Glum Geirason

We have (Book iv) noticed the reigns and fates of Eric Bloodaxe and of Hakon the Good, his supplanter. Hakon in his turn was to fall before a combination of the old party in Norway and the Danes, set on foot by the Queen-dowager Gundhild, the sister of the Danish King Harold Bluetooth, as one Chronicle tells us (Historia Norwegiae) : and no doubt it is true. The recurrence of the names Gundhild, Gorm (Gundhild's two sons), so characteristic of the Skioldings; the course of contemporary politics ; the English Chroniclers, who, from this marriage, call Eric 1 King of the Danes '—all confirm it. The rule of the young kings was far from joyful ; to the unhappiness of civil strife was added the terrible misery of famine and disease. These evils have made the

Hu ring Mould. I am obliged to pay thee my ring Mould, that was long ago dug out of the earth at Tbursaby, and give thee for thy favour the necklace that my father long owned.

The famine. It snows on Woden's bride, Earth: we, like Finns, must house the does of the birch-buds, goats, at midsummer.

The herrings. Let us from the north make the long-netted sea-steeds spurn the sea with their feet, oars, in quest of the fine-feathered shafts of the sea, herrings : let us see if we can get these arrows of the waves which the sea-swine are rooting up so freely.

The brooch. Last year, I got a cloak-pin, which the Icelanders sent me from beyond the sea, and I paid it away for stock, for I had sold clean out all the leaping herrings of Egil the archer's hands, my arrows, to buy the slim shafts of the deep, herrings. Famine will make a man do anything.

37. For foldar read Molda. 38. tys, Cod. Acad. ii. 44. Read, spiörum . . . ?

45. akkar] akur, Cd. Thus Cod. Acad. i. Here is a great blank in Acad. ii.

name of Gundhild as infamous as Jezabe], and probably coloured her character (a sorceress, they say, brought up among the Finns) and the rule of her sons in darker colours than the true. What we know of Harold Grayfell, the most prominent of them, is not altogether unfavourable; of great bodily strength, and master of twelve accomplishments, he seems to have lacked neither valour nor energy, but sadly good luck. Perhaps we may liken him and his father to Eric XIV of Sweden. But the old prejudice, which led the heathen Northmen to sacrifice their kings for good seasons, and the patriotism which could not brook the suzerainty of the Danes (for there seems little reason to doubt that the sons of Gundhild were vassals of the Danish king), have blasted the rule of these kings beyond the power of apology. We hear tales too of the lust and cruelty of a younger brother, Sigrod Sleva, which seem to be well-founded. Particulars of the few years of their rule are few. We hear of an expedition to Perm-land in the Arctic Ocean, and of a foray across the main to the Western islands, wicking expeditions, perhaps, necessitated by lack of food. Ari would make their power last sixteen years, but we cannot,according to English chronology, give them much more than seven; the one fixed date in their period being the great European Famine of 976. At last the suspicious Danish suzerain wiles Harold to Limfirth, where he falls; and Earl Hakon, whose noble fat! ^r hi: and his brothers had put to death, entered, under the protection of the Danes, upon the heritage they left.

To Harold Grayfell are ascribed two Poets in Skalda-tal—Cormac, of whom we treat elsewhere, for none of his poem on Harold has survived, and Glum Geirason. Glum was a remarkable man, son of one of the latest of the Settlers, who took up his abode in the north of the island, whence, with his sons, as Landnama-bok tells us, he was driven away, in consequence of a feud and manslaughter in which they were involved. There must have been a Saga about Glum, for in Islendinga Drapa we are told how he fought at Fitjar, and * got speech out of a dead man;' neither of which feats are mentioned elsewhere. He appears as the rival of Eywind, Hakon's faithful poet, and the champion of Eric and his sons, whose henchman he had been. In the Kings' Lives the two poets are brought in, capping verses with each other. One line only of his Eric's Praise remains, but there are several stanzas remaining of GrayfelVs Praise— a Dirge, made when the news of Harold's death was still fresh, and apparently addressed to the two surviving Gundhildssons, as the heads of their party and avengers of Harold.

