During nearly nine generations, almost three centuries, Bragi's verses must have suffered many changes in his reciters' mouths, even by the time that Ari received them; but these changes, though no doubt modernising grammar, substituting newer for older words and phrases, were not of the radical character which, we believe, those of a later date were. In the North French Chansons de geste, we see the old 'assonantic leashes' replaced by rhymed couplets, and these by Alexandrines, as successive editions of a poem are adapted to successive generations, and we take it, that either deliberately, as in France, or by degrees, many of Bragi's rough lines were in the generations between Ari and Snorri polished into more or less strict court-metre of Harold Sigurdsson's day; a line here and there being left almost untouched, where tradition spoke too strongly in its favour, to give us some glimpse into the real state of the case. A line, one half blank, one half with a fairly pure consonance, is, we think, the true Bragian line, still extant in the burdens —

|>at sek fall a fogrom, etc. |>a ma sukn, etc.; and the lines we have been able to recover—

iofrom vulfs of sinna meft valgifris lifro ;

fyr Veniris viftri val-rauf fiogor havfuft.

Many of the lines yield as they stand either no meaning at all, or a forced commonplace platitude. This must not be put to the poet: on the whole, we believe that two-thirds of the verses in Bragi's remains are either maimed or metamorphosed so that we cannot be sure of a word in them, in the remaining third a word or phrase occurs with the genuine 'Bragian' ring.

The old Hamtheow's Lay must have been known to Bragi. We have noted the parallelisms in the margin. Egil seems to have known Bragi's poems. We may fancy that such characteristic and peculiar words as 'enni-tungl' (Egil's 'enni-mani') were coined by Bragi, and passed from him to the younger poet.

Most if not all of Bragi's verse that has reached us are from a Shield-Lay, viz. the introduction, and two sections (the Everlasting Fight and the Struggle in Eormanric's Hall). Part of a third section (on Gcfion's Draught), and an epilogue (on the King's Guerdon), may have belonged to the same poem, as we have arranged it here. As also the fragments depicting Thor fishing lor the Earth-Serpent, and a few lines on the same god's exploits against the three-headed monster Thriwald and the giant Thiazzi (which it is possible may have belonged to a separate Thors Drapa), together with a line on Woden.

The little verse ascribed by Snorri to Bragi, see Book vi, Ditties No. i, is given by Saxo to Bersi and Groa. See Notes.

The shield which Bragi describes, may have been not unlike those of Homer and Hesiod. Like them too, it was probably of foreign design ^ and make. The lively fancy of a poet would identify the struggling monsters on an eastern target with Thor and the Beast (just as he would no doubt have, had he seen a Greek vase, identified the sack of Troy with the vengeance of Gudrun's son on Eorinanric, or Herakles and Geruones w ith Thunder and Thriwald), as we know that Warangian tradition declared the statues in the Hippodrome at Constantinople to be the images of their own Wolsungs and Giukungs.

The story of the Everlasting Battle is a wide-spread tradition in the North, localised in many places. Saxo the Dane fixes it in Hethinsoe, the German author of Kudrun lays the scene at Wiilpensand or Wul-penwert, at the Scheldt-mouth, Bragi the Northman (see 1.14 and in our reading 1. 17) in Hod, an island off Northmore in Norway, while Snorri, whose information on these matters is, we take it, drawn from the Western Islands more or less remotely, places it at Hoy in the Orkneys, where also it is fixed by the late legend in Flatey-bok, where King Olaf Tryggvason is made to break the spell that bound the doomed kings.

Snorri tells the tale in Skaldskapa-mal thus:—"A king who is called Hogni (Hagena) had a daughter whose name was Hild. The king, whose name was Hedin, the son of Hiarrand, carried her off as captive. Hagena was away at the time at the Kings'-Moot, but when he heard that his realm had been harried and his daughter carried away, he set out with his men of war to seek Hedin, having heard that Hedin had sailed northward up the coast; but when King Hagena came to Norway, he heard that Hedin had sailed west across the main. Then Hagena sailed after him as far as the Orkneys, and when he came to the island that is called Hoy, there he found Hedin with his men of war. Then Hild went to meet her father, and offered him on Hedin's behalf a Necklace for peace, but her words were otherwise, for she said that Hedin had made ready to fight, and that Hagena could look for no mercy from him. Hagena answered his daughter stiffly, but when she came back to Hedin, she told him that Hagena would have no peace, and bade him make ready for battle. So the two kings did, and landed on the island and set their warriors in array. Then Hedin called to Hagena his father-in-law and offered him to make peace and give him much gold as boot. Then answered Hagena, Thou makest this offer too late, if thou wishest for peace, for now I have drawn Dains-loom which the Dwarves wrought, that is fated to be a man's death every time it is made bare, and never swerves in its stroke, and its wound never heals, if it be but a scratch of it. Then answered Hedin, Thou shalt brag of thy sword but not of the victory. I call that a good sword that is true to its master. Then they begun the battle which is called the Heatbnings' Fight, and fought all the day, but in the evening the kings went off to their ships. But Hild went by night to the slain, and woke to life by her enchantment all them that were dead. And the next day the kings went to the field of battle and fought, and with them all they that had fallen on the former day. So that battle went on day after day, and all they that fell and all their weapons that lay on the field of battle, and their bucklers likewise, turned to stone; but in the dawning all the dead men arose and fought and all their weapons then became of use again. And it is told in Lays that the Heathnings shall in this wise abide the Doom of the Powers."

