Satyre Against Mankind A John

Wilmot, second earl of Rochester (1680) Known for his focus on sexual matters in his poetry, John Wilmot, 2nd earl of Rochester, also wrote the libertine-style satire A Satyre against Mankind, considered among his highest achievements. Probably written around 1675, the poem has among its sources works on rationality by Hobbes and Montaigne. The copy later published and now best known appeared in its basic version in the 1680 Poems on Several Occasions, presently housed in the Huntington...

Bibliography

Quests of Difference Reading Pope's Poems. Lexington university of Kentucky Press, 1986. Cooksey, Thomas L. Pope, Eloisa, Milton A Possible Source. Notes and Queries 51, no. 1 (March 2004) 40-41. Damrosch, Leopold, Jr. The Imaginative World of Alexander Pope. Berkeley University of California Press, 1987. Fabricant, Carole. Defining Self and Others Pope and Eighteenth-Century Gender Ideology. Criticism 39, no. 4 (fall 1997) 503-526. Ferguson, Rebecca. The Unbalanced Mind...

On My First Son Figurative Language

Ben Jonson Public Poet and Private Man. New ON MY FIRST SON Ben Jonson (1616) As does another of Ben Jonson's elegies, On My First Daughter, On My First Son draws its power from the stark purity of Jonson's emotions expressed with a simple clarity found in much of his work. The child died in 1604 of the plague, and Jonson noted he had a vision of the boy while in Paris with his mentor and friend William Camden at the time of young Benjamin's death. In his vision the boy had a...

You Daft Dimbo Figurative Language

The third stanza offers more of the same negative tone, emphasizing the fact that Mankind but scanty pleasure glean from the barren landscape. Concluding the first section of the poem, which sets the scene, Fergusson takes his reader in the fourth stanza into Edinburgh in a delightful contrast to the hostile external environment. The speaker salutes Auld Reikie as the canty hole, which offers a snug and warm escape in its pubs to humans weary of winter. As the fifth stanza moves into the poem's...

Figurative Language Used In To Cupid By Joanna Bailli

Bacon, sir Francis 205, 315 Baillie, Joanna 31, 56 Baillie, Lady Grisell 29 ballad 28-29, 122, 260 by chatterton (Thomas) 5-6 by collins (William) 369 complaint in 75 by cowper (William) 282 by Gay (John) 370, 371 by Lovelace (Richard) 29 by suckling (sir John) 28-30, 459 Ballad from Newgate (Askewe) 28 Ballad upon a Wedding, A (suckling) 28-29, 29-30, 385 Barash, carol 184 Barbauld, Anna Laetitia Aikin 30-31 347-349 To the Poor 415-416 Washing-Day 31,

ELEGY to the memory of an

UNFORTUNATE LADY Alexander Pope (1717) Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady is considered, along with Eloisa TO Abelard, one of the two greatest lyric poems written by Alexander Pope. He deals ostensibly with the subject of a young woman, dead possibly by her own hand, whom no one mourns. However, the ghost he supposedly sees acts only as the triggering topic, while the elegy's true topic is the mortality that remains the heritage of all humans, even, or perhaps more especially, poets who...

John Anderson My Jo Robert Burns

(1789) John Anderson, My Jo has been called one of the most moving of all love poems recorded by the Scottish poet Robert Burns. The song had existed in the oral tradition for some time before Burns committed it to writing. Its appealing voice is that of an elderly woman expressing her love for her equally aged jo, or sweetheart. Its appeal in two brief eight-line stanzas lies in its simplicity. Transparent in its heartfelt expression, nothing in the poem confuses the reader except perhaps for...

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Cadenus and Vanessa (Swift) 389 Caesar, Sir Julius 223 Calantha's Dirge (Ford) 51-52, 120, 182, 319 Caldwell, Tanya 103 Camden, William 235, 240, 302, 419-420 Campion, Thomas, Observations in the Art of English Poesie 288 Candlemas Eve (Herrick) 14 Canonization, The (Donne) 52-54, 118, 268 Cantenac, Jean Benech de 112 canto 54 Careless Good Fellow, The (Oldham) 409 Carew, Thomas 54-55, 60 Ask Me No More Where Jove Bestows 22-23, 55 Celia Singing 55, 63-64 A Cruel Mistress 55, 93-94 Disdaine...

Rochester John Wilmot Second Earl Of 16481680 John Wilmot

Was born near Woodstock, the son of a loyal Royalist father and a mother who was a Puritan sympathizer. The first earl of Rochester, reputedly a hard drinker, had remained devoted to Charles II in exile. He earned his title in 1652 for meritorious service to Charles II. The younger Wilmot lost his father in 1658 as the first earl died abroad, never to enjoy the Restoration. Wilmot spent a short time at oxford in Wadham College, beginning at age 12, where he reportedly first displayed his...

Observations In The Art Of English Poesie Thomas Campion 1602 In

His Observations in the Art of English Poesie Thomas Campion sought to do something unique, as expressed in the subtitle to his work Wherein it is demonstra-tiuely prooued, and by example confirmed, that the English toong will receiue eight seuerall kinds of numbers, proper to it selfe, which are all in this booke set forth, and were neuer before this time by any man attempted. By numbers, Campion means he will focus on substituting certain classic rhythms or meter, mainly combinations of iambs...

Greek Birth-agonies

Boyd's poem appeared in a collection titled The Humorous Miscellany, its hopeful title not reflective of some of its subject matter, including Boyd's poem. She adopts a plaintive and sympathetic voice, that of a mother deep in mourning over the death of her baby boy. The speaker begins by declaring, How frail is human life How fleet our breath, Born with the symptoms of approaching death intriguing in its consideration of the tremulous nature of life as merely a prelude to death. The tone is...

On A Virtuous Young Gentlewoman That Died Suddenly

William Cartwright (1651) William Cartwright gained fame for his panegyrics and elegies, although critics and readers in later centuries found them florid and overblown. Judged of poor quality mainly as a result of changing tastes, the poems still represent excellent examples of the type. On a Virtuous Young Gentlewoman That Died Suddenly contains many traditional elements of the elegy, a prescriptive form that allowed poets who did not even know the deceased to praise that person. Cartwright...

