Adlard, John, ed. The Debt to Pleasure: John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, in the Eyes of His Contemporaries and in His Own Poetry and Prose. New York: Routledge, 2002. Campion, Peter. "Rochester's Honesty." New Criterion 23, no. 8 (April 2005): 17-20. Caterson, Simon. "The Devil Is an Englishman." Quadrant

50, nos. 7-8 (July-August 2006): 91-92. Combe, Kirk. "'But loads of sh- almost choked the way': Shadwell, Dryden, Rochester, and the Summer of 1676." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 37, no. 2 (summer 1995): 127-164. Farley-Hills, David, ed. Rochester: The Critical Heritage. New

York: Barnes & Noble, 1972. Goldsworthy, Cephus. The Satyr: An Account of the Life and Work, Death and Salvation, of John Wilmot, Second Earl of Rochester. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2001. Greene, Graham. Lord Rochester's Monkey: Being the Life of John Wilmot, Second Earl of Rochester. New York: Penguin Books, 1988.

Holton, Robert. "Sexuality and Social Hierarchy in Sidney and Rochester." Mosaic 24, no. 1 (winter 1991): 47-65.

Johnson, James William. A Profane Wit: The Life of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2004. Lamb, Jeremy. So Idle a Rogue: The Life and Death of Lord

Rochester. London: Allison & Busby, 1993. Narain, Mona. "Libertine Spaces and the Female Body in the Poetry of Rochester and Ned Ward." English Literary History 72, no. 3 (fall 2005): 553-576. Sisk, John P. "The Letters of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester." American Scholar 51 (winter 1982): 116-118.

"RULE BRITANNIA" James Thomson (1740)

"Rule Britannia," the popular British song and ode, originated in Alfred, A Masque, a collaborative work by James Thomson and David Mallet. First performed to celebrate the birthday of August, Prince Frederick's daughter, the masque proved political in its failure to include a reference to the current king of England, George II. It was the final work in which Thomson expressed overt Whig sentiment, projecting the patriotic themes that "Rule Britannia" so well captured. Stanza 4 declares,

Thee haughty tyrants ne'er shall tame; All their attempts to bend thee down Will but arouse thy generous flame; But work their woe, and thy renown.

Viewed by most as an attack on the Stuart monarchy, the masque received little later attention, other than in 1745, when its producers may have hoped it would provoke anti-Jacobite feelings. However, "Rule Britannia" would become a public institution of sorts. While Thomson wrote the lyrics, Thomas Arne's music gave the song its true appeal. Each of its six six-line stanzas concludes with the two-line refrain "Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; / Britons never will be slaves." Mallet would revise Alfred after Thomson's death and claim full credit for the altered "Rule Britannia."

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Enneagram Essentials

Enneagram Essentials

Tap into your inner power today. Discover The Untold Secrets Used By Experts To Tap Into The Power Of Your Inner Personality Help You Unleash Your Full Potential. Finally You Can Fully Equip Yourself With These “Must Have” Personality Finding Tools For Creating Your Ideal Lifestyle.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment