillinghast Richard 1940

Richard Tillinghast's poetry is infused with a strong regard for history and autobiography. In many of his poems, Tillinghast discovers personal history through his extensive travels. And a major theme found in his poetry is the pervasive awareness of life's impermanence He writes out of a sense of loss in part, but reclamation also, Wyatt Prunty has commented (968).

Twentieth Century American Poetry and Other Arts

Stieglitz's journals Camera Work and 291 were forerunners of a number of journals that appeared around the years of the First World War and which emphasized the mix of the arts, with reproductions of paintings, photographs, and drawings alongside essays, stories, and poems. Sometimes photographs of machines were included in the mix, as in The Soil, which included in its pages photographs of steam engines, suggesting that such engineering feats, like the poems and prose it published, were all modern products of American skill and imagination. Alfred Kreymborg (1883-1966), little remembered for his poetry now, was an important bridge between the arts in New York. He knew many visual artists, started a journal promoting modern music, and was the contact for Ezra Pound to send over a sheaf of imagist poems from London for publication. Kreymborg's impressionistic autobiography, Troubadour (1925), is a valuable record of the iconoclastic atmosphere and creative ferment of the time. An even...

Continuities and Nationality in Twentieth Century American Poetry

What these cases of writers who lived abroad foreground is the problem of literary nationality, one that goes beyond the papers of citizenship that a particular writer holds, and involves the tradition in which the writer feels that he or she is writing - or the tradition in which the judgment of history categorizes the particular writer. For some critics Eliot's Americanness is demonstrated by his work's innovation, its search for physical and spiritual roots, and a moral earnestness associated with sexual disgust. Spiritual autobiography, one category in which Eliot's work could be placed, was an established genre in seventeenth-century New England. Eliot's concern with tradition, some would say, is a response to a cultural inheritance that emphasizes its differences from the past, a culture notorious for having little sense of history, even of its own.

Kostelanetz Richard 1940

Kostelanetz, Richard. Person of Letters in the Contemporary World. In Contemporary Authors Autobiography Series. Vol. 8. Detroit Gale Research, 1988, pp. 179-199. Parker, Peter, ed. Richard Kostelanetz. In The Reader's Guide to Twentieth-Century Writing. New York Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 410. mission to tackle emotionally charged or difficult topics (74). According to her, W H. auden exerted an intellectual and visceral influence both in terms of rhyme and scansion, and his ability to compress those gifts into images, to make a metaphor of a thought (197-198). Over time Kumin developed a looser music distinctively her own, employing slant rhyme, nonce forms, and a colloquial diction. Her work incorporates autobiography even so, in her poems, the self is not the focus, but a lens through which to view the world. Accordingly she has never been associated with confessional poetry, despite her close association with Anne sexton, a poet...

The Wife of Baths Prologue and Tale1

The Wife's tale illustrates some of the claims she makes in her prologue about women's right to be sovereign (to rule) over men. While the Wife's prologue draws on contemporary history and her own life story, her tale transports us to a distant, largely fictional world of chivalric romance. Although the Wife at one point interrupts her fairy tale to continue the authority-citing debate of the prologue, her argument is mostly carried by a plot that combines elements from two traditional stories found in many European languages that of a knight and a loathlv lady and that of a man whose life depends on his being able to answer a certain question.

Montagu Lady Mary Wortley

Montagu's husband agreed to divorce her if she would leave England. She complied, although she found painful the separation from her daughter, Lady Bute, and the grandchildren she would not meet for years. Novels such as one by John Cleland, author of Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure, better known as Fanny Hill, featured a false portrayal of Montagu. Titling his novel Memoirs of a Coxcomb, Cleland featured as hero Lady Bell Tavers, a corrupt woman of fashion clearly modeled on Montagu.

Paris Contact Publishing Company 1923

Williams begins the book acknowledging that he is likely to have few readers If anything of moment results - so much the better. And so much the more likely will it be that no one will want to see it. Few did see it. When Ezra Pound, always an enthusiastic supporter of Williams's work, wanted to write an essay on his poetry a few years later, he had to ask his friend for a copy of the book he had not seen it. Years later McAlmon lamented in his autobiography that many Contact books were impounded at US Customs and received very little circulation in the US or Europe.

Rebellion in the Fifties and Sixties The Two Anthologies

Allen's anthology divided its new American poets into five categories, and although the division was inevitably reductive and somewhat arbitrary, it provided a useful map of one set of contemporary trends in American poetry and proved very influential in later criticism and histories. In addition, it gave the first national exposure to a number of emerging writers. Allen was assisted in his selection and planning, as he acknowledged, by Charles Olson. Olson was a tireless theorizer of open, organic form, and for a time principal of the radical Black Mountain College. The poets associated with the school and or its journal, including Olson himself, Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan, and Denise Levertov, formed one of Allen's groupings. Olson's essay Projective Verse was an important statement of their principles (in a gesture that recognized some of the continuities, William Carlos Williams had quoted from it and discussed it in his 1951 Autobiography). Another of Allen's groups was the...

Williams William Carlos

(1883-1963) Although he was deemed a poets' poet for most of his life, William Carlos Williams is today considered to be one of the most important modernist writers (see modernism). He employed a large variety of forms and genres (novels, short stories, essays, autobiography, prose poems, long poems, and plays), but he is best known for his short free verse poems dealing with mundane objects in a language that was everyday, yet highly structured (see prosody and free verse). While heavily influenced by European movements especially cubism, surrealism, and dadaism he nevertheless always insisted on the necessity of a genuinely American poetry, based on the American idiom and on contact with the immediate experience of local life and surroundings (see EUROPEAN poetic influences). He insisted that p lace is the only universal (Axioms 175) and distanced himself from the cosmopolitanism of the expatriates Ezra pound and T. S. eliot. Instead he looked for role models in modernist American...

Canterbury Tales The Overview

The Canterbury Tales features a variety of genres FABLIAU, BEAST FABLE, ROMANCE, HAGIOGRAPHY, Breton lai (lay), sermon, fable, confession, autobiography, Virgin miracle, and satire among others. For his sources and inspiration, Chaucer turned to a variety of texts, from Classical to contemporary. Major analogues for the Tales as a whole include Ovid's Metamorphoses, Boccaccio's Decameron, Boethius's The Consolation of Philosophy, John Bromyard's Summa praedicantium, Dante's Divine Comedy, The Distichs of Cato, John Gow-er's Confessio Amantis, St. Jerome's Adversus Jovinia-num, and the Roman de la Rose, as well as the Bible. Scholars continue to debate whether or not Chaucer had these in front of him as he wrote or recalled hearing or reading parts of these texts. As well, many Tales have unique sources, and some appear to be Chaucer's own invention.

The appearance of Ireland

Callanan received scant attention in his time and just a fraction more afterwards Moore, during his life, received the adulation of Europe, but is remembered for only a small part of his work however, James Clarence Mangan has perhaps received more critical attention than any other nineteenth-century Irish poet with the exception of Yeats. For his patriotic poems he has received the same hagiographic treatment as Moore 35 for the incoherence of his work, he has been characterised offering resistance to both nationalist and imperialist literary forces 36 for his generally louche lifestyle and grotesqueries, he has been figured as a poete maudit 37 for one young poet he becomes a kind of Virgil figure who reveals a hidden Dublin 38 a penny dreadful entitled The Mangan Inheritance has one of his descendants indulging in sex with a girl-child and another in incest 39 one theory suggests that he is the model for the eponymous hero of Herman Melville's 'Bartleby the Scrivener'.40 He wrote a...

Gray The Marketplace And The Masculine Poet

The tale of Gray's capture that Mercury relates was based on an incident that various Cambridge men exaggerated and embellished undergraduates out for a good time supposedly alarmed the poet (who indeed had a fear of fire) in his rooms at Peterhouse College. In some versions of the story, Gray responded to their warnings of fire by appearing at the window in a delicate white night cap in others, he descended by means of his ladder (a rope soft as the silky cords by which Romeo ascended to his Juliet) into a tub of water.2 All versions, however, strongly hint at the poet's effeminacy these tales were considered so damaging to Gray's reputation that Horace Walpole warned William Mason to omit the event of Gray's removal from Peterhouse to Pembroke College in his memoirs of the poet's life.3 Yet despite the precautions of Gray's friends, this incident was seen as illustrative of Gray's character. England's greatest lyric poet of that period was ridiculed as a butterfly too feminine to...

Johnson James Weldon 18711938

Introduction to The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man, by James Weldon Johnson. 1912. Reprint, New York Hill and Wang, 1960, pp. v-ix. DuBois, W E. B. The Sorrow Songs. In The Souls of Black Folk, by DuBois. 1903. Reprint, New York Penquin Books, 1989, pp. 204-216. Johnson, James Weldon. The Book of American Negro Poetry.

