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Making and Keeping Friends

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To My Excellent Lucasia On Our Friendship Katherine Philips 1667

Katherine Philips gained a reputation for her same-sex love poetry, which circulated in manuscript form for the most part. Her open admiration of her women friends found approval among her own circle of acquaintances, both male and female, the members of whom she assigned classical names. Anne Owen, viscountess of Dungannon, was the Lucasia of To My Excellent Luca-sia, on Our Friendship, one of many poems dedicated to her. Philips incorporated metaphysical aspects in much of her work, including this piece. Four lines constitute each of six stanzas, arranged in an alternating rhyme pattern of abab, cdcd, and so on. In the first stanza the speaker claims not to have lived until this time Crowned my felicity. Philips establishes a metaphor using the term crown to suggest royalty, figurative language (figure of speech) that will recur later in the poem. The speaker notes that she can claim without falsehood, I am not thine, but thee. In suggesting that she has no existence of her own but...


A ruddy drop of manly blood The surging sea outweighs The world uncertain comes and goes, The lover rooted stays. Epigraph to friendship. R.W. EMERSON. Friendship mysterious cement of the soul Sweet'ner of life and solder of society The Grave. R. BLAIR. Friendship is the cement of two minds, As of one man the soul and body is Of which one cannot sever but the other Suffers a needful separation. Revenge. G. CHAPMAN. A friendship that like love is warm, A love like friendship steady. How Shall I Woo T. MOORE. Friendship's the image of Eternity, in which there's nothing Movable, nothing mischievous. Endymion. J. LILLY. Flowers are lovely Love is flower-like Friendship is a sheltering tree 0 the Joys, that came down shower-like, Of Friendship, Love, and Liberty, Friendship's an abstract of love's noble flame, 'Tis love refined, and purged from all its dross, 'Tis next to angel's love, if not the same. Friendship A Poem. CATH. PHILLIPS. A generous friendship no cold medium knows, Burns...

Chronology Significant Dates and Events 19002000

1911 H.D. leaves for Europe for what was intended as a short summer visit only returns to the US twice in the next 45 years in London renews her earlier friendship with Pound. Robert Frost sells his Derry, New Hampshire, farm, and moves with his family to England the following year

Absalom And Achitophel John Dryden

Dryden will later compare Achitophel's words to snake venom, making a strong connection to the temptation by Satan in the Garden of Eden. He uses equally strong words for the son, Absalom, that unfeather'd, two-legg'd thing, a son (170), who In friendship false, implacable in hate Resolv'd to ruin or to rule the state. Dryden also condemns Buckingham through the character of Zimri, about whom the speaker relates

E146 E146 E146 E146 E146 E146 E146 E146 E146 E146

Man the enemy of man into deceitful friendships Jerusalem is not her daughters are indefinite By demonstration, man alone can live, and not by faith. My mountains are my own, and I will keep them to myself The Malvern and the Cheviot, the Wolds Plinlimmon & Snowdon Are mine. here will I build my Laws of Moral Virtue Humanity shall be no more but war & princedom & victory

Greville Sir Fulke Baron Brooke

(1554-1628) Born on October 3, 1554, Sir Fulke Greville became friends with Sir Philip Sidney while at school in Shrewsbury. He later studied at Jesus College, Cambridge University, but left without taking a degree. Greville's friendship with Sidney continued at court, where he also aligned himself with Robert Dudley, Sidney's uncle, and Robert Devereux, earl of Essex. In 1597, Queen Elizabeth I knighted Greville, and the following year he was named treasurer of the navy. Though he retired briefly upon the ascension of James

Topics for Further Exploration

Dickinson lived her entire life in her father's Amherst, Massachusetts, house, rarely venturing far from home. She graduated from Amherst Academy at 17 but failed to complete her studies at nearby Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. She developed many close friendships, and that with her editor, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, was the most affectionate. Her most productive literary years coincided with the Civil War. She began to see fewer and fewer visitors by the 1860s. In the end, she published only 7 poems during her lifetime. Shortly before her death in 1886, she wrote to her family, Little Cousins Called back. Emily. Her sister found over 1,000 poems after Emily's death, and in the 1890s her reputation began to ascend.

Riding Jackson Laura 19011991

Laura Reichenthal was born in New York City and attended Cornell University from 1918-21, leaving before completing a degree. In 1927 she changed her name to Laura Riding. Riding's first book, The Close Chaplet, was influenced by her friendship with Graves, who invited Riding to come to England with him and his wife in 1926, the same year Riding's first book appeared. Riding and Graves coauthored A Survey of Modernist Poetry (1927) and founded the Seizin Press in 1928. Later they moved the press to Deya, Spain. When the Spanish civil war broke out, Graves and Riding returned to Pennsylvania, where Riding met Schuyler Jackson, whom she married in 1941. Riding received the Bollingen Prize for her contributions to poetry in 1991, the same year she died.