This poem has been dreadfully maltreated. It must have contained in the verses we have many names of persons and places, which are now washed out, and their space filled by silly commonplace of a late type, so that at first sight, from its smoothness and over-regularity of rhyme, the poem appears, in parts, at least two generations later than it is. We cannot, of course, recover all that is lost; but we have pointed out where the text is unsafe, and indicated the places of some of the missing names in the translation, which it is obvious, from the state of the text, can only be tentative. Among such restorations as appear pretty certain are < Hallandi' for ' Scotlandi,' 1. 5 ; ' Gauta' for 1 Gauti,' 1. 6; 4 Skotta* for 'flotta,' 1. 9 ; 'Hakon ' for 'heppinn,' 1. 34.

The Poem on Eric is described in Fagrskinna, chap. 28.

The fine improvisation seems to be stuffed up with 4 stals,' and may have been an old-metre couplet.

(Frora the Lives of Kings; vv. 5, 9 from Fsk.; vv. 1, 3, 13, 14 from Edda; the Stef from Landn., Mb.)

i. TTLYDI! (hapta beiöiss hefk) mildingar (gildi) -ti- J>vi biojom ver t>aognar J)egna tjön at fregnom.

а. Haföi faor til 'ferio' fröör Skdneyjar gööa blakk-riöandi bakka bara-ungr {>aöan farna: Rög-eiso vann raesir r&ö-vandr d 4 Skotlandi,' 5 'sendi seggja kindar' sverö-bautinn her 4 Gauti.'

3. Hilmir rauö und hialmi heina-laut d Gautom, f>ar vas i gn^ geira grundar vaorör of fundinn.

4. Dolg-eiso rak disar (drött kom maorg d 'flötta') gumna vinr at gamni giööom frskrar J)iööar: 10 Foldar rauö ok felldi Freyr i manna dreyra sunnr *a sigr of hlynninn' seggi maekiss eggjar.

5. Braut viö brynjo niöta bdg 1 rifiunga Sdgo,' nadd-skürar vas no&rir Noregs konungr störa: val-galtar let v^lta varg-fouflandi marga 15 (of vaegjom r^ö iaofri) iafn-borna ser {>orna.

б. Austr-laond um försk undir allvaldr, sd-es gaf skaoldom (hann fekk gagn at gunni) 4 gunn haorga slaog' majrgom : sliör-tungor let syngja sverö-leiks reginn ferflir sendi 'gramr' at grundo goll-varpaör snarpar. 20

7. Austr rauö iaofra t>r^stir 'orö-rakkr' fyr bce noröan brand, l>ar-es Biarmskar kindir brennandi sd-ek renna: Gött hlaut gumna saettir geir-veör i faor J>eiri (aoölingi feksk ungom orö) d Vino-boröi.

8. Maelti maetra hialta malm-Ööinn, sd blööi, 25 l>röttar-orö, es {>orfli J)iööom vaoll at riööa:

I. Prologue. Listen, I begin my song. I beg the two kings for a silent hearing, now that we have news of this disaster [the fall of Grayfell]...

Hij Eastern forays. When yet in childhood he sailed to Sconey, he fought a battle in Holland, and smote with the sword a host of Gauts. ... He reddened his blade on the Gauts, and was found in battle there.

His Western forays. Then he battled with the Scots and the Irish, and victorious south in ... smote ... with the edge of the sword. Norway's king fought with . . . and defeated princes of like rank to himself.

His Northern exploits. The king who gave treasure to poets subdued the eastlands, he made the sheath-tongues [blades] sing at . . . He burned eastward north of O ... by, where 1 saw the Perms running from the flames; and battled on the banks of the Dwina. The young Etheling won fame there.

His last battle in Denmark. He spake a word of courage, yea, Harold

5. Read, Hallandi. 6. Read, Gauta. 9. For flotta read Skotta ?

vi8-lendr of baô vinda verñung Haraldr sverñom (fraegt J>ótti J)at flotnom fylkiss oró) at morñi. 9. Hioggosk hvárir-tveggjo 1 heggir ' maekiss eggja;

'varó í gœgn at ganga geir-drótt' Haraldr J)eiri. 30

10. Varó á víóo borfti viggjom hollr at liggja gaetir glamma sóta garôz Eylima-fiarôar : sendir fell á sandi saevar báls at Halsi ;

olli ia)fra spialli * orô-heppinn ' {>ví morfii.

11. Féllomk haülf bá-es hilmiss hiaor-drífa brá lífi 35 (réôat oss til auoar) auó-ván (Haraldz daufii) :

enn ek veit at hefir heitift hans brófiir mer gófio (siá getr J>ar til saelo segg-fia)l8) hva8ar-tveggi.

12. Kunni tolf sá-es tanna tí8om Hallin-skíBa ógnar-stafr um ia)fra íj>róttir fram sótti; 40

13. Hein-{)ynntan lét hvína hryn-eld at fíat brynjo foldar-va>rôr sâ-es fyrôom fiaor harôan sik varôi :

14. ^ar vas J)rafna-byrç'ar J)eim styrôo goi beima sialfr Í sœki-alfi Sigt^r Atals d^ra.

The SU/.— Vig-eiso iekr visa val-fall Haraldz alla. 45

II. On Eirik Bloody-axe (from Skalda). The Stef.—Brandr fœr logs ok landa landz Eiriki banda.

III. Lausavîsa (from Lives of Kings).

Vel hefir hefnt (en hafna hiaors-ben-draugar fiaorvi) [folk-rakkr of vant, fylkir, framligt] Haraldr Gamla : es dookk-valir drekka dolg-bandz fyr ver handan (roôin frá-ek rauôra benja reyr) Hákonar dreyra.

bade his men 'draw swords for the battle.' The king's words pleased the warriors! The two namesakes, Harold and Gold Harold, cut at each other with the edge of the sword. He (the king) was doomed to lie on the broad bank of Lim-firth, at Halse on the sand he fell. It was . . . [Hakon] that planned that slaughter.

His glory. Half my hope is gone, now that the battle has reft the king of life. Harold's death was no blessing to me, yet I know that both his brothers have given me fair promises; the court looks to them for solace now. Harold was the master of twelve accomplishments . ..

Fragment. He made the hone-thinned blade whistle as he defended his life against his foes. Woden himself was with him, and the war-god steered his course.

Burden. Harold's hand makes a great slaughter all . . .

II. Dirge on Eric Bloodaxe. His brand wins Eric land and gold.

III. Improvisation after Stord. Well has Harold avenged Gamli this brother] now that the ravens over sea are drinking Hakon's ilood!

30. Read, Haraldar? 34. for hcppinn read Hakon. 43. J*im er styrôo beima, W.

EARL HAKON'S POETS (976-995).

Having driven the sons of Gundhild out of the kingdom, Earl Hakon ruled Norway for nearly twenty years, when he in his turn fell before the young Olaf Tryggvason. Hakon was the scion of a famous family, whose genealogy and exploits were given by Eywind in Haleyia-tal, Book iv. The first Hakon, Earl of Yriar, his grandfather, was known as * the friend of Harold Fairhair,' whose faithful helper and counsellor he was; his father Sigfred, a notable man in his day for his Law-making and organisation, was the fast friend and adviser of Hakon iEthelstan's foster-son. Of Earl Hakon himself we hear a good deal in the Kings' Lives. Succeeding to the rule of Norway after a time of famine and misery, the country recovered under his rule; and the favour of the gods was signally manifested to the man whose ritualistic piety to them was a contrast to the careless iconoclasm of Gundhild's sons, by a succession of good seasons and unchecked prosperity. His cult of the gods won him the renown of a sorcerer, and the name of the i sacrificing earl' from his Christian foes. There may have been in truth something of the Waldstein character about him, but we can hardly doubt that his memory has somewhat suffered at the hands of the party which overthrew his dynasty.