Romantic poetry and antiquity

There is of course nothing new in Peacock's attack The Dunciad Variorum (1729) and the Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus (1741) set the tone in the eighteenth century for satirizing the enervated taste of antiquarians and connoisseurs, and this mockery was carried through into the engravings of Hogarth and Gillray. But there is something new in Peacock's criticism of the ubiquity of the antique and the arcane. Rather than disappearing before the advance of science and the march of mind, ancient esoteric mysteries seemed to have taken up permanent residence in the arts Burke was quick to recognize that the British landscape was dotted with sublime monuments - whether ruined abbeys and monasteries (victims of the Reformation) or megaliths (often called ancient cathedrals). Eighteenth-century antiquarians such as William Stukeley had already noticed that the country seemed to be laced with the physical traces of these other, earlier, more mysterious, perhaps even more terrible Britains, and...

Armantrout Rae 1947 Rae Arman

Armantrout was born in Vallejo, California, and grew up in San Diego. In 1989 she received a California Arts Council Fellowship and in 1993 the Fund for Poetry Award. She has coordinated the New Writing series at the University of California at San Diego and coedited the Archive Newsletter. Armantrout has published eight collections of poetry and an autobiography, True (1998).

William Carlos Williams 18831963

With the publication of the first four books of Paterson Williams's poetry began to receive more attention, including a National Book Award in 1950. Between 1949 and 1951 Williams's publications included two volumes of Paterson, his Selected Poems, two volumes of collected poetry, his Autobiography, and a book of short stories. Unhappy with the marketing of his books by New Directions, Williams shifted to commercial publisher Random House in 1950 (he returned to New Directions by the end of the decade). But in 1951 he suffered the first of a number of debilitating strokes and had to retire from his medical practice. He was unable to take up an appointment as Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, initially because of health problems and then because of questions raised about his political leanings, particularly in the 1930s. The poems in his next two volumes, The Desert Music and Journey to Love, are poems of memory and reflection, written in a long triadic line that...

New York Harcourt Brace 1922

Claude McKay's 1922 Harlem Shadows was a pioneer volume of the 1920s Harlem Renaissance, appearing before the first books by Jean Toomer, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, and Sterling Brown. When he appeared prominently in Alain Locke's important anthology The New Negro in 1925, McKay was a good deal older than most of the other poets represented. And yet the 1922 volume is a curious one to hold such a position in the vanguard. McKay's patrons back in his native Jamaica, where he published his first two volumes of verse, and in New York, were white, and Harlem shadows was published by a white publisher. McKay had spent much of the two years prior to its publication in London, and he left the United States within months of its appearance and did not return for 12 years. He published no further books of poetry, his interests turning to prose fiction, essays, and autobiography. Harlem Shadows is not formally innovative, as the work of Toomer and Hughes is, and relatively few of its poems...

Di Prima Diane

Digges was born and raised in Jefferson, Missouri. Her first book, Vesper Sparrows (1986), received the Delmore Schwartz Memorial Prize in 1987. Her third book, Rough Music (1995), won the Kingsly-Tufts Prize in 1996. Besides her poetry, Digges has translated the work of Cuban poet Maria Elena Cruz Varela and is the author of two memoirs, Fugitive Spring (1992) and The Stardust Lounge (2001). She has also been awarded a number of fellowships.

Doty Mark

DOTY, MARK (1953- ) Mark Doty has written openly and passionately about being gay and about the personal grief he has felt in the AIDS epidemic, but his concerns and sensibility have never been confined by identity politics or by championing a particular group or movement, although such a poem as Homo Does Not Inherit (1995) is an unflinching indictment of religious homophobia. Like Marianne moore, an important influence, he responds to the natural world with a precision and discrimination that may include allegory or autobiography. In Difference, from My Alexandria, a volume selected for the 1993 National Poetry Series, he writes about a jellyfish that looks like a plastic purse swallowing itself, a description as odd and accurate as any of Moore's metaphors. Moreover his call at the end of the poem to look unfettered at alien grace suggests the moral, aesthetic, and personal terms that underlie Moore's poems. Nevertheless Doty's work contains sinuousness, a consolation, even a...

Trivialization

Critics have trivialized Rostopchina's poetry by denying it the status of art. As women poets have frequently been considered incapable of creating personae (see chapter 2), so Rostopchina's critics often describe her poetry as a diary, assuming that every time she uses the first person or even the third person in a work she refers directly to herself. Thus the introductory essay to a 1986 collection of Rostopchina's work is titled Evdokiia Rostopchina's Lyric Diary.37 Critics do not similarly deny the status of artist to men poets and writers who use autobiography in their works or who dramatize their lives in poetry (Pushkin, Lermontov, Blok, Thomas Wolfe, James Joyce).38 critic quotes her letter to Viazemsky concerning the 1856 edition of her works These are leaves from the secret diary of my heart, which up to this time were hidden and not shown to anyone (Ranchin, editor's introduction, 9). Still another also proves Rostopchina's novel in verse, Dnevnik devushki, to be in fact an...