New York Farrar Straus Giroux 1969

Whose deaths he recalls are Ernest Hemingway, Sylvia Plath, William Carlos Williams, Theodore Roethke, and R. P. Blackmur - Hemingway and Plath being suicides. But among writers the greatest losses for Henry are the deaths of Randall Jarrell and Delmore Schwartz - particularly the latter. Berryman's friendship with Schwartz began in 1938-9 and lasted until Schwartz's lonely death in a run-down New York City hotel in July 1966. In Songs 146-58 Henry records his sorrow at the evaporation of Schwartz's early promising talent, and at the paranoia that drove Schwartz to lose so many friends, as well as his guilt at not being on hand when Schwartz suffered his fatal heart attack. One of the two dedications of His Toy, His Dream, His Rest is to the sacred memory of Delmore Schwartz. The death of Schwartz haunts Henry in later songs too, as does the death of poet and critic Jarrell in 1965, a suspected suicide, who unlike Schwartz died, Song 121 asserts, at the peak of his powers His last...

New York Atheneum 1982

With The Changing Light at Sandover James Merrill found his own way to write an epic sacred poem in the second half of the twentieth century. The poem describes a world in which DNA, atoms, the history and future of mankind, nature, the angels, and God all find a place - and vital to the design is the role of culture, and particularly poetry. In an impressive variety of poetic forms and styles, and with considerable verbal wit, the narrative of the poem describes the experiences over 20 years that Merrill and his male partner David Jackson had with a Ouija board, and is organized, on one level, around Dante's triad of Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, and on another around the structure of the board itself, its letters, numbers, and its YES, NO, and ampersand. The voices from the spirit world are transcribed in small upper-case letters, while the rest of the poem involves scene-setting, and commentary, questions and discussion by the two mortals. The details of Merrill's cosmology have...

Surrey Henry Howard Earl Of

These carefree days were soon to end. In 1535 Surrey was back in England to witness his father preside over the trial of Anne Boleyn, his cousin, and Henry Vlll's second queen. The following year, 1536, saw the death of Surrey's good friend Henry Fitzroy and the rise of Edward Seymour, brother of Henry vIII's new queen, Jane Seymour. The two men became instant enemies, and Surrey was jailed in 1537 for assaulting Seymour at Hampton Court.

Cynthia With Certain Sonnets Overview Richard Barnfield 1595 As

Barnfield's Cynthia reflects the established tradition of the pastoral, but the 20 sonnets in this sonnet sequence also unmistakably represent same-sex desire that remains unrequited. Some critics insist that the poems represent only male friendship, which was valued above married heterosexual love. Attempts to dismiss the poems as representing male-male desire, however, are no longer the norm.

Shakespeares sonnets Sonnet 87 Farewell thou art too dear for my possessing William

The sonnet opens with the unidentified speaker telling the young man goodbye because he is too dear (expensive, with the pun on dear also meaning precious) for the speaker to keep around. The young man, in all his vanity, undoubtedly knows his own worth. His worth releases him from the speaker's hold, which has expired, just as bids to purchase stocks or bonds expire at a certain point in time. The speaker recognizes that, like the butterfly that must be free to be appreciated, the only way that he can hold the young man is by allowing him the freedom to make the choice to stay or go. For that generosity, the speaker deserves to be treated better. However, the reason for the speaker's generosity is unclear even to him, so in the poem, he is leaning toward reversing his decision. Either the young man gave himself to the speaker (whether sexually or in friendship) not knowing his own worth, or the speaker, to whom the young man gave himself, made a mistake in accepting the gift so the...

Shakespeares sonnets Sonnet 30 When to the sessions of sweet silent thought William

Shakespeare (1599) In this sonnet, William Shakespeare uses metaphors connected to the law courts to help describe the speaker's feelings about his beloved, recalling both guilt and punishment. The sonnet also considers how time can affect friendship and love. Possibly the slowness with which English court cases preceded in the past suggested this combination of images to the poet. The speaker begins by talking about the periods using the term that refers to the sittings of law courts, sessions when he pleasantly muses upon the past and the changes that have occurred in his life. He uses the word summon (l. 2) which refers to the legal document that calls a person to appear at a court proceeding to describe how the beloved calls up past memories. Pondering these memories, the speaker mourns the loss of things that he tried to obtain but did not, and he laments again all the precious time wasted in the past.

Ask Me No More Where Jove Bestows Thomas Carew 1640 One of the

Astell's first publication, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies (1694), presently housed in the British Museum, suggested that women form an all-female community in which they might achieve education and share supportive friendships. In her concern for women and education, she echoed themes expressed in the previous generation by the writer and poet Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle. As Ruth Perry writes, Astell's sense of self was very much bound up in relationships with other women she both needed and relied upon the community of friends who supported her. Her focus on female friendships carried on the tradition of the 17th-century writer Katherine Philips, who also believed such relationships imperative to the mental and emotional health of women. One of Astell's most important relationships formed with Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, to whom she dedicated her A Serious Proposal. She asks her readers, For since god has given women as well as men intelligent souls, why

To The Memory Of Mr Oldham

Oldham is not known no evidence exists of a friendship or professional collaboration between the two. John Oldham died of smallpox at age 30 in 1683 after producing a small, but well-received body of poetry in satire as well as some translations. The two poets' shared interest in satire, as well as Dryden's sympathy for the loss of a promising young writer, may have prompted his response to Oldham's death.