Pentheas Dying Song John Ford

(ca. 1629) The Renaissance dramatist John Ford included Penthea's Dying Song in his tragedy The Broken Heart. As befits the death the song heralds, the poem remains sad, but it does not specifically mourn the loss of Penthea. Rather it is used to focus on death in a more general way. Ford employs repetition in phrases intended as song lyrics, beginning, Ford advances the imagery of life ended, not employing the term death or dead until his seventh line. Instead he adopts the figurative language...

Repulse To Alcander The Sarah

Fyge Egerton (1703) The Repulse to Alcander by Sarah Fyge Egerton adopts a female voice to counter the traditional seduction poem, made popular by Renaissance Cavalier poets. Egerton adopts the values that would become important in the Augustan age, as the new 18th century introduced a focus on proper behavior and logic. Rather than embracing the weepy sentimentality that gripped 17th-century literature, the new century would produce satire aimed at women's vice and, at times, a celebration of...

Seward Anna Hunter 17421809

Anna Seward's father was the Reverend Thomas Seward, rector of Eyam, Derbyshire. Her father, described as witty and agreeable, matriculated through Westminster and Cambridge and served as private chaplain to the duke of Grafton, whose son he tutored. Anna's mother, described as a handsome woman, was Elizabeth Hunter, daughter of a rector who taught Samuel Johnson in school, who would later become an important person in Anna Seward's career. After the late marriage for both the Sewards settled...

Elegy Written In A Country Churchyard Figurative Language

Introduction to The Poems of Thomas Carew with His Masque, Coelum Britannicum, xiii-lxxvii. Oxford Clarendon Press, 1957. ELEGY WRITTEN IN A COUNTRY CHURCHYARD Thomas Gray (1751) Thomas Gray may have begun writing Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard as early as 1746. He discarded four stanzas of an early version, which were probably read by his friend Horace Walpole, and planned to title the work simply Stanzas until his friend William Mason suggested Elegy instead. A...

Stellas Birthday 1721 Jonathan

Swift (1727) Literary historians remain unsure of the nature of the relationship between Jonathan Swift and Esther Johnson, the Stella of his poetry and the famous letters published in 1766 as The Journal to Stella. He became acquainted with Johnson when he served as secretary to his kinsman, Sir William Temple, living in his household from 1689 to 1699. Swift tutored Johnson, daughter of Temple's steward, and the two became lifelong friends. Some believed they secretly married, while others...

Silence And Stealth Of Days

Henry Vaughan (1650) Included in Henry Vaughan's religious poetry collection Silex Scintillans, Silence, and Stealth of Days expresses the poet's grief after the death of his brother, William, in the civil wars. Critics note it is one of the few poems by Vaughan that contain its own internal dating, as he writes, 'tis now Since thou art gone, Twelve hundred hours. This means 50 days had passed since William Vaughan's death, dating the poem during the first week of September 1648. After the time...

Upon The Weakness And Misery

OF MAN Samuel Butler (n.d.) Published as part of Samuel Butler's miscellany Upon the Weakness and Misery of Man is in the sonnet form of 14 lines and formatted in straight rhyming couplets. While not Butler's strongest effort, which may be found in his landmark HUDIBRAS (1662, 1663, 1678), the sonnet clearly expresses his attitudes toward man's self-destructive nature and tendency toward self-delusion. A staunch Royalist forced for a time to work for an officer in Cromwell's army, Butler had...

Songs From The Beggars Opera

John Gay (1728) John Gay found phenomenal success with the production of his ballad opera The Beg gar's Opera. The idea for the play, written partially to lampoon serious-minded Italian opera, was apparently suggested to Gay by his friend the Irish poet JoNATHAN Swift. Samuel Johnson later described the interchange as follows Dr. Swift had been observing once to Mr. Gay what an odd pretty sort of a thing a Newgate Pastoral might make. Gay was inclined to try at such a thing for some time but...

On Her Loving Two Equally

Aphra Behn (1684) Feminist critics believe that Aphra Behn wrote On Her Loving Two Equally as a parody of the men of her era who were not socially censured for having both a wife and a mistress. Most of the humor of her three six-line stanzas is based on the fact that women ould not escape such censure if they publicly kept both a spouse and a lover, or if a single woman openly adopted multiple lovers. Wives were supposed to excuse or, even better for their husbands, disregard sexual...

Why So Pale And Wan Fond Lover Sir John Suckling 1638 A few

Songs, such as Why So Pale and Wan, Fond Lover a ballad, along with a few lyric poems remain from the work of Sir John Suckling. Why So Pale and Wan was sung by the character Orsames in Suckling's first stage production, a tragedy titled Aglaura. Its form is simple, composed of three five-line stanzas with several repeated lines in varying meters. Stanzas 1 and 2 each begin with a question. The first opens with the title question, and readers learn that the Lover remains pale and wan as a...

Nightpiece To Julia The George

Herrick (1648) When George Herrick wrote The Night-piece, to Julia, he used as the object of his poem the ideal female figure of Julia, who appeared repeatedly in his writing. Critics have noted that this poem in particular owes much to Herrick's mentor, BEN JoNSoN, in its use of subtle rhythm. Herrick manages to imitate the action and subject matter of his poem in his varied meter, which moves from four feet to three feet to two feet, then returns to four feet in its four five-line stanzas....

Prior Matthew 16641721 Matthew

Prior was born into a poor family in Stephen's Alley, Westminster. While he began school, his father's death left him in the care of an uncle, probably named Arthur, who determined Prior should not complete his education because of a lack of funds. He began writing poetry early, dedicating a poem at age 12 to Arthur Prior. While at his uncle's Rhennish Wine House in Channel (later Cannon) Row, Prior met many patrons from the court of King Charles II. Supposedly Charles Sackville, earl of...