Charles Olson

Olson published volumes of poems regularly, mainly with small presses, from the late 1940s on, but he devoted much of his later career to his long sequence Maximus, dedicated to Creeley, which he began in 1950 as a series of letters to Vincent Ferrini about a proposed new journal. Sections 1-10 appeared in 1953, followed by 11-22 in 1956, a further volume in 1968, and a posthumous volume in 1975. Like Pound's Cantos, the poem accumulates meaning through juxtaposition of history, allusion, and autobiography, and, like Williams's Paterson, Maximus is an inclusive figure who represents, as well as place, a man composing, and the poem as process and discovery. It begins

Amiri Baraka b 1934

Baraka increasingly came to see the division as a racial one. This racial division became explicit in his award-winning off-Broadway play Dutchman (1964), the success of which brought him to national attention. The play contains a passionate claim by its leading black character that black artistic expression is a way of channeling the murderous rage that would otherwise be directed by blacks against whites. The speaker, Clay, his own anger revealed by his speech, is himself then murdered as a dangerous threat to the system of white power. Baraka writes in The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones Amiri Baraka (1984) that with the success of Dutchman he received many offers to work for the white media. In his view such co-opting was another way in which radical black voices were potentially silenced. The Slave (1964) is another of his important plays.

Audre Lorde 19341992

Lorde's poetry is always on one level about survival, but it became an even more explicit theme when she was diagnosed with breast cancer in the late 1970s. She writes on her illness and surgery in The Cancer Journals (1980). Six years later she was diagnosed with liver cancer, which she discussed in the title essay of her book A Burst of Light (1988). She died of cancer in 1992. Other prose works are Zami A New Spelling of My Name (1982), which combines autobiography, history, and myth, and which Lorde termed a biomythography, Sister Outsider Essays and Speeches (1984), and A Burst of Light.

Chudleigh Lady Mary

Thomas and Martha Sansom published some dedicatory verses to Chudleigh, and short biographies appeared in Ballard's Memoirs (1752), Shiells's Lives of the Poets (1753), and Poems by Eminent Ladies (1755). Renewed interest in Chudleigh arose among feminist critics in the mid-20th century, leading to the anthologizing of her poems and their abundant inclusion on electronic sites. Original manuscripts exist in Harvard University's Houghton Library and in the Huntington Library in San Marino, California.

Anthologies

Quatrains have been composed by innumerable poets, both under their own name and anonymously. To compile an inventory of this huge output one would have to go beyond the divans and other collections devoted to a single author, and examine the anthologies of Persian poetry. Throughout the centuries, anthologies have been compiled in various forms.26 A special category among these works are the tazkiras ('Memoirs') which also contain information on the lives of the poets. From this vast

John Goodridge

The Thresher's Labour (1730) and The Woman's Labour (1739) form such a self-evidently interesting and accessible pair of poems for comparative study that in recent years they have become a familiar double-act in eighteenth-century studies, both as a topic in undergraduate courses and as an element in the scholarly recovery of a self-taught, laboring-class tradition in eighteenth-century poetry. Stephen Duck's poem had often been touched on by literary historians as an eighteenth-century curiosity, as had his rags-to-riches though ultimately tragic life story, which was the subject of a respectable academic biography (Davis 1926). Mary Collier's poem, reprinted in the 1760s and the 1820s, was again rediscovered in the wake of 1960s feminism. The two poems were yoked together in two editions in the 1980s (Ferguson 1985 Thompson and Sugden 1989 the latter is quoted in the present essay), and they have been discussed in comparative terms ever since. There are good reasons for this. The...

HD Hilda Doolittle

What for many readers and critics is a remarkable creative renaissance began when H.D. spent the years of the Second World War in London. At this time she wrote a memoir, Tribute to Freud, of the figure who became both mentor and male antagonist to her, and the autobiographical prose work The Gift (1941-3) which concerns her family history and Moravian origins. But most significant is the Trilogy (1942-4), a long poem consisting of The Walls Do Not Fall, Tribute to the Angels, and The Flowering of the Rod. Here the trials of the London Blitz are paralleled to the history of ancient Egypt, while the poem synthesizes the Judaeo-Christian tradition and the Egyptian and Greek pagan traditions in its assertion of faith that love and hope will bring resurrection out of the ruins. In the poem's final lines the Magi present their gifts in acknowledgment of this hope.