The 'stone weapons' look as if the necessary correspondence in shape between weapons of bronze and stone had been noticed by some early observer, and theorised upon with a curious inversion of the development theory.

firagi takes up the story when the two kings are lying at the island ready for war, and that guileful witch, the fair Hild, is going from one to the other with the necklace.

The Eormanric story, as told by Bragi, begins with the Gothic king's evil dream and waking under the swords of the avenging brethren. The scene in the hall must have been of great power in the original form. The death of the brethren closes the strophe. Snorri's prose here follows Bragi rather than Hamtheow's Lay:—' But when they came to

King Eormanric's by night, when he was sleeping, and cut off his hands and feet, then he awoke and called to his men and bade them awake.' Nor docs Snorri know of Woden's interposition, but with our poem ascribes to Eormanric himself the command to stone the brothers.

The Gefion story, a geographic legend, is told in Ynglinga Saga, where the lake from which the island Zealand is dragged is called Mselar (by a mistake which would easily occur to foreigners at a time when maps were not). However, the poem itself contains the real name (which one glance at the shape of the lake makes evident) concealed under the senseless 'uineyiar ualrauf.' There must have been another like story about Gotland and Mselar lake, one would think. The four heads and eight eyes recall the old chariot scenes of Assyrian and Egyptian sculpture, and incline one to put this section to the Shield Lay.

The next morsel, Tbor and the Serpent, if we read 4 sent' as ' seen,' an archaic form (and it can hardly be from 1 senna' the meaning of which * to banter' would not fit), would be also a section of a Shield-Lay.

We should thus get a round target of four sections, each containing a scene of a separate subject. The sections of this shield may even have led to the strophic division of the drdpa, which was possibly a development of the Shield-Lay, and Bragi, the earliest Northern Shield-Poet, may have been the creator of this metric form.

Bragi's fragments are found in Edda, Codex Wormianus as usual yielding the best text. But the Eormanric section, not found there, is best given in i e 3, which, for instance, has preserved the right reading 'ol-skalir,' confirmed by Hamtheow's Lay, where Cd. r is wrong. Gefion's bit is also seen in Ynglinga Saga. Sinfitela's death is alluded to in a i kenning.'

Contemporaries of Bragi are Flein Hicrson, Erp Looting (Lutandi), and WolfVargu

* Thorwolf the son of Hariwolf Horn-breaker, and Olaf (Anlaf) his brother, were kings in the Uplands. With them was Flein Hiorson the poet, who was bred up north in More, in an island a little off Borgund, which is called Iosurhcath, where his father dwelt. Flein went to Denmark to meet King Eystan, and gat great honour there for his poesy, so that the King gave him his daughter to wife. Thrasi was the name of Thorwolf's son.* Landnama-bok, (H b) V. ch. i.

Erp Lowting was the father-in-law of Bragi the poet. See Landnama-bok.

4 Wolf Uargi was a noble baron in Norway, in Naumdale, the father of Hallbiorn Half-fiend, the father of Kettle Ha:ing. Wolf made a Praise-song in one night, telling his valiant deeds, and was dead before daybreak.' Skaldatal. He was Kveld-Ulfs mother's father. Landn.

We take 'uarge* to be simply 'waerg,' cursed, wicked; the epithet applied to any of the bigger beasts of prey, lion, etc. It probably implies something like 'hamramr' and 'ofreskr.'

No verse of these men remain, but there is a metre called Flein's.

I. Introduction.

i. \ 7ILIT, Hrafn-ketill, heyra hve hrein-groit steini V tniSar bkal-ok ok pengil piofs ilja-blafi leyfa?

I. Prologue. Hearken, O Ravenkettlc, to my praise of the brightly-painted Shield and of the king, that gave it me: so that the son of

2. Nema svá at gó8 ins gialla giaold baug-navar vildi meyjar hióls enn moéri ma)gr Sigraoñar Haogna.

II. Hilda and Hogni.

3. Ok um'€ j)erris oé8a' ósk-rán at J>at sínom 5 til fár-huga fcéri feflr veór 'boda' hugfli:

M es hristi-sif hringa hals in ba>ls of fyllda bar til byrjar draosla baug a>rlygiss draugi.

4. Bauña sú til bleyfli ba¡8i-t)rú8r at móti malma mcétom hilmi men dreyrogra benja: 10

svá lét ey J)oat etti sem orrosto letti iajfrom Vulfs of sinna me8 valgifris lifro.

5. Letrat l^da stillir landa vanr á sandi

(J)á svall heipt í Hajgna) Ha>8 Glamma 'mun' staodva es J)rym-regin {)remja 'J)róttig He8ins sótto1 15

heldr en Hildar svíra hringa J>eir of fengo.

6. Ok fyr Hao8 í holmi hvedro brynjo Vidris feng eydandi ñióda forda&da nam ráóa:

Allr gekk herr und 'hurdir' Hiarranda 'fram kyirar,1 rei8r at Reifniss skei8i rañalfr af mar bráñom. 20

{Ras gáfomk reidar mána Ragnarr) ok fióld sagtta.

III. Hamtheow and Sorli in Iormunrek1 s Hall.

8. Knátti endr vi8 illan Iaormunrekr at vaknfc med dreyr-fár dróttir draum í sverfta flaumi:

Sigrod [Sigfred] may learn the song I have made in return for the ring-naved buckler.

II. The Everlasting Battle. The sense beneath the 1 overlaid* words and phrases seems to be—And in dire mood she plotted her father's death, when she maliciously brought him the Necklace down at the ships. It was not for peace sake she brought it him. She made ever as if no bloodshed would come of it, while she was egging them on to the company of the corse-greedy Wolfs sister [Hell].

Hageno, with furious heart, brought his ships to land on the sand of the isle of Hod, and the host of Hedin came forth to meet him, having received Hilda's necklace. Yea, the fatal sorceress prevailed on them to fight in the isle of Hod, and the whole host of Hiarrandi's son [Hedin] marched straightway down to the sea. . . . Re/rain. This Battle and many tales more may be seen on the Shield that Ragnar [Reginhere] gave me.

III. The Avenging of Sauanhild. In days of yore Eormenric and his ...

3. -navads, 748. 4. Siguröar, W. 6. boöa] miswritten in W. II. aetti, W. I a. Vulfs .. . valgifris] emend.; Ulfs . . . algifris, Cd. 14. Read, mar? 15. Read, -reg;nn . .. feröttigr Heöin sotti? 17. Höö] emend.; hond, W.

19. Read, and hialmom Hiarranda fram burar. 21-22. Moved four lines down. 23. endr] eör, r; 40r, 1 e/9.

aHio8. arösta varö i ranni Randv&s haofuö-niöja 25

t>a es hrafn-blair hefndo harma Erps of barmar. 9. Flaut of set viö sveita, söknar-alfs, d golfi bHii3. hraeva-da>gg J)ar es hoeggnar bhendr sem fcetr of kendosk: cHio9. cFell i blöoi blandinn brunn daol-skdlir Tunna <*Hio8. —ßat'CS ä Leifa landa lauji fdtt—at haoföi. 30

10. tar svd at gaoröo gyröan goif holkvis sä fylkiss 'segls naglfara siglor saums' andvanar standa:

«H39. uröo snemst ok Saorli esam-rdöa l>eir Hamöer haolom heröi-m^lom Hergautz vino baröir.

11. Miok let stdla stoekkvir stydja f'Bikka' niöja 35 fHS5. flaums J)d es 'fiaorvi naema Fogl-hildar' mun vildo:

ok ' bla serkjar birkiss ba>ll fagr-ga)to allir' «Hi 17. enni-haogg ok «eggiar Ionakrs sonom launa.

12. Pat s/k fall d fogrom flotna randar botni

(Rees gdfomk retöar mdna Ragnarr) ok ftölö sagna. 40

IV. Gefiott ploughing Seeland out of Lake Wenereu.

13. Gefion drö frd Gylva, glaoö diüp-ra)öul, a>öla, (svd at af renni-raoknnom rauk) Danmarkar.-auka: Bsoro oexn ok dtta enni-tungl ^ar-es gengo fyr Veniris viöri val-rauf fiogor haofuö.

V. Thor fishingfor ihe Earth Serpent.

14. tat eromk s£nt; at snemma sonr Alda-foörs vildi 45 afls viö üri Saffian Iaeröar reist of freista.

15. Vaör ld Viöris arfa vilgi slakr, enn raköisk d Eynefiss aondri Iormun-gandr at sandi.

host woke out of an evil dream to battle. There arose a tumult in the hall of Randve's kinsman Eormenric what time the raven-black brothers of Erp avenged their wrongs. The benches were swimming in blood, the king's hands and feet lay lopped on the floor, the ale-beakers were shivered, and he fell headlong in his gore. This is painted on my Shield. One might see the hall all stained with blood, the ... , till at last the two single-hearted brethren Hamtheow and Sarila were stoned with the rolling bowls of the earth [stones]. Bikki's men stoned the brothers who came to avenge Swanhild's death, and they paid back the blows and wounds they bad got from Ionakr's sons.

The Fall of these men and many tales more I see upon the fair field of the Shield. Ragnar gave it me.

IV. The Hire qf Gefion. Gefion the rich dragged the Increase of Denmark out of Gylve's domain, her ox-team steamed: four fair heads they bore and eight eyes, while they drew the broad Spoil of Lake Wener.

V. Tbor and Lcviatban. Moreover I see how Thor would try his might

28. J»r cf . . . kendosk] 1 e/9. 29. Emend.; aulskali, 1 e/9. 31. syrdan] i. e. goerdan, gory. 35. Bikka] emend.; Giuka, W; see H5m. 85. 3D. Fogl-hildar^Svanhildar? 44. Veniris] emend.; Vineyjar, Cd.

16. Hamri f6rsk i hcegri haond, J)d-es allra landa eygir aoflog-barfia endi-sei8s of kenndi. 50

17. Ok borfi-roins barfia brautar-hringr inn li6ti d haus-sprengi Hrungniss harfi-geflr nedan starfli.

18. ftokk-vaoxnom kvad J^ykkja J)ikkling firin-mikla hafra-ni6tz at haofgom haetting megin-draetti:

H-es forns litar flotna d fang-bofla aongli 55

hrcekkvi-dll of hrokkinn hekk Volsunga drekko.

19. Vildit vraongom ofra 'vdgs hyr-sendir' aegi hinn es mi6-tygil mdva moerar skar fyr i>6ri.

20. Vel hafit yflrom eykjom aptr, fcrivalda, haldit simli sumbls of maerom sundr-kliufr nio haoffial 60

21. Hinn es varp d vffia vinda Ondor-disar yfir manna sia)t margra munnlaug faofior augom.

22. f>ars es lofSar lita lung v&faSar Gungnis.

23. Elld of J)dk at iaofri a)lna bekks vifl drykkjo;

l>at gaf Fiolniss fialla mefl fulli mer stillir. 65

24. fcann dttak vin verstan vazt-raodd, enn mer baztan Ala undir kiilo 6ni6ra6an trifija.


We have already made some mention of this poet in Book iv, § 2, when we dealt with his poem Ynglingatal. He came from the little dale of Hwin, still known as a valley west of Lindisness (Naze). The patron, for whom he made the poem with which we are con-

against the wave-washed Earth-Serpent. His line was strained hard on to the gunwale While the Leviathan writhed in the sand. He grasped the Hammer in his right hand when he felt the monster on his hook, and the horrid serpent glared up at him. The burly giant Hymir said he thought that Thor had made a parlous haul, when he beheld the venomous snake hanging on the ogre-grasper's hook. He would pull no more, and he cut the slim line for Thor.

O thou that clove asunder Thriwald's nine heads, thou hast brought thy team safe back.

He who cast the eyes of Thiazzi up into the wide dome of the winds, above all the habitations of men.

VI. Here one may see the steed of Woden, Sleipni

VII. I got gold at the king's hands in return for my song. He (the king) was the worst friend to gold and the best to me.

cerned, was the great lawyer and constitution-maker Thorleif the Wise, the organiser of Gula-thing (see King Hakon's Saga, cap. 11), and the counsellor of the Icelanders in their establishment of one General Constitution, 'which' (as Ari tells in Libellus) 'was made for the most part according to the law of Gula-thing as it then stood, and by the advice of Thorleif the Wise, the son of Hordakari, as to the additions or omissions or changes to be made.' Thorleif was the adviser of King Hakon the Good, ^Ethelstan's foster-son, and probably died about 960. He was the ancestor of the later Orkney Earls, of the twelfth century. (See their pedigrees, vol. i. of Orkney Saga, Roll Series.) It was for some member of his family that Hyndlu-liod was made. As the poem tells us, he gave Thiodwolf a shield painted with figures, and it is as a return for this bounty that Thiodwolf made the Shield-Song called Haust-long (Harvest-long). The exact meaning of the title is not certain, but it would seem to show that the poem was meant to while away the long autumn evenings. It is a brighter, but at the same time a more religious poem than any other of its kind. The text rests only on two Edda MSS. (W & r), and chiefly Wormianus.

Thiodwolfs poems have suffered far less than Bragi's from the hand of the improver, chiefly we believe because he is of a more modern type as regards metre. His verses come possibly two generations after Bragi's, and these intervening years are most important ones as regards possibilities of foreign, western, and especially Celtic influences; hence we may readily admit that Thiodwolf employed a more elaborate metric expression than Bragi. Bragi's characteristic line, as we have seen, probably contained no ornament save the old alliterative syllables in the first half, but had a line-consonance in the second half. From this Thiodwolf seems to have gone a step further and sometimes used a full line-vowel rhyme in the second half, while he put a line-consonance in the first half, thus in all probability, for we have no earlier examples of it than his, originating the normal court-metre line. But there were still Bragian lines in his genuine poems (many more than at present no doubt), and the burdens especially are after the older model, and lines with the line-consonance in both halves are frequent.

Thiodwolf uses a rich vocabulary, and has many lines of great force. The opening of the second section of Haust-long, where the Thunder-god comes storming through the sky englobed in fire, is very fine, recalling Milton.

Thiodwolfs poem is a fountain to the mythologist, both as regards the story and, even more, the allusive synonyms.

There are but two sections of Haust-long preserved as citations in Edda, but they seem fairly perfect. The first, with the prologue, tells the tale of the Rape of Id<wyn and the death of Thiazzi, thus paraphrased (from the poem) by Snorri, in the beginning of Bragi's Teaching:—

" He began the story there, how three of the Anses set forth from home, Woden and Loki and Honir, and journeyed over fell and forest, and were badly off for food. And when they came down into a certain dale, they saw a herd of oxen there and took one ox and fell to seething it. And when they thought that it must be sodden, they tried the meat, and, lo, it was not done; and a second time, when an hour had gone by, they tried it again, and it was not done yet. Then they fell to talking among themselves as to what might be the cause thereof, when they heard a voice up in an oak above them, and he that sate there told them the reason why the meat was not done. They looked up, and it was an eagle, and no small one, that was sitting there. Then the eagle spake. If ye will give me my fill of the ox, then the meat will be done. They consented so to do. Then he let himself stoop down out of the tree, and sate down to the meat, and straightway caught up both the thigh of the ox and both the shoulders.

" Then Loki grew wroth, and snatched up a great staff, and brandished it with all his might, and hit the eagle on the back. The eagle started at the blow, and flew up, and, lo, the staff was fast to the back of the eagle, and Loki'sliandsyor/ to the other end. The eagle flew so high that Loki's.feet grazed the rocks and stocks and tree, and he thought that his arms would be torn from his shoulders. He cried out and begged the eagle hard for quarter; but he said that Loki should never get loose, till he set him a day on which he would bring Idwyn with her apples out of Ansegarth. And Loki did so, and straightway he was loosed and went off to his companions; and nothing more is told of their journey before they got back home. But at the appointed hour Loki enticed Idwyn out of Ansegarth into a certain wood, telling her that he had found some apples, which she would think treasures, and bidding her take her apples with her, so as to be able to set them against these. And thither comes Thiazzi the giant in his eagle-skin, and takes up Idwyn and flies away with her into Thrym-ham to his dwelling. But the Anses became distressed at the vanishing, and soon began to grow hoary and old. Then the Anses held a moot, and enquired one of another what was the last seen of Idwyn ; and the last seen of her was, that she was going out of Ansegarth with Loki. Then Loki was taken and brought before the moot, and they promised him death or torture. And when he grew fearful thereat, he said that he would go and seek after Idwyn in Giant-land, if Freya would lend him the hawk-skin she had. And when he had put on the hawk-skin he flew northward into Giant-land, and reached Giant Thiazzi's in one day. He had rowed out to sea fishing, and Idwyn was at home alone, so Loki turned her into the shape of a nut, and took her into his talons and flew off as hard as he could. But when Thiazzi came home and missed Idwyn, he took his eagle-skin, and flew after Loki, and flapped his eagle-wings in his flight. But when the Anses saw how the hawk was flying with the nut and the eagle flying after him, they went out in front of Ansegarth bearing thither loads of plane-chips. And when the hawk flew in over the fortress, he let himself alight just behind the fortress-wall; and immediately the Anses kindled the plane-chips, but the eagle was not able to stay himself when he missed the hawk, and the fire caught in the eagle's plumage and stopped his flight. Then up came the Anses and slew the eagle that was giant Thiazzi inside the wall of Ansegarth, and this slaying is far famed."

The second, the tale of Thor's Wager of Battle with the monster Rungnir, is also paraphrased by Snorri in Skaldskaparmal in the following words:—

" Then Bragi told Egir that Thor was gone into the Eastern quarters to smite giants. But Woden rode Slipper into Giant-land, and came to the house of a giant whose name was Rungnir. Then Rungnir asked, who was the man that wore a golden helmet and was riding over sky and sea, and said that he had a wonderful good horse. Woden said that he would wager his head that there was not a horse in Giant-land as good. Rungnir said that it was a good horse, but that he had a bigger stepper, whose name was Goldmane [Gollfaxi]. (Something missing here.) Rungnir ' was angry, and leapt upon his horse and rode after him, and thought to pay him for his proud speech. Woden rode so hard that he was only just in sight; but Rungnir was in such mighty giant-wrath that he never stayed till he galloped inside the gates of the Anses. And when he came into the doors of the hall the Anses bade him to the drinking; he went into the hall therefore and called for drink to be brought him. Then they took the bowls that Thor was wont to drink out of, and Rungnir emptied them one after another. Now when he was drunken there was no lack of big words in him; he boasted that he could take up Walhall and carry it into Giant-land, and sink Ansegarth, and- slay all the gods save Freya and Sif, whom he would carry home captive with him. Freya was the only one that dared to bear drink to him, and he boasted that he would drink up all the Ale of the Anses. But when the Antes were tired of his bragging, they called for Thor. Forthwith Thor came into the hall; he was holding his Hammer aloft, and was very wroth, and asked by whose counsel it was that dog-minded Giants should be drinking there, and who it was that had given Rungnir safeguard to be in Walhall, and why Freya should be his cup-bearer, as at a guild-feast of the Anses. Then Rungnir answered, beholding Thor with no friendly eyes, saying that Woden had bidden him to the drinking, and that he was under his safeguard. Then Thor said that Rungnir should rue that bidding ere he left the hall. Rungnir says that it were little glory for Thor the Champion to slay him weaponless as he was; it were greater prowess if Thor dared to fight with him on the march at Rockgarth, and it was the greatest foolishness, said he, for me to have left my shield and hone at home, for if I had my weapons here we would try wager of battle now; but as it stands now I charge thee with a craven's deed if thou slay me weaponless. Thor would by no means fail to come to the wager of battle, now that a battle-place was pitched for him, for no one had ever dared to challenge him before. Then Rungnir went his way and rode mightily till he came to Giant-land, and his journey was widely famed among the Giants, and especially that he had set a day for him and Thor to meet. The Giants thought there was great risk which of them should win the day. They feared evil from Thor if Rungnir should fall, because he was the strongest of them all. Then the Giants made a man at Rockgarth of clay; he was nine leagues high and three broad under the arms, but they could not get a heart for him big enough to fit, so they got one out of a mare, and it was not steady within him when Thor came. Rungnir, as it is said, had a heart of hard stone, and pointed into three horns, and according to it is made the figure [fylfot] which is called Rungnir's heart; his head was also of stone, his shield was of stone too, broad and thick, and he held this shield before him as he stood at Rockgarth and waited for Thor, and for a weapon he had a hone which he bore on his shoulder, and was not a man to cope with. On the other side of him stood the Giant of Clay, who was named Muck-calf, and he was very frightened, yea, it is said that he ... . when he saw Thor. Thor went forth to the set place of battle, and Thialfi [Delve] with him. Then Delve ran forward to where Rungnir stood and spoke to him, * Thou art standing unwarily, O Giant, with thy shield before thee, for Thor hath seen thee, and he is going down into the earth and will come against thee from below.' Then Rungnir thrust the shield under his feet, and stood upon it, and took hold of his hone with both hands. And straightway he beheld lightnings and heard great thunder-peals, and saw Thor in his god's wrath. He came on mightily, and brandished his Hammer, and cast it at Rungnir from afar. Rungnir caught up the hone with both hands, and threw it against the Hammer, and it met the Hammer in its flight, and the hone broke asunder, and one half fell to earth, whence came all the rocks of hone, the other half crashed into Thor's head so that he fell forward to the earth. But the Hammer Milner lit on the middle of Rungnir's head and broke the skull into little morsels, and he fell forward over Thor, so that his foot lay athwart Thor's neck. And Delve fought Muck-calf, and he fell with little ado. Then Delve went to Thor, and tried to take Rungnir's foot off him, but could not even stir it. Then all the Anses, when they heard that Thor was fallen, tried to take the foot off his neck, but could not stir it. Then came (Magni) Main, the son of Thor and Ironsax, he was at that time three nights old, he cast Rungnir's foot off Thor, and said,' Little harm may it do thee, father, that I am come so late, I think that I would have smitten the Giant to death with my fist if I had met him!' Then Thor stood up and welcomed his son heartily, and said that he would be a big man of his hands; ' and,' said he,' I will give thee the horse, Goldmane, that Rungnir owned.' Then spake Woden, saying that Thor did wrong to give that good horse to a giantess' son rather than to his own father. Thor went home to Thrudwong with the hone still in his head. Then there came a Sibyl whose name was Groa, the wife of Orwandil the Brave [Orion], she chaunted spell-songs over Thor, till the hone began to loosen. And when Thor felt this and began to think it likely that the hone would soon be out, he wished to repay Groa for her leechcraft and make her glad, so he told her this news, that he had waded over Sleet Bay [Elivoe] from the North and had borne Orwandil from the North out of Giant-land in his basket on his back, and for a token thereof that one of his toes had stuck out of the basket and so got frozen, so that he, Thor, had broken it off and cast it up into the heaven and made the star with it that is called Orwandil's toe [Orion's toe, the star Rigel in Orion ?]. Thor said that it would not be long before Orwandil would be home, and Groa was so glad that she could not go on with her spells, and so the hone never got looser, and it is still fast in Thor's head. And that is why it is forbidden to cast a hone across the floor, because it makes the hone turn that is in Thor's head. According to this tale Thiodwolf of Hwin made Harvest-long."

It is said in the Saga of Harold Fairhair (chs. 26, 37) that Thiodwolf was a dear friend of that king and foster-father to his son Godfrid Gleam; but it will not do to build too much on such tales as are told of him and these princes, for fixing the poet's age or date. They are popular tales, and must go for what they are worth. The king, sitting at a banquet of mead, mutters as he looks down at the long row of men drinking, 4 My men are eager over their mead. Ye are over many here.' Up spake the poet, ' When we were with the king in the battle we were none too many then.' The story is repeated with reference to King Hakon iEthelstan's foster-son and his men (Fagrsk.). And again as occurring to King Magnus Bareleg and Kali the Wise (the descendant of Thiodwolf s patron Thorleif). Another time, when Godfrid was wishing to put to sea, Thiodwolf is said to have improvised this stave, * Go not hence, Godfrid, till the sea grows calm! The billows are dashing the rocks aloft. Wait for a fair wind ! stay with us till the fine weather comes! The surf is running off Iadar!' But the young man would not be stayed, and off ladar his ship sunk in the storm with all hands. We have added these verses as interesting, though not like to be Thiodwolfs.

W = Cod. Worm. (11. 1-43 and 53-80), r=Regins (11. 44-52).

I. The Rape of Idwyn by Giatti Thiazzi.

1. "LJVE skal galla giaaldom gunn-veggjar brú leggja

T^framra sé-ek tiva trygglaust of far l>riggja

á hrein-gero htyri hildar-véss ok fiaza.

2. Seggjondom fió sagna Snótar-ulfr at móti 5 í gemliss ham gaomlom glamma afyr skaommo:

settisk a>m J)ar-es Jüsir 'ár gefnar' mat baóro (vasa byrgi-t^r biarga bleyfii vendr) á seyfli.

3. Tor-midla8r vas tivom tál hreinn meñal-beina;

hvat kvóño hapta snyrtir hialm-faldinn {)ví valda: 10 marg-spakr of nam maela már val-kastar bcoro (vasat Hoénis vinr hónom hollr) af fornom t>olli.

4. Fiall-gylóir bafl fyllar Fet-meila ser deila hlaut af helgom skutli Hrafn-Ásar vin blása: v Ving-rsognir let vagna víg-frekr ofan sígask 15

J)ar-es vél-sparir vóro varnendr gofla farnir.

5. Fliótt bao foldar dróttinn Fárbauta maog 'vára' J>ekkiligr me8 J^egnom j)rym-seilar hval deila: enn af breidom biófli bragñ-víss at {)at lagñi ósvifrandi Asa upp J)iór-hluti fióra. 20

6. Ok slíñr-loga síñan svangr (vas \>zt fyr laongo) át af eiki-róto ok-bia)rn fañir Moma:

áñr diúp-hugaflr draepi dolg ballastan vallar hirñi-t^r meóal herfia her-fangs ofan stsungo.

7. fcá varft fastr vift fóstra farmr Sigynjar arma, 25 (sá-es aull regin eygja) Ondor-goñs (í baondom):

I. Prologue. How can... my mouth render thanks to Thorleif for the bright-ringing shield!

The story of Tbiazzi. Yea, I see the hapless journey of the three gods and Thiazzi painted on the polished cheek of the shield. In days of yore Giant Thiazzi flew in an ancient eagle's feather-skin towards the Anses. He alighted where the Anses were boiling their meat (no coward was he). The gods' dinner was long a preparing. 'What is the cause of it?' quoth the helm-hooded one [Woden]. Up spake the wise eagle from the ancient tree; (no friend of his was Loki.) He prayed Honir for a share from the hallowed dish. Loki had hard work to blow the fire. The greedy Giant stooped down to where the guileless gods were gathered. Woden, the lord of the earth, bade Loki to portion out the ox, and the wily foe of the gods took the four quarters up out of the huge cauldron, and then the hungry Giant out of the tree ate of the ox (it is an old tale) till the deep-plotting god, Lokit struck him between the shoulders with a staff. And forthwith Loki (whom in bonds all the a. Blank in W; kleifat.W? 3 of] ok, W. 4. vez.W. 8. scifti.W. 10 Read, hvat kvaft? 14. hclgu, W, r. laasa, W. 17. faar-, W.

19. Emend.; breifto, W. 20. osviprandi, W. 21. iliftrliga, r (better?).

loddi r® vid ramman reimoö Iaotun-heima, enn hollr vinar Hceniss hendr viö stangar enda.

8. Fió meö 4 fröögom' tiva fang-saell of veg langan sveita nagr, svá-at slitna sundr Ulfs faoör moendi: 30 J)á varö fcórs of rüni (t>ungr vas Loptr) of sprunginn málo-nautr hvatz mátti miöiungs friöar biöja.-

9. Ser baö sagna hroeri sorg-eyra mey fcera, J)á-es elli-lyf Ása, átt-runnr Hymiss, kunni: Brunnakrs of kom bekkjar Brísings goda dísi 35 giröi-t>iöfr í garöa griöt-niöaöar siöan.

10. Uröot brattra boröa byggvendr at {>at hryggvir; t>á vas Iö- meö Iaotnom -unnr n^-komin sunnan: Goeröosk aliar áttir Ingi-Freyss at t>ingi

(váro heldr) ok hárar (ham-liót regin) gamlar: 40

11. Unz 'hrun saeva hraeva* hund Olgefnar fundo leiÖi-J>ir ok laeva lund Ölgefnar bundo:

M skalt véltr, nema vaelom (Veoör maelti svá) 'leiöar' mun-stcerandi maera mey aptr, Loki, teygir.

12. Heyrdak svá t>at siöan (sveik opt Äso leikom) 45 hug-reynandi Hoeniss hauks flaug bialba aukinn:

ok löm-hugaör lagöi leik-blaös reginn fiaörar ern at aDglis barni arn-sug faöir Mornar.

13. Hófo skiótt, en skófo skaüpt, ginn-regin brinna;

enn son biöils sviönar (sveipr varö í faor) Greipar. 50

Powers fear) was fast to Thiazzi; the staff clave to the mighty denizen of Giant-land, and Loki's hands clave to the end thereof. Rejoicing in his prey, the eagle flew, a long way with the god of wiles, so that he was like to have been torn asunder; he was well-nigh riven, for he was heavy, and was forced to beg for quarter. The monster bade him bring him the sorrow-healing Maiden, who knew the gods' Elixir of Youth: upon which the Thief of the Brising-girdle, Loki, brought the Fairy of Bourn-acre, Idwyn, to the hall of the giant. Joyful were they that dwell in the rocks, the Giants, when Idwyn first came among them from the south: but all the kindred of Ingwi-Frey, the gods, became old and hoary: very withered of form the gods showed at their moot: till they found him that had cruelly carried off the goddess, and bound the betrayer of Idwyn. 'Thou shalt surely pay it dear, thou guileful Loki,' so Thor spake, 'save by thy cunning thou bring back the blessed heart-renewing Maiden.' I have heard that after this, Loki (who had often betrayed the Anses by his tricks) took flight in the hawk-skin guise, aring Idwyn with him,] while the false-hearted Giant-eagle flapped eagle wings in hot chase of the hawk. In haste the gods gathered wood-shavings and kindled a fire, and the Giant was scorched and his journey brought to an end.

29. frófteom] r; nmwritten in W. 41. »eva, W. 42. ok] at, W.

43. welomj W leaves a blank for 11 44-52. 44. teygir] by guess, blank in r. 45. Aso] emend.; asa, r.

Patz of fát á fiatta Finnz ilja brú mínnu Baugs pák bifom fdba bif-kleif at Porletfi.

II. Thorrs Wager of Battle.

14. Eör of sér es Iaotna ótti lét of sóttan hellis bur á hyrjar haug Griótuna baugi:

(móñr svall Meila bróñor) mána-vegr und hs&nom.

15. 4 Kniótto a>ll, enn Ullar (endi-lág) fyr mági (grund vas grápi hrundin) ginnunga vé brinna: jiá-es húf-regin hafrar hög-reiöar fram drógo

(seör gekk Svolnis ekkja sundr) at Hrungnis fundi. 60

16. fcyrmöit Baldrs of barmi berg-folgnom sak-dolgi (hristosk biaorg ok brusto; brann Rán-himinn) mána: mia)k frá-ek moeti hroekkva myrk beins Haka reinar, {)á-es vígligan vogna vátt sinn baña J>átti.

17. Brátt fló biarga gaeti (baond olio J>ví) randa 65 [imon] faolr und iljar íss [vildo svá dísir]:

varöat hoeggs frá ha)rflo hraun-drengr ^aoan lengi trióno trollz of nina tiör fia>llama at biöa.

18. Fia>r-spillir lét falla fialbrs ólágra gialbra baol-veröungar Belja bolm á randar-holmi: 70 J>ar hné grundar gilja gramr fyr ska)rpom hamri;

Refrain. Lo, this is painted on my shield. I received the coloured buckler from Thorleif s hands.

11. The story o/Rungni. Next I see, how the Terror of the Giants, Tbor, visited the cave-dweller, Rungni, at Rock-garth, in a ring of flame. The son of Earth drove to the battle (his heart was swelling with wrath), and the moon's path [heaven] thundered beneath him. The whole ether (City of the Ginnungs) was on fire about him, and the flat, out-stretched ground below him was beaten with the hail: yea, the earth was rent asunder, as the goats drew the chariot-god on to his tryst with Rungni. Thor spared not the mountain-abiding foe of the moon [giant]; the mountains quaked and the dominion of Ran [ocean] blazed. I have heard that the denizen of the dark cliff's shrunk wondrously when he espied his slayer, the god of the Car; the yellow shield he flung beneath the soles of his feet, the Powers ruled it so, the War-fairies willed it so; the haunter of the wilderness had not long to wait for a stroke from Tbor, the wielder of the life-crushing snout-ogre [Hammer]. He that spoils the wicked Giant-host of their lives felled the monster of the loud-roaring ocean-caverns on the lists [shield-holm]: the Lord of the glens bowed there before the sharp Hammer, what time the Giant-killer struck down the

53. es] of, W. 54. bur] boraa hyiiar haugs, W; bror, r (badly). 59. r; h6fregin hofftu, W. 60. seftr] seift, W. 61. Emend.; solgnnm, Cdd.

61-62. Thus W; J>ar dolgi. . . brann upp himin manna, r. 67. hordo] thus W, r.

19. Ok harfl-brotin herjo heim-J)ingoflar Vingniss hvein i hiama moeni hein at Grundar sveini:

J>ar svd edr i (5fiins 61aus burar hausi 75

stala-vikr of stokkin st68 Einrifla bl68i:

20. Adr or hneigi-hliflom hdrs aol-gefjon sdra Rei6i-t^s i8 raufia ryfls heili-baol gdli:

Gorla lit-ek d Geitiss gardi par of /erdir.

Baugs pd-ck bifom fdda bifkkif at PorUifi. 80

Lausa-vIsor (for translation see the Introduction).

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