Queen And Huntress Ben Jonson

(1601) Queen and Huntress is a song included by Ben Jonson in his satiric stage comedy Cynthia's Revels. The play focused on the sin of self-love, incorporating as its major vehicle the myth of Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection. Jonson based the character of Criticus on himself, while Cynthia represented Queen Elizabeth I, who received Criticus after his valiant struggle to escape knaves and courtly scoundrels to reach her. Elizabeth often appeared in literature as Cynthia,...

At The Round Earths Imagind Corners Blow John Donne 1633 At

The round earth's imagin'd corners blow provides John Donne an opportunity in sonnet form to consider the prophecy from the Bible's book of Revelation 7 1 that angels would stand at the earth's four corners to herald the resurrection of the faithful. The term imagined does not reflect on a lack of truthfulness, but rather on the apostle John's dream state as he received God's inspired vision of the future. One of the Holy Sonnets, this poem has traditionally been numbered 7 and adopts its first...

Imperfect Enjoyment The John

Wilmot, second earl of Rochester (1680) Known for his pornographic poetry, John Wilmot, second earl of Rochester, couched his bawdy presentations in humor. Although he was often drunk and intolerably rude, court regulars appreciated his great wit, which often involved taking others to task for their hypocrisy. His poems included graphic descriptions of the sex act and often demeaned those involved. While in The Imperfect Enjoyment the speaker at one point compares the whores to pigs, he also...

Songfor A That And A That

Robert Burns (1794) Arguably the greatest balladeer who ever lived, Robert Burns not only committed to paper longtime oral favorites, but also wrote many original Ballads. He used the form as it was intended to express his opinion on various topics, adopting an unemotional presentation designed to elicit emotion from his readers. In his Song For A' That and A' That he writes about the marginalized and the powerless whose suffering had prompted the French Revolution. In a more general sense he...

Johnson Samuel 17091784 Samuel

Johnson, a sickly child whose father was a bookseller, was born in Lichfield. In 1728 he entered Pembroke College, oxford, and began his literary life with a translation of a collection of religious writings by Alexander Pope (1731). He could not afford to complete his education and would later be awarded an honorary Dr. title. After his father's death in 1731, Johnson taught grammar school to ease his family's debt during 1732 and then spent three years in Birmingham, where he published his...

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LADIES DEFENCE, THE Lady Mary Chud-leigh (1701) Lady Mary Chudleigh wrote The Ladies Defence in response to a wedding sermon titled The Bride-Woman's Counselor delivered by John Sprint in 1700. The sermon so incensed Chudleigh that she wrote her lengthy poem with a strong feminist bent, indignant over Sprint's popular suggestion that women should focus on little else other than obedience to their husbands. She wrote to a friend that she could hardly bear the snickering reception of the sermon...

Anatomy Of The World An John

Donne (1611, 1633) John Donne's An Anatomy of the World was one of few works published during his lifetime. Composed of two poems, The First Anniversary and The Second Anniversary, they eulogize Elizabeth Drury, the 14-year-old daughter of his patron, Sir Robert Drury. Originally Donne planned to write a poem per year on the anniversary of Elizabeth's death, but he abandoned that plan when public reaction proved negative. Others agreed with Ben Jonson, who criticized An Anatomy of the World as...

Description Of Cookeham

Ameilia Lanyer (1611) This poem predates To Penshurst (1616) by Ben Jonson, long credited as the first country house poem. Drawing on classical generic features, Lanyer expresses the virtue of Margaret, countess of Cumberland, by creating imagery that includes her honoring by the plants and animals of the estate. Feminist critics find the poem of great interest in its focus on the custom that did not allow women to inherit property. Rather than featuring the countess and her daughter, Anne...

Endimion And Phoebe Michael Drayton

(1595) As with many of his poems, Michael Drayton fashioned the theme of his erotic pastoral, Endimion and Phoebe, on others' work, including the decade's most famous poets and playwrights, Christopher Marlowe (Hero and Leander) and William Shakespeare (Venus and Adonis). In form, however, it reflected influence by the playwright George Chapman. Drayton's version more closely resembled those of Marlowe and Chapman in the use of heroic couplets. According to the Drayton scholar Richard Hardin,...

Disdaine Returned Thomas Carew

(1640) Thomas Carew's Disdaine Returned falls firmly into the Cavalier poet tradition. Its light, lyrical feel is intended, as Carew and his contemporaries at the court of Charles II focused mainly on themes of love love thwarted, love accepted, love disdained, love engendered, love proposed, love rejected. Heightened emotion became their goal, and they achieved it through a musical cadence that allowed many of their poems to be set to music, as was true of much lyric verse. The poetry often...

Metaphysical Poets And Poetry 267

Epigram Upon Blood's attempt to steal the Crown. While living at Highgate, he published translations from Seneca and entered into a controversy with Samuel Parker, his old nemesis, in 1672. In 1674, he produced the popular On Mr. Milton's Paradise Lost and continued writing politically charged materials. In 1677 Marvell spoke against a bill to secure the Protestant succession in the House of Commons and moved to Great Russell Street in order to sequester bankrupt relatives. He published An...

My Picture Left In Scotland

Ben Jonson (1619, 1640-1641) Although historians do not know the identity of the woman depicted by Ben Jonson in his poem My Picture Left in Scotland, they feel confident he wrote it after having visited his friend and fellow poet William Drummond. It holds the ninth position in the group of 18 poems constituting The Underwood. Jonson does more than rue his age and soft physique as impediments to a relationship with the apparently desirable female. He also demonstrates in some instances through...

Denham Sir John 103

Rietta Maria and her ladies eventually joined Charles, and with them entertainment and frivolity the queen would become pregnant with her ninth child while at oxford. A temporary Parliament was established in oxford's Divinity Schools and Shakespeare's plays were enacted, while in London drama had been curtailed. Although many found the King's stay in oxford exhilarating, his poets, including Denham, tried to transmit their advice and disapproval of certain of his causes through their poetry....

Drayton Michael 15631631 Michael

Drayton was born at Hartshill near Atherstone in Warwickshire. Not much is known of his early years, but he may have served Sir Walter Aston as his esquire and temporarily attended Oxford University. Records do show that as a young man he entered service with Sir Henry Goodeere of Powlesworth, who in turn provided Drayton's education. Goodeere also introduced Drayton to the great arts patron Lucy Russell, the countess of Bedford, in an attempt to help support his writing. During this time,...

Religio Laici Or A Laymans Faith

John Dryden (1682) John Dryden spent years in self-debate regarding his religious beliefs. His conversion from Anglicanism to Catholicism at the time James II, a Catholic, rose to the throne in 1686 provoked much criticism from those who believed it simply an expedient move. Dryden remained a Catholic, however, after the exile of James II and his replacement by his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband, William, although to do so could have meant imprisonment. But in 1682 Dryden was still...

General Survey Of Periods Authors And Works

As in most discussions of literature, this one acknowledges the critical penchant for dividing and labeling certain periods into which literature may be loosely categorized. It is to the credit of those responsible for such matters that the divisions are not strictly applied. In this volume, entries cover and or reference those eras labeled the Renaissance, the Restoration, the Augustan age or age of reason, the romantic period, and more. Each term loosely indicates what common sense tells one,...

Restoration The The term Restoration

Refers to the restoration of royal rule to England and the period that followed, roughly 1660 through 1700. After tremendous political and religious upheaval with a focus on the supposed divine right of kings to rule, Charles I was executed in 1649. His beheading drove his son and successor, along with loyal Royalists, to live in exile. The Protectorate headed by the Puritan oliver Cromwell assumed power, and the Commonwealth was born. When Cromwell's son, Richard, assumed control of Parliament...

She Stoop Figurative Language

John Donne Life, Mind, and Art. Boston Faber & Faber, 1990. Clements, Arthur L. Poetry of Contemplation John Donne, George Herbert, Henry Vaughan and the Modern Period. Albany State University of New York Press, 1990. Edwards, David L. John Donne Man of Flesh and Spirit. Grand Rapids, Mich. William B. Eerdmans, 2002. Gardner, Helen, ed. John Donne The Divine Poems. Oxford Clarendon Press, 1969. Johnson, Jeffrey. The Theology of John Donne. Cambridge D. S. Brewer, 2001. Marotti,...

Figurative Language In To Her Father With Some Verses

KILLIGREW, ANNE (1660-1685) Born the daughter of Dr. Henry Killigrew, Master of the Savoy and a prebendary of Westminster, Anne Killegrew would mature during the restoration of Charles II. Her father, an accomplished dramatist, served as chaplain for the duke of York, his position allowing Killigrew to mature in an atmosphere where her art was encouraged. Killigrew served as maid of honor to Mary Modena, the duchess of York, and enjoyed a broad education, although not at the level of her male...

On Shakespeare 1630 John Milton

(1632) Despite the date included in its title, On Shakespeare, 1630 by John Milton did not appear in print until 1632. A sonnet, it was printed beneath the title An Epitaph on the Admirable Dramatic Poet W. Shakespear in the Second Folio of William Shakespeare's plays. As do other tribute poems, it declares its subject unmatched by mortal efforts and eternal in nature. Milton focuses on the image of stone monuments, probably with the Stratford Monument to Shakespeare in mind. The sonnet's first...

Satturday The Small Pox Lady

Mary Wortley Montagu (1747) Written during Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's 1716-17 stay in London prior to traveling to Constantinople with her husband, her Satturday The Small Pox is one of a collection of six eclogues. Intended as satiric, the eclogue remained a mixture of multiple conventions, including those of the pastoral, classic, and burlesque. Others of her era, such as the poet and dramatist John Gay, attempted eclogue, but Montagu has been credited with some of the best examples. Her...

Ballad Upon a wedding A

Published in 1646, but it was based on a popular folk ballad already existent as the song I tell thee Dick, a phrase Suckling adopted in his first line. He uses a six-line format for each stanza, with an aabccb rhyme scheme. The marriage celebrated was likely that of Lord Lovelace to Anne Wentworth in 1638, the Dick being Richard Lovelace. Many of the 22 verses describe the bride, with others relating details about the food served at the celebration. The humor introduced at the bride's expense...

Negros Complaint The William

Cowper (1788) William Cowper was known for his vigorous support of various moral causes, one of which was the abolition of slavery. The Negro's Complaint was popular in its first printing as a broadside. Its four-beat lines allowed easy later conversion to a BALLAD, set to music. Adopting the voice of an individual Forc'd from home, and all its pleasures, Cowper imagines what a slave might yearn for in his foreign captivity. The speaker continues, Afric's coast I left forlorn, making clear his...

Methought I Saw My Late Espoused Saint Sonnet Xxii John

Milton (1658) Critics continue to debate the subject of the sonnet by John Milton Methought I Saw My Late Espoused Saint. While probably one of Milton's first two wives, who both died of complications of childbirth, on the basis of lines 4-5, Mine as whom washt from spot of child-bed taint, even that theory remains under question. Those who accept the theory then argue whether the subject is Mary Powell Milton, who died three days after giving birth, or Katherine Woodcock Milton, who died three...

On The Death Of An Infant Of Five Days Old Being A Beautiful But Abortive Birth Elizabeth Boyd

(1733) The high sentiment reflected by Elizabeth Boyd's On the Death of an Infant of Five Days Old, Being a Beautiful but Abortive Birth, was entirely appropriate to its era and form. By the third decade of the 18th century traditional religion began to lose its hold on the English imagination, prompting development of a cult of sentimentality that believed in human benevolence. Such sentimentality would give impetus a few years after publication of Boyd's poem to a seminal event in the...