Hugh Witemeyer

In September 1908 the young American poet, John Gould Fletcher (1886-1950), left Harvard University for Europe. In his autobiography, Life Is My Song (1937), Fletcher explains the reasons for his pilgrimage Fletcher, John Gould (1937). Life Is My Song The Autobiography of John Gould Fletcher. New York Farrar and Rinehart. Williams, William Carlos (1951). The Autobiography of William Carlos Williams. New York Random House.

Beginnings

Subcontinental writing in English is now a literature in the comprehensive sense of the term, but it started at the end of the eighteenth century without a core of poetry, narrative fiction or drama. Among its inaugural texts, Dean Mahomet's Travels (1794) was a combination of autobiography, professional memoir and cultural exposition in the form of an epistolary travel-narrative C. V. Boriah's 'Account of the Jains' (completed in 1803, but published posthumously in 1809) was an ethnographic field-report based on an oral history and Rammohun Roy's multiform oeuvre, produced between 1817 and 1833, consisted of works of journalism, social and political criti

Lisa M Steinman

As Williams would write in his Autobiography, 'Eliot returned us to the classroom' (Williams, 1951, p. 174). Spring and All is unequivocal about 'the academic tapeworm that hoard s its excrementa in books' (CP, p. 215), parodied in Williams's proclamation that the re-creation of the world 'begins to near a new day. (More of this in Chapter XIX)' (CP, p. 181), or his image of his book as 'notes jotted down in the midst of the action, under distracting circumstance to remind him self (see p. 177, paragraph 6) of the truth' (CP, p. 186). The scholarly notes clearly defer and interrupt the very renewal of which the book speaks, making truth always memory or pro-lepsis, but never present. Williams's spring is thus deliberately set against Eliot's April. By implication, Spring and All will not look to the past, but will be a New World presence, albeit one Williams suggests will not be warmly received. structure of Spring and All - its mixture of prose and poetry - as an enactment of just...

Gendered modernism

In this chapter I focus on two main groupings of women poets the traditionalists, here represented by Millay, and the experimental modernists (Lowell, H. D., and Moore). While the experimentalists engaged in formal and linguistic innovation rivalling and at times exceeding that of their male counterparts, the traditionalists made use of more conventional forms such as the sonnet, within which they could explore their personal experiences as well as their gendered position in society. Alicia Ostriker has contrasted these two distinct styles, arguing that the first group wrote a formally innovative and intellectually assertive poetry that avoids direct forms of autobiography, while the second group wrote in a manner that is an extension and refinement of the traditional lyric style, concentrating their poems on states of intense personal feeling.1

Brooks

These themes of protest and of social and racial oppression in Brooks's poetry up to 1967 intensified in her work following what she came to see as a defining moment in her career that occurred in that year. When attending the Second Fisk University Black Writers' Conference she was impressed with the activism of many of the participants, and particularly with the work of Amiri Baraka (then known as LeRoi Jones). In her first volume of autobiography she recalled, Until 1967 my own blackness did not confront me with a shrill spelling of itself. Following this conference Brooks began active community work with the Chicago wing of the Black Arts movement. She founded a poetry workshop for young black writers, and promoted the work of black writers to the wider community. She left her commercial publisher, Harper & Row following In the Mecca (1968), and began publishing with small minority-owned presses. In 1981, with Primer for Blacks, she began to publish her own work. Brooks's two...

Stein Gertrude 475

In the 1920s and 1930s, Stein had a reputation as an extraordinary conversationalist and as a cubist writer visiting her and Toklas at 27 Rue de Fleurus, became a rite of passage for writers, painters, and American tourists. Stein was thus already well known when The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933), a fanciful memoir of the Paris art world, made her a popular writer. In 1934 Stein returned to the United States for the first time in 30 years to lecture and tour. In 1929 Alice and Gertrude had begun self-publishing under their own imprint, Plain Edition. Four titles appeared, including How to Write (1931). The success of Autobiography, however, finally brought a long-term contract from Random House and interest from other American publishers so that work began to appear regularly. In this late period some of the books are Lectures in America (1935), The Geographical History of America (1936), Everybody's Autobiography (1937), and Ida (1941). As Stein predicted in her lecture...

Rita Dove b 1952

Rita Dove's poetry encompasses historical events, mythic contexts, and deeply personal poems about her immediate and past family history. The connection is that the poems seek to understand history through the lives of individuals, seeing the points of view, dreams, and injustices that make up individual lives and the culture that surrounds them, in a poetry that is finally about tolerance and patience, the importance of language, understanding, and the responsibility of the poet to help stress that importance and foster that understanding. In writing such poetry, for Dove, the truth of memory -how something is recalled or imagined - can be as valid or more so than the truth of mere fact.

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