Which individual freedom and individual talent can assert itself. However, roles of language differ widely in how generous the latitude is it is useful to draw a distinction here between liberal roles, in which the pressure to linguistic conformity is weak, and strict roles, in which it is strong. The language of legal documents and the language of religious observance are the clearest examples of strictness in this special sense. In these roles, not only is a certain usage strictly insisted on, but often also a certain exact form of wording. Representatives of the opposite tendency are the roles of feature journalism, fiction writing, and general educational writing, in which good linguistic performance is measured not so much by one's ability to use the conventions properly, as by one's ability to escape from the conventions altogether. In these liberal roles, originality counts in the writer's favour the conventions on the other hand, are considered marks of unoriginality, and are...
The son of a butcher, Defoe was trained for the Presbyterian ministry but instead established himself as a merchant in his early twenties. Declaring bankruptcy in 1692, Defoe was never able to completely free himself of creditors the rest of his life. He was imprisoned for his 1702 satire, The Shortest Way With Dissenters, and was bailed out by a political friend. Defoe, considered by some the father of modern journalism, published, edited, and wrote for some 26 periodicals during his lifetime. Not until his later life did he take to writing novels, his Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1719) being published not as a novel but an alleged memoir of a shipwrecked man. Moll Flanders (1722) and A Journal of the Plague Year (1722) cemented his reputation as a quasi-historical writer with a penchant for physical details.
Although best known for his prose writing, the two volumes of poetry that he published around the turn of the century ridiculed conventional religious piety, condemned the material values of the age, and used a direct, prosaic form of address borrowed from his fiction writing and from journalism.
Additional editing projects by Barbauld included six volumes of letters by Samuel Richardson (1804), the 50 volumes of The British Novelists (1810), and a collection of works for young women readers titled The Female Speaker (1811). A harsh 1812 review of Eighteen Hundred and Eleven by J. W. Croker in the Quarterly Review virtually ended her popular career. Barbauld remained busy writing fiction reviews for the Monthly Review until 1815. Her literary acquaintances by then included poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey and the poet and novelist Sir Walter Scott.
Gwendolyn Bennett, Helene Johnson, Angelina Weld Grimke, and James Weldon Johnson. Many leading fiction writers also emerged during this period, including Zora Neale Hurston, Rudolph Fisher, Jessie Redmond Fauset, Nella Larsen, and Wallace Thurman. Moreover many of the poets of this era also wrote fiction. The Harlem Renaissance also included the creative works produced by brilliantly talented, prolific dancers, musicians, visual artists, and photographers.
The poets most often associated with the Black Arts movement include Baraka, Sonia sanchez, Etheridge knight, Nikki GIOVANNI, Larry Neal, Mari Evans, Don L. Lee (now known as Haki MADHUBUTI), Carolyn Rodgers, Marvin X, Jayne cortez, Askia Toure, and June Jordan. A number of important African-American playwrights, fiction writers, and scholars also made significant contributions to the Black Arts movement, creatively as well as philosophically and theoretically, by defining and outlining the objectives and criteria of the movement and its black aesthetic.
Fugitives, a group of poets from Nashville, Tennessee, led the vanguard for modernist verse in the South in the 1920s (see MODERNISM). In contrast to the IMAGIST movement centered in England, the Fugitives emphasized traditional poetic forms and techniques, and their poems developed intellectual and moral themes focusing on an individual's relationship to society and to the natural world. The Fugitive group met relatively briefly, from the end of World War I to the late 1920s, and they published a journal of verse, the Fugitive, for only three years (1922-25). As poets, fiction writers, social critics, and literary theorists, however, the leading members of the group John Crowe ransom, Allen tate, Donald DAVIDSON, and Robert Penn warren have had an enormous impact on modern literature.