Love In These Labyrinths His Slaves What Figures Of Speech Is This

An Unnoticed Latin Poem by Thomas Randolph, 1633. English Studies 41 (1960) 258. Tannenbaum, Samuel A., and Dorothy R. Tannenbaum. Thomas Randolph A Concise Bibliography. New York, 1947. RAPE OF THE LOCK, THE Alexander Pope (1712, 1714, 1717) As have other of works by Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock has inspired many full-length books of critical consideration, so important was its effect upon Pope, his readership, the genre of poetry, and Pope's legacy. The new...

Delight In Disorder Robert Herrick

(1648) When Robert Herrick wrote Delight in Disorder, he followed the tradition that celebrated nature's orderly disorder and suggested that one might take pleasure from a disruption resulting in aesthetic chaos. His mentor, Ben Jonson, utilized that belief in the song Still to be neat from his drama Epi-coene, I.i. The song praises Robes loosely flowing, hair as free, noting that Such sweet neglect more taketh me, Than all the adulteries of art. Herrick's speaker shares that sentiment, as he...

Paradise Regained John Milton 1671

Written in four books, John Milton's Paradise Regained tells the story of Christ's temptation by Satan and ultimate victory, using as a historical basis the version of the tale found in the Gospel of Luke. Milton preferred Luke's version to that found in Matthew for the order of the three temptations, placing the temptation of the tower last and allowing for a dramatic conclusion. In the first book Satan asks Christ to transform a stone into bread after fasting for 40 days, and in the second...

Description of a city Shower A 105

Finally, she advises Time, Break the slim form that was adored, the slim form being her, By him so loved, my wedded lord, but concludes, leave me, whilst all these you steal, The mind to taste, the nerve to feel. Cowley may have feared that she might become numb to all the joys of the world in her grief over the loss of her husband. She requests control of her thoughts, so that she might indulge in mental delights, as well as retention of her natural emotions, so that she can still experience...

Song For St Cecilias Day A John

Dryden (1687) John Dryden wrote A Song for St. Cecilia's Day at the request of the stewards of a musical society in charge of annual November 22 festivities celebrating the patroness of music. The custom of requesting lyrics from poets had begun in England in 1683 in imitation of the Continental ritual. Drayton's ode was set to music by Giovanni Baptista Draghi, designed for a five-part chorus with orchestra. It would later be reset by G. F. Handel. Dryden opened the song with the traditional...

Indifferent The John Donne 1633

John Donne's love poetry has been categorized by some critics, including Theodore Redpath, according to its positive or negative tone. The Indifferent falls into the latter grouping. Donne adopts the prevalent attitude that women almost always proved inconstant. Men did as well, but they did not suffer the same social stigma as did women who engaged in multiple sexual relationships. Religious dogma blamed women's treacherous nature for the ills of the human race, based on Eve's sacrificing the...

On Leaping Over The Moon

Thomas Traherne (ca. 1660) Although Thomas Traherne wrote in the 17th century, much of his work was not recovered and published until the 20th cen tury. In 1910 a group of poems labeled The Burney sequence was published as Poems of Felicity, and it included the often-anthologized On Leaping over the Moon. That poem conveys Traherne's traditional sense of wonder in celebration of God's creation. Two childhood anecdotes inform the poem, as Tra-herne describes his brother leaping over a stream in...

Subtitle Of The Poem The Medall

MACFLECKNOE A SATIRE UPON THE TRUE-BLUE PROTESTANT POET T.S. John Dryden (1684) Although a first authorized published edition of MacFlecknoe by John Dryden appeared in Miscellaney Poems in 1684, it had been circulated in unapproved versions since 1682. Critics cannot pinpoint the year that Dryden wrote it, but he may have done so as early as 1678. Written in 218 lines of rhyming couplets, it represents satire in which Dryden takes to task the poet and dramatist Thomas Shad well, the T.S....

In The Holy Nativity Of Our Lord God A Hymn Sung As By The Shepherds Richard Crashaw 1646 1652

Richard Crashaw first published In the Holy Nativity of our Lord God A Hymn Sung as by the Shepherds in 1646. When it was published again in 1652 several changes had been made to the poem, and it is that version most often anthologized. Crashaw shares his theme with notables including JoHN MILToN, as Christmas celebratory religious poems proved popular among poets. He formats his poem with speaking parts by two shepherds, borrowing from a classical tradition to name the shepherds Tityrus and...

Info

Christopher Smart as a Poet of His Time A Reappraisal. The Hague Mouton, 1966. Costa, Dennis. Language in Smart's Jubilate Agno. Essays in Criticism 52, no. 4 (October 2002) 295-313. Curry, Neil. Christopher Smart. Horndon, England North- cote House, 2005. Dearnley, Moira. The Poetry of Christopher Smart. London Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968. Devlin, Christopher. Poor Kit Smart. London R. Hart-Davis, 1961. Greene, D. J. Smart, Berkeley, the Scientists and the Poets. Journal...

Description of a city shower

A Jonathan Swift (1710) In his mock tribute to the aggravation that a heavy rain inflicted upon London, Jonathan Swift used some elevated language in A Description of a City Shower, casting it in the satirical light shared by most of his poetry. Examples may be found in its opening lines Careful observers may foretell the hour (By sure prognostics) when to dread a shower While rain depends, the pensive cat gives o'er Her frolics and pursues her tail no more. His use of the terms foretell,...

Robinson Mary 17581800 Mary Darby

Was born in Bristol and raised in London. A younger sister died of smallpox before Mary's birth. one younger brother, William, died at age six years, and a brother, George, matured along with Mary. She writes of herself in her memoir that upon learning to read she delighted in epitaphs and monumental inscriptions. She adds, A story of melancholy import never failed to excite my attention, a trait that may later have affected her decision to become an actress. Robinson memorized poetry by...

Dialogue Between The Soul And Body A 111

Of native strength, although very poor, may still be very blest and remain far preferable to the devastation caused by the base desires of an arrogant few. Goldsmith's close friend and confidant Samuel Johnson composed the final four lines That Trade's proud empire hastes to swift decay, As ocean sweeps the labored mole away While self-dependent power can time defy As rocks resist the billows and the sky. While Goldsmith's Auburn was based on his childhood home of Athlone, Ireland, Auburn was...

Figurative Language In The Poem Knoxville Tennessee

Redeeming Eve Women Writers of the English Renaissance. Princeton, N.J. Princeton University Press, 1987. Bennett, Lyn. Women Writing of Divinest Things Rhetoric and the Poetry of Pembroke, Wroth, and Lanyer. Pittsburgh Duquesne University Press, 2004. Catty, Jocelyn. Writing Rape, Writing Women in Early Modern England. Basingstoke, England Macmillan, 1999. Elsky, Martin. Microhistory and Cultural Geography Ben Jonson's To Sir Robert Wroth and the Absorption of Local Community...

Barbauld Anna Laetitia Aikin

(1743-1825) As the oldest child born to an educa tor named Dr. John Aikin in Kibworth, Leicestershire, Anna Laetitia Aikin matured in academic surroundings. Supposedly a prodigy who could read by age two, Anna Laetitia learned the classics, both the French and Italian languages, and English literature. Her father managed a school for boys, an environment that she later credited for teaching her how to behave in polite society. In 1758 Dr. Aikin took a position as tutor in the new Warrington...

Excuse For So Much Writ Upon My Verses An Margaret Cavendish

Duchess of Newcastle (1653) When Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle, wrote An Excuse for So Much Writ upon My Verses, she joined her contemporary, the American poet Anne Bradstreet, in referring to her poetry as her offspring. Unlike Brad-street, Cavendish had no children of her own and expressed the seeming tension between that absence and her mainly healthy self-image by noting that the fame one attained through writing proved more satisfying than children, who could become treacherous...

Hymn To God the Father A john

Donne (1633) Scholars of the works of John Donne continue the search for various elements in his poetry to aid in the dating of their creation and even in the ways to refer to the poems. As Donne did not title his own poems, most titles derive from their first lines. However, A Hymn to God the Father gained its title from its subject matter. Its similarity to other hymns, such as Hymn to Christ, seems to challenge the affording of a title, with its opening stanza asking forgiveness making it...

Upon The Losse Of His Mistresses

Robert Herrick (1648) As did most of his other best recognized poems, the sonnet titled Upon the Losse of His Mistresses appeared in Robert Herrick's large collection Hesperides. Herrick framed this verse in the same playful tone common in his secular poetry. While the mistresses proved pure fantasy, Herrick seems to enjoy listing these Many dainty Mistresses by name. Those names include Stately Julia, labeled prime of all, and Sapho, termed a principall, or a more important lover. He admires...

When Nights Black Mantle

Lady Mary Wroth (1621) Lady Mary Wroth began her sonnet sequence Pamphilia to Amphilan-thus, which she included in her prose romance The Countess of Montgomery's Urania, with Sonnet 1, referred to by its first line, When night's black mantle could most darkness prove. The speaker is Pamphilia, a young woman of virtue who attempts to convince her lover, Amphilanthus, of the value of responsible and pure living. Wroth extends the metaphor of night and darkness to suggest danger and the inability...

Virginia Brackett

The Facts On File Companion to British Poetry, 17th and 18th Centuries Copyright 2008 by Virginia Brackett All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of...

Hind And The Panther The John

Dryden (1687) John Dryden wrote The Hind and the Panther in order to contribute to an ongoing dispute between Protestant and Catholic factions. While his exact date of conversion from devotion to the Church of England to Catholicism remains uncertain, it happened sometime during 1686, as in July of that year he was known to have attended mass. Many doubted his motivations, most believing he was moved by the practicality that had ruled his life, rather than by a passion for the Catholic faith....

Elegy Over A Tomb Edward Herbert

(1665) Edward Herbert, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, adopts a thoughtful, contemplative tone to begin his Elegy over a Tomb. Readers can easily envision the speaker, who loved the figure in the tomb, asking gently probing questions that rise in strength to demand a reason for his loss. He becomes an everyman, a universal figure, in his attempt to understand death. His six six-line stanzas adopt a rhyme scheme of abbacc with varied meter that promotes a driving momentum. In all except the final...

On Lucy Countess Of Bedford

Ben Jonson (1616) Ben Jonson wrote On Lucy, Countess of Bedford in honor of one of the great patronesses of her era. Jonson probably fashioned the part of a lady in waiting to Queen Elizabeth I in his Cynthia's Revels, or the Fountain of Self Love, performed in 1600, on the countess who had been a lady in waiting. He also probably owed his commission in 1604 as masque writer for Queen Anne to the patronage of the countess. The poem is included in the Epigrammes division of Jonson's works, with...

Divine Meditations The William

Alabaster (1597-1598 ) Some question remains regarding the period in which William Alabaster composed the 77 sonnets included in his The Divine Meditations. Critics believe they were written during Alabaster's imprisonment between 1597 and 1598 after his first conversion to Catholicism. They appear in two manuscripts, and the manuscripts have some sonnets in common. While many are titled and numbered, others are only numbered. Alabaster's work represents a look forward to the 17th century, in...

Ode Upon A Question Moved Whether Love Should Continue Forever An Edward Herbert 1665 An

Ode Upon a Question Moved Whether Love Should Continue Forever by Edward Herbert, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, reflects the style of metaphysical poets and poetry. In ode form its 15 four-line stanzas are divided into two sections, with the meter of iambic tetrameter and the rhyme scheme abba. The first section proposes a question with both a philosophical and religious basis What happens to an enduring love when the people who share it die Herbert begins with an account of a couple, Melander and...

Annus Mirabilis The Year Of Wonders 1666 John Dryden 1667 With

Annus Mirabilis John Dryden published his first major nondramatic poem, and his last major poem utilizing the heroic quatrain format. In addition to its subtitle, The Year of Wonders, 1666, the work contained an explanation beneath the title identifying those wonders AN HISTORICAL POEM CONTAINING THE PROGRESS AND VARIOUS SUCCESSES OF OUR NAVAL WAR WITH HOLLAND, UNDER THE CONDUCT OF HIS HIGHNESS PRINCE RUPERT, AND HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF ALBEMARLE, AND DESCRIBING THE FIRE OF LONDON. Dryden labeled...