Hadas Rachel 1948 Rachel Hadas

Born and raised in New York City, Hadas, the daughter of a renowned classics scholar, studied the classics at Harvard and then spent four years in Greece, developing friendships with poets Merrill and Alan Ansen. Her arrest, trial, and subsequent acquittal for the arson of an olive oil press prompted her return to America for graduate study at Johns Hopkins (M.A., 1977) and Princeton (Ph.D., 1982). Her awards include a a number of fellowships and a prize in literature from the American Academy and institute of Arts and Letters (1995). She has taught at Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers Universities, as well as at the Sewanee Writers Conference.

Deep Image Robert Bly and James Wright

Inspired by his friendship and collaboration with Bly (they translated such poets as Neruda, Vallejo, and Trakl together), he abandoned traditional forms and began to express his feelings more directly, at once relaxing and modernizing the language in which he wrote. Wright felt that his work in a traditional style had reached a dead end, and that while he had written poetry that was very strict and careful in its form, he had left out so much of life. He had been trapped, he claimed in a letter to Roethke, by the very thing - the traditional technique - which I labored so hard to attain. The idea of the limitations imposed by poetic form was hardly a new one - Pound had come to much the same realization a half century earlier - but each generation of poets must go through the same process of discovery. In the early 1960s, Wright succeeded in breaking through the ten-mile-thick granite wall of formal and facile 'technique' that was imprisoning him.

Epitaph On Sp A child of queen Elizabeths Chapel Ben Jonson 1616

Pope takes up many additional pitfalls he warns critics to avoid. They include allowing the passage of time to tarnish fine poetry, criticizing it only because it no longer satisfies contemporary taste he uses Chaucer and Dryden as examples. The passing of time may actually cause ripe Colours to soften and unite (490), improving the poem in the eyes of the astute reader. His caution extends to poets who sacrifice the quality of their work to a feeling of competition with one another for critical praise And while Self-Love each jealous Writer rules, Contending Wits become the Sport of Fools (516-517). Petty competition shatters friendship, and critics attack humanity, rather than poor art. Thus, the speaker cautions, never in the Cri-tick let the Man be lost He points to the reigns of Charles II and William III as examples of the fat Age of Pleasure, Wealth, and Ease, in which Sprung the rank Weed, and thriv'd with large Increase, that weed being dullness evidenced in obscene verse....

On The Death Of My First And Dearest Child Hector Philips Borne The 23d Of April And Died

Her son's birth, she had been married for Twice forty months, after which her marriage vows were crowned with a lovely boy. She often uses the metaphor of a crown in her poems to indicate her blessings of friendship, family, and love, equating the change to the maximal elevation in social status one could achieve. The speaker next notes of the infant that after forty days he dropped away o swift vicissitude of human joy Philips was a religious woman and may have adopted the number 40 from biblical references. For example the Hebrews, God's chosen people, wandered for forty years in the desert before arriving at the Promised Land. In addition Christ endured 40 days of fasting during one of his three temptations by Satan, a scene Milton recreated in PARADISE REGAINED. The final line of the first stanza refers to the fleeting nature of human joy, dashed, in this case, by the unanticipated death of the child.

Figurative Language Figure Of

Another example appears in Robert Fergussons The Daft Days, as he opens with the lines Now mirk December's dowie face Glowrs owr the rigs wi' sour grimace. Hyperbole represents exaggeration for effect, as in Katherine Philips's poem To My Excellent Lucasia, on Our Friendship. In order to stress the unusually important nature of the relationship she shares with Lucasia, the speaker states, for thou art all that I can prize, My joy, my life, my rest. In the figure of speech known as metonymy, the name of that being described is substituted for a term closely related. An example may be found in the title of George Herberts The Collar, as well as in a line from that poem, Shall I be still in suit Herbert uses parts of his official dress as a priest to represent the duties that religious station demands from him. Richard Lovelace writes in To Lucasta, going to the Wars, The noted feminist critic Myra Reynolds reintro-duced Finch to academe in an edition of her works titled Poems (1903). A...

Epistle From Mrs Yonge To Her Husband Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

The speaker finally describes herself as wretched and abandoned but able to take some comfort in the mean conduct of her infamously loose husband, feeling secure that those with just and reasonable minds have mentally acquitted her, even though their lips condemn her. She takes solace in the brittle friendships her husband cultivates with the great but predicts his new-found freedom will be tainted by yet another disloyal bride. In actuality, William Yonge would marry well, his new-found wealth allowing him to wed the daughter of a baron. Mary Yonge also remarried, but little else is known of her. EPISTLE to DR. ARBUTHNOT Alexander Pope (1735, 1751) Alexander Pope spent some time considering the choice of form for his late-career rebuttal of those who had most demeaned him in print. He selected a poetic letter, Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, which later critics would deem a rhetorical masterpiece. Because Arbuthnot held the public's esteem, his choice as the ostensible recipient of Pope's...

Canterbury Tales The Overview

Structurally, The Canterbury Tales is an interlocking linear frame narrative. The General Prologue provides the setup It introduces the Pilgrims and suggests an order for the Tales. The Miller quickly violates this outline by interrupting the proceedings and telling his Tale after the Knight's, disregarding social rank. However, as this interruption is clearly by Chaucer's design, it does not disrupt the linear progression. The accepted order of tales also reflects a series of loose themes, although some general themes can be found throughout the collection. These general themes include a concern with the immediate historical context of the late-14th century human desire (in multiple senses), the nature of love and friendship, and the role of Fortune. Perhaps the most famous subdivision of tales is the so-called Marriage Group, a topic suggested by the Wife of Bath. It includes The Wife of Bath's Tale, The Man of Law's Tale, The Clerk's Tale, The Merchant's Tale, and The Franklin's...

Petrarchan See sonnet

PHILIPS, KATHERINE FOWLER (16321664) Katherine Fowler was born in London, daughter of a merchant. A precocious child, she had read the Bible by age four, according to family mythology. She attended school in Hackney, where she probably studied French, as she would later translate from that language. She began writing as a teenager and made important friendships at school, including that of Mary Harvey, niece of William Harvey, credited with describing the circulatory system. Katherine Philips proved an unusual figure for the 17th century, in that she earned public approval as a writer, despite being a woman. While Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle, suffered criticism for her writing, Katherine enjoyed great acclaim. Her dignity and regal bearing, noteworthy attributes in a commoner, had much to do with her public acceptance. She represented the ideal of woman meek, chaste, and quietly intelligent. If she knew how to avoid the ire of men, she also knew how to gain the love of...

Ds revisionist mythmaking

D.'s poetry, and H. D.'s companion Bryher (Winifred Ellerman) wrote an early critical study of Lowell's work. But as opposed to Lowell, whose literary sphere became increasingly American, H. D. was to become truly international in her life and contacts. Beginning in 1911, when she first sailed to London, H. D. spent most of her life in Europe. She gained her pen-name in a London tea-shop in 1912 (where Pound famously signed her poems H. D., Imagiste ), she became a British citizen through her marriage to the poet Richard Aldington, and she had friendships at various points with such literary figures as Pound, Lawrence, Stein, Djuna Barnes, Sylvia Beach, Nancy Cunard, Dorothy Richardson, and Edith Sitwell in Europe, as well as Lowell, Moore, and Williams in the United States. She was psychoanalyzed by Sigmund Freud in Vienna (in 1933-34), and she died in Switzerland in 1961.

Gondibert Excerpt William Davenant

As he continues, Donne completes the thought regarding men's not obeying their natural form to explain that their souls instead adopt Pleasure or business, which they substitute For their first mover, and are whirled by it. The image of planets whirling outside their orbits proves a strong comparison for man's misguided actions. The speaker next notes that while his soul's form bends toward the East, he is carried towards the West. As Gardner explains, while the natural motion of spheres was west to east, the force of the primum mobile could move them instead from east to west. The spheres also suffered other forces that served to deflect them from their proper motions. Donne had used this CONCEIT, as Gardner notes, in a letter to a friend in which he contrasted true friendship with false, writing, which is not moved primarily by the proper intelligence, discretion, and about the naturall center, virtue . . . returns to the true first station and place of friendship planetarily, which...

Excuse For So Much Writ Upon My Verses An Margaret Cavendish

Acquaintance distraught over financial difficulties had committed suicide by jumping into the river. She continues by describing the countryside as The soft, romantic valleys, high o'er-peered, By hills and rocks, in savage grandeur reared. Seward's use of past tense may indicate that she remains lost in memories, rather than immersed in the present. She mentions Thy haunts, my native Eyam, long unseen and remarks on the lov'd inhabitants that she imagines she sees again. She notes their gaze is from the eyes of Friendship, but that they inspire in her pain'd sighs and a spontaneous flow of tears. She recalls that she had viewed everything while by a Father's side, now pastor, to this human-flock no more, while Distant he droops, and that once gladdening eye Now languid gleams. The melancholy tone heightens as the speaker remarks on the change in the walk from one once smooth, and vivid green to one of weedy gravel . . . Rough, and unsightly, as she makes her way to the now deserted...

Petrarch Francesco Petrarca

(1304-1374) Francesco Petrarca, better known simply as Petrarch, spent his early years at Avignon where his father, a lawyer, worked at the papal court. Petrarch also studied law, but he eventually devoted himself fully to literary pursuits. He spent most of his life, until 1361, in Avignon and Vaucluse, although he retired to Padua, where he enjoyed the friendship of Giovanni Boccaccio. Credited as one of the fathers of humanism, Petrarch not only studied the classical authors but also avidly sought lost manuscripts. His most famous discovery, made in 1345, was of Cicero's letters to Atticus, Brutus, and Quintus, at the cathedral library in Verona.

The Black Mountain poets

The poet whose work and ideas were most clearly in dialogue with those of Olson was Robert Creeley. Olson and Creeley were in almost daily contact during the early 1950s, and their voluminous correspondence (published in ten volumes thus far) chronicles one of the most important literary friendships of the late twentieth century. Creeley's peripatetic lifestyle - he moved from New Hampshire to southern France and then to Mallorca before coming to teach at Black Mountain in 1954 - made letters a convenient form in which to express his developing sense of poetry and poetics.

William Carlos Williams 18831963

While an undergraduate at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine from 1902 to 1906, Williams met and formed lifelong friendships with Ezra Pound, Hilda Doolittle, and the American modernist painter Charles Demuth. Williams's poems at this time were largely watery imitations of Keats and Whitman, while his first book, the self-financed Poems of 1909, contains verse modeled on the genteel Romanticism of such writers as Bliss Carman and Arthur Davison Ficke. (Williams never reprinted these poems in his collected volumes.) Pound, now in London, as was H.D., responded to the book's derivative poems frankly, and sent the out of touch Williams the first of what would over the years be many reading lists (Williams, sometimes exasperated with them, reproduces an example in Paterson). Williams visited Pound in London in 1910, following six months of studying pediatrics in Leipzig, and Pound continued to keep Williams informed about the latest movements and journals in London. This...

General Survey Of Periods Authors And Works

Fortable consideration of the human condition. Life and death, those still most mysterious states of being that continue in our advanced century to escape scientific explanation, remain enduring topics for poetry, regardless of the era. Examples in this Companion include Mary Barbers light celebration Written For My Son, And Spoken by Him at His First Putting on Breeches as well as Ben Jonson's laments On My First Son and On My First Daughter and Elizabeth Boyd's sober contemplation On The Death of an Infant of Five Days Old, Being a Beautiful but Abortive Birth. Poetry also allows expression of the pure wonder and joy in simple pleasures that too seldom grace us, as seen in Thomas Trahernes On Leaping over the Moon and Katherine Philip's Friendship's Mysteries, to My Dearest Lucasia.

Drayton Michael 15631631 Michael

Drayton had long enjoyed the patronage of Queen Elizabeth and became a familiar figure at her court, known to have shared a friendship with Ben Jonson. However, after her death, when he dedicated a poem to her successor, James I, the King rejected it. Drayton responded in the form of a beast fable, The Owl (1604, 1619). He lacked the biting wit for satire, though, and turned more successfully to the ode, becoming the first English poet to produce a collection of work inspired by Horace's Odes. That collection, titled Poems Lyric and Pastoral (1606), also contained eclogues. In 1612 and 1622, Drayton published the two parts of his major work, Poly-Olbion, the first part dedicated to Henry, prince of Wales, who had granted the poet a small bequest. That work had occupied him for some years, as he remained determined to produce a complete history of England the first part contained 18 volumes, and the second part contained 12 volumes. Probably his most important project, it remains his...

Bishop Elizabeth 19111979 From

The beginning of her life as a poet, Elizabeth Bishop was interested in the way that our perceptions can be refined through our encounters with the natural world. Written when she was 16 years old, To a Tree (1927) gives us an early glimpse into her way of viewing the world. The tree outside her window, her kin, asks nothing but To lean against the window and peer in And watch her move about Personified nature is interested in her, but what of her own interest in nature What does she make of her life, an existence Full of tiny tragedies and grotesque grieves, as she looks back at nature Central to our understanding of Bishop's work is our understanding of the tense moment when the poet turns her gaze from herself to the world. As she incorporated the natural world into her poetry, Bishop developed a voice that remains one of the most unique in American poetry. She captures subtle moments that are deeply felt and elegantly rendered, and in this tradition she was influenced by Marianne...

Elegy Written In A Country Churchyard Figurative Language

While the sharing of his poem dismayed Gray, he became even more dismayed when contacted by an editor of a disreputable periodical titled the Magazine of Magazines who planned to publish the work. He appealed to Walpole to help prevent an initial publication in that source, at which point Walpole immediately published the elegy in a quarto-sized pamphlet, which sold for the cost of sixpence, the day before the magazine published a copy filled with spelling errors. The quarto sold out, to be reprinted multiple times over the following years. In the opinion of the critic A. L. Lytton Sells, no such brief poem has ever received the attention garnered by Gray's work for decades English schoolchildren had to commit it to memory. The language, more than theme, captured the imagination of not only the ordinary reader, but also poets including George Gordon, Lord Byron, and Alfred Lord Tennyson. Gray borrowed liberally for his creation, the most often quoted line, The paths of glory lead but...

From The Faerie Queene

In a letter to the English poet Sir Waiter Ralegh (ea, 1552-1618 see pp. 151-58) published with the first edition, Spenser declares that his principal intention in writing the poem is to fashion a gentleman or noble person in virtuous and gentle discipline. Thus he sets forth a plan to write twelve books, each one having a hero distinguished for one of the private virtues twelve books on the public virtues will follow. The six books that Spenser completed (the first three published in 1590, the remaining three published in 1596) present the virtues of Holiness, Temperance, Chastity, Friendship, Justice, and Courtesy. In addition, two cantos on Mutability (the principle of constant change in nature) were published in 1609 after Spenser's death, although no known authority exists for their division and numbering, or for the running title, The Seventh Booke.

Trench Poets Figurative Language

Limbert, Claudia. Two Poems and a Prose Receipt The Unpublished Juvenilia of Katherine Philips. English Literary Renaissance 16 (1986) 383-390. Llewellyn, Mark. Katherine Philips Friendship, Poetry and Neo-Platonic Thought in Seventeenth-Century England. Philological Quarterly 81, no. 4 (fall 2002) 441-468. Reynolds, Myra. The Learned Lady in England 1650-1760. Mass. Harvard university Press, 1931. Taylor, Jeremy. The Measures and Offices of Friendship. 1662. Reprint, New York Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1984.

Allen Ginsberg 19261997

His early poetry at Columbia was in the vein of such seventeenth-century poets as Sir Thomas Wyatt and Andrew Marvell. But his most important literary education came from his growing friendship with Kerouac, Burroughs, and other radical writers centered in New York's Greenwich Village. Yeats, Baudelaire, and Blake were the key figures informing the Romantic sensibility of the group. In 1948, the year in which he graduated from Columbia, Ginsberg had a mystical vision which he later recalled many times as central to his growth as a writer, and which he particularly associated with William Blake.

Figurative Language In To Lucasta Going To Wars

The Latin poet Petrarch it often focused on the female form and romance. The Petrarchan sonnet consists of a grouping of eight lines, an octave, which may outline a situation upon which the final six lines, a sestet, comments. Occasionally a white space appears between the two sets of lines. The octave's rhyming pattern is usually abbaabba, although that may be altered, while that of the sestet might contain two to three rhyme patterns, such as cdcdcd or cdecde. The octave might also offer the reader an idea, while the sestet follows with an example, or vice versa. Lady Mary Wroth's extraordinary sonnet sequence Pamphilia to Amphilanthus illustrates the Petrarchan technique. Sonnet 43 in this grouping offers an octave describing night as welcome to the speaker's mind distressed, because of its nature as Dark, heavy and sad. In the final sestet the speaker requests night's friendship, as she remains as sad and dark as though canst be, Hating all pleasure or delight of life. Thus the...

Elizabeth Bishop 19111979

Bishop had planned a medical career upon entering Vassar, but by the time she graduated in 1934 she had decided to become a writer. At Vassar, with fellow students Mary McCarthy and Muriel Rukeyser, she founded the student literary journal Con Spirito, and published there a number of her earliest poems. The Vassar librarian arranged a meeting for her with Marianne Moore, which lead to a lifelong friendship. Her poem Invitation to Miss Marianne Moore is one well-known tribute. With the income from a small trust fund (her grandfather and father's construction company had overseen the building of the Boston Public Library and the city's Museum of Fine Arts) she lived for the next few years in New York, in Europe, and in Key West, Florida. Lowell, who like Jarrell went on to form a lifelong friendship with Bishop, characterized the poems in a Sewanee Review essay as unrhetorical, cool, and beautifully thought out. Lowell also noted a tension between motion,

The Princess Waladatap 143

Woman no less beautiful than talented. She was devoted to the study of rhetoric and poetry she cultivated the friendship of the distinguished poets of her age, and frequently indulged in the pleasure of their conversation. In writing she had a great deal of wit and acumen, as may be seen from this distich. Cassiri Bib. Hisp.

Antar Summoned From Mecca To Rescue Shas

The unhappy Prince, however, finds a friend in need in the old lady of Kendeh, who, with her family, had been rescued from the brigand Sudam, by Antar, on his way to Mecca. Misfortune had taught Shas a salutary lesson, and he now bitterly repented of his conduct towards the noble hero he assured the old lady that if ever he gained his freedom he would henceforth befriend Antar, and further his union with Abla. Perceiving the advantages which Antar would derive from the friendship of Shas, the good old lady despatches her husband, As-hath, to Mecca, to acquaint the hero of Shas' condition.

Satire against Mankind

You see how far man's wisdom here extends Look next if human nature makes amends Whose principles most generous are, and just, And to whose morals you would sooner trust. Be judge yourself, I'll bring it to the test Which is the basest creature, man or beast Birds feed on birds, beasts on each other prey, But savage man alone does man betray. Pressed by necessity, they kill for food Man undoes man to do himself no good. With teeth and claws by nature armed, they hunt Nature's allowance, to supply their want. But man, with smiles, embraces, friendship, praise, Inhumanly his fellow's life betrays


But Rintrah who is of the reprobate of those form'd to destruction In indignation. for Satans soft dissimulation of friendship Flam'd above all the plowed furrows, angry red and furious, Till Michael sat down in the furrow weary dissolv'd in tears Satan who drave the team beside him, stood angry & red He smote Thulloh & slew him, & he stood terrible over Michael

Cleveland John

The second section frames the comparison of the four female poets. Apollo begins his competition by asking to see their work. Alinda specializes in love poetry, and the speaker describes her work So easy the verse, yet composed with such art, That not one expression fell short of the heart. Apollo is so struck by her song upon love that he decides to accompany her with his lyre, Declaring no harmony else could be found Fit to wait upon words of so moving a sound. Just as he moves to set the laurel upon Alinda's head, he hears Laura reading a paper. Finch then references Orinda, the classical name Katherine Philips, The Matchless Orinda, had given herself in her poetry. Another female poet who left a great legacy to those who followed in the next century, as did Finch, she specialized in same-sex love poetry, focusing without erotic suggestion on the strong friendships of women. So beautiful were Laura's words that Apollo felt Orinda might have written them. He now finds himself...

Women and Science

Although women were largely debarred from professional qualifications of any sort, we should not forget that they too could contribute to the scientific Enlightenment Lady Mary Wortley Montagu was the prime mover in importing the technique of smallpox inoculation from the Middle East. Smallpox was the greatest killer of the century and the destroyer of female beauty Montagu records her own case in Saturday. The SmallPox (Six Town Eclogues, 1747, in Fairer and Gerrard 1999 282). Although Montagu was an aristocratic exception to the rule in terms of her own social power, education, and indeed general self-confidence, other female poets felt able, however cautiously, to participate in the poetic and scientific revolution of the time. Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea, wrote The Spleen as an account of her own suffering from a condition (also known as the vapours or hypochondria ) that nowadays we might loosely term depression, and showed a similarly detailed medical knowledge of her...

Theodore Roethke

Roethke's father died of cancer in 1923, two years before the poet entered the University of Michigan. Upon his graduation in 1929 he briefly attended graduate school at the University of Michigan and then at Harvard, before beginning his teaching career at Lafayette College. At Lafayette Roethke found a strong supporter and colleague in poet Stanley Kunitz, and later he formed an important friendship with Kenneth Burke while teaching at Pennsylvania State University (1936-43). He then went on to teach at Bennington College. But between holding the positions at Lafayette and Pennsylvania State, while teaching at Michigan State in 1935, Roethke was hospitalized for what were to become recurring bouts of mental illness. These breakdowns, and a drinking problem that sometimes produced violent mood swings - alternate feelings of self-doubt and of bravado - haunted Roethke for the rest of his life, but became part of the intense exploration of self (Fishing in an old wound as he put it in...


For as his Emanation divided, his Spectre also divided In terror of those starry wheels and the Spectre stood over Los Howling in pain a blackning Shadow, blackning dark & opake Cursing the terrible Los bitterly cursing him for his friendship To Albion, suggesting murderous thoughts against Albion. And thus the Spectre spoke Wilt thou still go on to destruction Till thy life is all taken away by this deceitful Friendship He drinks thee up like water like wine he pours thee Into his tuns thy Daughters are trodden in his vintage He makes thy Sons the trampling of his bulls, they are plow'd And harrowd for his profit, lo thy stolen Emanation Is his garden of pleasure all the Spectres of his Sons mock thee Look how they scorn thy once admired palaces now in ruins Because of Albion because of deceit and friendship For Lo Hand has peopled Babel & Nineveh Hyle, Ashur & Aram Cobans son is Nimrod his son Cush is adjoind to Aram, By the Daughter of Babel, in a woven mantle of pestilence & war.


Wayward Love & every sorrow & distress is carved here Every Affinity of Parents Marriages & Friendships are here In all their various combinations wrought with wondrous Art All that can happen to Man in his pilgrimage of seventy years Such is the Divine Written Law of Horeb & Sinai And such the Holy Gospel of Mount Olivet & Calvary

E174 E174 E174 E174

All these ornaments are crimes, they are made by the labours Of loves of unnatural consanguinities and friendships Horrid to think of when enquired deeply into and all These hills & valleys are accursed witnesses of Sin I therefore condense them into solid rocks, stedfast A foundation and certainty and demonstrative truth That Man be separate from Man, & here I plant my seat.

Everson William

EVERSON, WILLIAM (BROTHER ANTONINUS) (1912-1994) By virtue of early literary friendships with Robert duncan and Kenneth rexroth, William Everson is often counted among the poets of the san francisco renaissance. He saw his life and work proceed in three phases the first a quest to understand his place in the physical world, the second a rejection of that world in an effort to achieve union with God, and the third a period of synthesis, or reconciliation of the former two. Moving between the polarities of acceptance and renunciation that characterized his personal life, Everson's poems combine a deep knowledge of psychoanalysis and theology with autobiographical candor to investigate what he called, The divisible selves, Ill eased with each other. ( The Chronicle of Division 1946 ). Narrative, confessional, keenly descriptive, and presented with, in David A. Carpenter's words, incantatory intensity and insistence (173), his poems travel the rugged physical and emotional trails famously...

From Beowulfl

But blessed is he who after death can approach the Lord and find friendship in the Father's embrace. So that troubled time continued, woe 190 that never stopped, steady affliction for Halfdane's son, too hard an ordeal. There was panic after dark, people endured raids in the night, riven by the terror.

Alex Calder

North of Boston, Frost's second book, came out in England in 1914. A few poems go back a decade to Frost's years as a chicken farmer in New Hampshire ('The Death of a Hired Man', 'The Black Cottage', 'The Housekeeper') others ('The Mountain', 'After Apple-Picking', 'The Woodpile') were largely completed before Frost left for England in 1912, where the remaining ten poems were written 'on an inspiration compounded of homesickness and the delight of new friendships' (Cramer, 1996, pp. 28 9). It is striking how early in the century these poems appear. The major work of the firstgeneration modernists is still years off, yet Frost is already writing in his mature style and has found his own way through to the directness valued by Pound and the Imag-ists. There is another reason why these poems might seem to have arrived early Frost does not develop as a poet after the publication of this book. He would often write as well, but he would seldom write differently. Other poets would experiment...

HD Hilda Doolittle

H.D. married Aldington in 1913, but the marriage was not successful. A daughter, Perdita, born in 1919, was not Aldington's, and in that year the couple split up, although they were not divorced until 1938. In 1914 H.D. began a close, apparently platonic, personal friendship with D. H. Lawrence that covered four years and is recorded in her novel Bid Me To Live (written in 1939, published in 1960), although the narrative centers upon her relationship with Aldington. But the crucial personal meeting in these years was with the writer Bryher (Winifred Ellerman) in 1918. After the break-up with Aldington, the wealthy Bryher became variously friend, companion, lover, and financial protector to H.D. for the rest of the poet's life, although they did not live together after 1946.

Dean Young Storms

Each with a quill directed inward, against the face. Awful to be in it as well as outside of it, hooting with fear. Will A stay with B and is B's cancer-riddled mother choosing this exact moment to die, can anyone actually choose a moment to die, choose to die at all and what is a moment anyway but a thing made entirely of its own vanishing It all gets complex fast. You're just sitting there, nodding, then BOOM, the temple's in ruins and the emperor has you up at dawn beating the ocean with chains. I wonder if C will ever forgive me and will D ever pick up his phone Then the dream of the sun. Then the dream of the black dogs and saying yes in the desert. There were those masks on the terrified wall. Maybe she should go. Maybe I should explain. When the fire next door is out, the firemen loiter and smoke in the rain. Who hasn't wanted to be a fireman in a rubber raincoat, everything ash and hissing In the rain she decided to leave him and in the rain she decided to go back. Such...

Literary Conventions

Several literary critics have argued that Romanticism was a male-gendered institution. Certainly we find in the Russian poetry of the first half of the nineteenth century such blatantly male-centered Romantic conventions as the friendly epistle (druzheskoe poslanie) celebrating the cult of male friendship, anacreontic odes, and Bacchic poetry.1 Here I would like to consider some of the ways that women poets of this period dealt with two less obvious but more basic androcentric Romantic conventions poetic representations of the self and of nature.

With Crossreferences

Consolation Adversity Friendship Heaven Memory Mourning Friendship Age Help Charity Friendship Gratitude Ingratitude Sympathy Hospitality Friendship Home Table Jesus Christ Friendship Humility Virtue Love Admiration Blush Constancy Friendship Secret Conversation Friendship Society Conversation Friendship Home Hospitality Scandal Speech Sympathy Friendship Love's Arts Mercy

Elizabeth Bishop

Bishop's poetry resists easy classification, and despite her friendship with Lowell and her generational affinities with the confessionals, her work displays a greater degree ofreticence and restraint than that ofpoets like Lowell, Berryman, Plath, and Sexton. I have decided to conclude this chapter with a discussion of Bishop not because I think her poetry falls neatly or easily into the confessional mode, but because her work - by its very resistance to the more intimate styles of her contemporaries - tests the limits of the confessional paradigm as a strategy for reading poetry that is personal or autobiographical in nature. According to at least one of the definitions of the confessional poem - a type of narrative and lyric verse . . . which deals


An inhabitant of Tcos, we hear of Anacrcon as among thosc who, when the reduction of their city by Harpagus was imminent, escaped slavery by fleeing to a new home at Abdcra, about the year 540 B.C. It was probably at this time that he made his acquaintance with the evils of warfare, an acquaintance which brought him little credit, if we may judge from an apparent confession in Frag. XXIX. d. (7'. note ad loci). Neither was his love of freedom so great as to hinder him from accepting the invitation of the Tyrant Polycratcs to Samos, and he lived in close friendship with his patron 1 until the murder of the latter in 522 B.C. Anacrcon had long since established a Hellenic reputation and Ilipparchus2 invited him to add lustre to his princely household, sending a fifty-oared vessel to escort him to Athens. Here he must have been in intimate acquaintance with Simonides, and also on terms of friendship with many of the great Athenian families,3 and the citizens in general showed their...

The priamel

The 'priamel' (praeambulum) is a figure familiar to classicists from archaic elegy and lyric, whereby a series of parallel statements serves to throw the last into relief.129 Solon fr. 9 may serve as an illustration 'From the cloud comes the fury of snow and hail, I from the bright lightning comes thunder, I and from big men a city is destroyed.' When Achilles says to Hector 'As there are no treaties between lions and men, nor do wolves and lambs maintain concord, so there is no friendship for me and you' (Il. 22. 262-5), it is from the formal point of view a simile, but otherwise it much resembles a priamel.

By Hassan Alasady

Within that cell, beneath that heap, Friendship and Truth and Honour sleep. Beneficence, that used to clasp The world within her ample grasp, There rests entombed of thought bereft For were one conscious atom left, New bliss, new kindness to display, 'T would burst the grave, and seek the day.

Isobel Grundy

She herself called these poems Eclogs. Horace Walpole named them Six Town Eclogues when he published them (Montagu 1747), and the name has stuck. They are probably her best-known poems today, although their deep roots in the urban, upper-class social fabric of their time present certain difficulties to the modern reader. Another set of problems arises from a different set of social roots the exciting new friendship between the aristocratic Lady Mary and the young, middle-class, male poets John Gay and Alexander Pope, virtuosi of the mock form in poetry. Gay had taken Swift's idea of town pastoral (where poetic conventions designed for presenting the innocent countryside are mockingly applied to the wicked, sophisticated, sometimes squalid town) and used it for eclogue, the genre in which simple shepherds declared their devotion to music and girls (Swift 1967 86, 91-3 Gay 1974 vol. 1, 231ff.). Pope had produced the most famous poem in this broad category The Rape of the Lock (1712,...

Robert Frost

Frost's relationship to the modernist movement in American poetry was a rather distant one his friendship with Pound lasted only a few weeks and he hardly knew Eliot or Williams. Frost ridiculed the route ofmodernist experimentation followed by Pound, Eliot, Williams, and Cummings, preferring to adhere to more traditional forms of poetry. During his stay in England,

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