Willing Mistress The Aphra Behn

(1673) Aphra Behn's The Willing Mistress was a song performed in her drama The Dutch Lover, staged in 1673. It is sung by a maidservant, who tells her mistress of a sexual experience with a man named Amyn-tas. Amyntas was a favorite name adopted by Behn for the sexual predators in her poetry. Some critics believe it was a nickname for the man with whom Behn became obsessed, John Hoyle. Because Hoyle apparently did not reciprocate her attentions, he could assume the persona in her works of the...

Meter Figurative Language

May have been coined by Samuel Johnson, applied as a pejorative term. Metaphysical poetry developed, in part, as an artistic reaction against traditional Elizabethan poetry's mild and predictable sentiments. It also represented a political reaction to the intellectual and spiritual challenges poets experienced during the transition from the Renaissance to the modern period. Highly philosophical, metaphysical poetry seldom focused on nature or the concrete and adopted different verse forms, none...

Landscape Described Rural Sounds A William Cowper 1785 As he

Did in other poems contained in his six-volume collection The Task, William Cowper expressed his appreciation of the quotidian, or the everyday aspects of our lives, in A Landscape. Rural Sound. It appeared in Book 1, offering readers a glimpse into not only Cowp-er's geographical environment, but also his personal environment. He begins his 60 unrhymed lines by addressing his lifelong companion, Mary Unwin, and, by extension, his audience, when he begins, Thou knowest my praise of nature most...

Bibliography On The Use Of Figurative Language In Poetry

Survey of British Poetry Cavalier to Restoration. Vol. 2. Edited by Editorial Board, Roth Publishing. Great Neck, N.Y. Poetry Anthology Press, 1989. Ward, Thomas Humphry. The English Poets Selections with Critical Introductions by Various Writers and a General Introduction by Matthew Arnold. Vol. 2. New York Mac-millan, 1912. FLOWER, THE George Herbert (1633) George Herbert used the figurative language of extended metaphor when he wrote The Flower, in which a flower represents the spiritual...

Since She Whome I Loved Hath Paid Her Last Debt John Donne 1633

Probably John Donne's most tender sonnet, Since she whome I loved, hath paid her last debt marks his loss of his wife. Ann Donne died on August 16, 1617, at age 33 one week after the stillbirth of their 12th child. As do all of his Holy Sonnets, this sonnet focuses on Donne's relationship with God. He often used death as a vehicle for investigation. In this poem he considers whether God might have used his wife to test him. Donne marks his tone with resignation rather than anger or great grief,...

Iambiambic See METER

I AM THE DOOR Richard Crashaw (1646) I Am the Door represents well the type of poetry produced by Richard Crashaw that engendered hostility toward his work for centuries after his death, not for its topic, but for its style. It focuses on Christ's symbolism as the entrance by which believers may reach heaven, a traditional CoNCEIT, its source found in the King James Bible (1611) translation of John 10 9, I am the door by Me if any man enter in, he shall be saved. Challenged then by how to...

Figurative Language John Webster

Lives of the English Poets. Vol. 1. New York E. P. Dutton, 1958. BLANK VERSE Blank verse is poetry that lacks rhyme, although it has a set rhythm, or meter. Early poetry generally rhymed, perhaps because it grew from a spoken tradition in which rhyme could aid in memorization. Later poets retained that traditional approach in brief poems such as ballads as well as those of epic length, such as Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene (1590, 1596), which recalls the pastorals of...

Winscom Jane Cave ca 17541813

Not much is known of Jane Cave Winscom, other than the biographical information that may be gleaned from her poetry. This makes hers an interesting but frustrating case for feminist critics. Probably born in Wales, she wrote of both her parents, hinting that her beginnings were humble her father may have practiced Methodism, either personally or also as a clergyman. She probably served private houses or supported herself through teaching. Her poem Written by Desire of a Lady, on an Angry,...

Inviting A Friend To Supper

Jonson (1616) In Inviting a Friend to Supper, Ben Jonson imitates Horace but writes with an English sensibility. He had famously discussed speech as primarily an instrument for social interaction, noting, Pure and neat language I love, yet plaine and customary. While Jonson ostensibly communicates only with one close acquaintance in this poem, he retained not only a sense of his broader audience but also a I PRITHEE SEND ME BACK MY HEART 235 responsibility toward communicating with them. He...

Nymph Complaining For The Death Of Her Fawn The Andrew

Marvell (1681) The date when Andrew Marvell wrote The Nymph Complaining for the Death of Her Fawn remains unknown. Some of its vocabulary may be traced to the 1640s and some possible associations can be made, especially with a poem published in 1642 by Rowland Watkins. However, its only secure date is that of 1681, the date of publication along with most of Marvell's lyrics in the posthumous Miscellaneous Poems. It represents the traditional format known as the lover's complaint, as Marvell...

Gondibert Excerpt William Davenant

(1651) William Davenant remains most important for his involvement in restoring drama to the stage after the long Cromwellian moratorium on public performance. However, he was also a poet, who wrote the incomplete romantic epic poem Gondibert while imprisoned as a Royalist by Cromwell's forces. Set in Lom-bardy, Gondibert followed the adventures of feudal knights. Davenant based the poem's quatrain form on Sir John Davies's Nosce Teipsum, or, Know Thyself (1599), a poem of natural philosophy...

Petrarchan See sonnet

PHILIPS, KATHERINE FOWLER (16321664) Katherine Fowler was born in London, daughter of a merchant. A precocious child, she had read the Bible by age four, according to family mythology. She attended school in Hackney, where she probably studied French, as she would later translate from that language. She began writing as a teenager and made important friendships at school, including that of Mary Harvey, niece of William Harvey, credited with describing the circulatory system. After her father's...

On Mr Miltons Paradise Lost

Andrew Marvell (1681) Andrew Marvell wrote On Mr. Milton's Paradise Lost for inclusion in the second edition of Paradise Lost (1674) by John Milton. It would be published for a second time in the posthumous collection of Marvell's work, Miscellaneous Poems (1681). Marvell's voice is his own in this verse, which considers Milton's ability to encompass vast topics and themes in a single work, eventually concluding the superior poet is well equipped to do so. Eighteenth-century readers knew the...

On His Majestys Recovery From The Smallpox 1633 William Cart

Wright (1651) William Cartwright's On His Majesty's Recovery from the Small-Pox, 1633 represents a strong example of the panegyric, a poem designed to praise an individual, combined with occasional verse, poetry designed to celebrate a particular occasion, the identity of both person and occasion made clear in the title. Most critics judge this celebratory approach to be Cartwright's strongest, with his lyrics and elegies superior to his drama. His staunch Royalist position and his favor at...

Against Them Who Lay Unchastity To The Sex Of Women William

Habington (1634) William Habington first published his poem Against Them Who Lay unchastity to the Sex of Women anonymously in 1634 in a collection titled Castara. Two further editions appeared, one in 1635, and a third, acknowledging Habington as author, in 1640. The third edition is the one most often used for anthologized excerpts. Habington wrote to a real-life Castara, his wife, Lucy. Born into better circumstances than Habington, a fact that he makes clear in his poetry, Lucy nonetheless...

Rights Of Women The Anna Laetitia

Barbauld (1795) Anna Laetitia Barbauld wrote The Rights of Women as a formal declaration regarding the lack of women's civil rights in early 19th-century England. She addresses her audience as injured Woman urging that woman to rise, assert thy right To emphasize the fact that only females will profit from the advice that follows, she repeats the personal exclamation Woman at the beginning of her second line, followed by a discouraging description of that woman as too long degraded, scorned,...

Poets And Poetry

Richard Crashaw never hesitated to express his spirituality in as rich a manner as possible, with descriptors tumbling over descriptors and metaphors tripping over metaphors. The result is too much of all facets for some readers, who prefer subtlety and grace to Crashaw's enthusiasm. However, even those critical of Crashaw's bombast acknowledge his dedication to both sense and sensibility. FLEA, THE John Donne (1630) Most critics agree that John Donne wrote The Flea during his youth, before...

Horatian Ode Upon Cromwells Return From Ireland An Andrew

Marvell (1681) Andrew Marvell wrote An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland between June and July 1650. He celebrates in rhyming couplets the fact that oliver Cromwell had distinguished himself in military expeditions to both Ireland and Scotland, becoming commander in chief of parliamentary forces. Marvell begins by establishing a comparison of Cromwell to a scholarly youth who had to forsake his Muses Dear and leave the books in dust, instead oiling th'unused armour's rust. This...

Herrick Robert 15911674 Robert

Herrick's father died one year after his son's birth in cheapside, London. Raised by an uncle who shared his father's goldsmith and banker trade, Robert was destined to follow in the family tradition. However, after a brief apprenticeship to his uncle in 1607, he elected instead to continue his education at Cambridge. There he first attended St. John's College and later matriculated to Trinity Hall, moving at a leisurely, good-natured pace that biographers note reflected his disposition. After...

Dialogue between the soul

AND BODY, A Andrew Marvell (1681) While Andrew Marvell's A Dialogue Between the Soul and the Body contains a traditional medieval complaint of the soul against the tyranny of the body, critics do not consider it a marked example of the soul-body dialogue genre. It lacks several traditional elements, including reference to sin and differentiation between will and action. Marvell establishes a philosophical debate, rather than a religious debate, and he makes no attempt to resolve the debate....

Canonization The John Donne

(1633) Critics basically agree to divide John Donne's writing into two groups related to his life stages, his romantic, or love, poetry in the stage dating prior to 1615, and the spiritual poetry emanating from the time of his ordination in 1615 to the year of his death, 1631. However, most scholars also agree that much of his romantic poetry reflects his grounding since childhood in the Catholic faith, seen often in the figurative language he adopts to write of love and its erotic aspects....

Disappointment The Aphra Behn

(1680) Aphra Behn's lengthy poem The Disappointment features the well-known tale of the shepherd Lysander and his unsuccessful attempt to rape the not unwilling nymph Cloris. Its source was likely the French poem Su rune impuissance by Jean Benech de Cantenac, published in 1661 in Amsterdam in the collection Recueil de diverses po sies choisies. While that work presented the problem from the male viewpoint, Behn relates the incident from the female point of view. Highly erotic, the poem...

On My First Daughter Ben Jonson

(1616) As would any bereaved father, Ben Jonson adopts a solemn, touching tone for this tribute to his dead child. While the poem was included in his Works published in 1616, the date of its writing remains unknown. A religious man, and a Catholic at the time of this poem's creation, Jonson adopts the attitude that all humans remain on loan from God, to whom they must return at his pleasure. As George Parfitt notes, Jonson held a specific moral vision constantly revealed in his poetry. He...

Epistle From Mrs Yonge To Her Husband Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

(1724) Although Lady Mary Wortley Montagu wrote Epistle from Mrs. Yonge to Her Husband in the 18th century, its subject matter prevented publication until almost 200 years after its writing. Montagu adopted the voice of one Mary Yonge, whose husband, William, quite publicly sued her for divorce on the grounds of adultery. The well-publicized relationship of Mrs. Yonge with a Colonel Norton followed William Yonge's own affair. A noted womanizer, Yonge separated from Mary in 1724 and revealed in...

Figurative Language Figure Of

SPEECH) Figurative language, also called figure of speech, involves a nonliteral reference to both animate and inanimate objects. The purpose of such a fig ure is to suggest an imaginative relationship between things that are in reality different. Figurative language proves essential to the dense form of poetry, and its abundant usage helps distinguish poetry from prose. Figurative language always involves comparisons. Many figures of speech exist, including the common metaphor, or direct...