The chief exploits of his life were the Avenging of his father, burnt in his house by the crafty treason of the Sons of Gundhild. As a vassal earl of Harold Blue-tooth's of Denmark he fights against the great crusade of the German Emperor, Otho II, 975, where he shares Harold's ill-fortune. On his return through Gautland he makes a sacrifice, ' casting the Divining Rods.' In Norway he twice fights the wicking Reginfred (said by the Sagas to be a son of Gundhild). Feeling himself now firm in his seat, he shakes off the Danish suzerainty, which had boasted of making Norway its * hawk island.' The Danish king, failing to reduce him, sets the Wickings of Iom, his formidable and turbulent allies, upon the stubborn Earl, who gains a glorious victory over them at Hiorunga Bay, off South More (Norway). This battle must not be placed at the end of his career, as the Kings' Lives seem to do, but rather as the 'crowning mercy' which put him for many years in safety. More grateful than ever to the gods, who had saved him from such peril, he restores the fallen Temples, and celebrates their feasts with all the ancient pomp and circumstance. His daughters marry into the best families of Norway, and there is hardly a noble house in the two following centuries which cannot trace up to the ' wicked Earl.' At last a sudden rising, in which his good fortune failed him at last, put him to flight and hiding, and he met his death at the hand of a treacherous slave. Of his son Eric we shall have somewhat to say later.

Hakon had many poets about him. Eight are named in Skalda-tal; of two of these, Skapti the Lawman and Hvannar-Kalf, no line is left, though Skapti's life is well known from the Sagas. Of Eywind the Poet-spoiler and Eilif Gudrunsson we have already spoken. Of Einar Skala-glamm, the poet of his early years of power, Tind Hallkettleson, the poet of his zenith, Thorleif Redcloakson, and Thorolf Mouth we must now speak.

The following passages will give the best account of Einar Hel-gason :—

" There was a man named Einar, son of Helgi Othere's son, son of Biorn the Easterling, who settled in Broadfirth. Einar's brother was

Oswif the Wise (the father of Gudrun the heroine of Laxdxla Saga). Einar was even in his youth big and strong, and a very accomplished man. He took to making poetry when he was yet young, for he was a man eager to learn. It happened one summer at the Moot that Einar went into Egil Skalla-Grimson's booth, and they fell to talking, and their talk soon turned to the craft of poetry. Both of them thought talking on this head the best of pastime. Atter that Einar would often turn in to talk with Egil,and great friendship sprung up between them."— EgiTs Saga, ch. 82.

The poet, like other young Icelanders of family, went abroad to the court of Norway and took service with Earl Hakon, where he got his nickname 1 Rattle-scale* in the following way:—

" On one occasion Einar, fancying that he was not well treated, grew angry and would not come near the earl. The earl, finding that Einar was displeased with his treatment of him, sent to bid him come and speak with him; then he took a fair pair of Scales made of pure silver, and all gilt, and with them there went two weights, one of gold and the other of silver, that were made after the likeness of men, and were called Mots.' And this was the power that was in them:—The earl would lay them in the scales and say which of them should come up, and if the one that he would came up, it would shake in the scale so that ' it made a rattle.' The earl gave Einar the scales, and he v as very pleased with them, and was ever afterwards called Einar Rattle-scale?'—loms<wikinga Saga.

Of another famous gift which the generous earl bestowed on his poet we are told in Egil's Saga:—

" Einar made an Encomium on Earl Hakon, which is called Lack-Lucre; and for a very long time the earl would not listen to the poem because he was wroth with Einar." Einar threatened to leave him, " but the earl would not have Einar go abroad, and listened to the poem, and then gave Ein ir a shield which was the greatest jewel. It was engraved with tales of old, and all between the engravings it was overlaid with bosses of gold, and set with precious stones." Einar comes home, and in the harvest rides over to Borg and guests there. Egil was away from home at the time. Einar waited for him three nights. " And it was not then the custom to stay longer than three nights on a visit. So he made ready to go; and when he was ready he went into Egil's room, and there he fastened up the precious shield, and told the household that he gave the shield to Egil. Then he rode away. That same day Egil came home, and when he came into his room he saw the shield, and asked who owned that jewel. They told him that Einar Rattle-scale had been there, and had given him the shield. Then spake Egil, What, is he making me a gift, most miserable of men that he is! Does he think I am going to sit awake and make poetry over his shield ? Go and catch my horse. I will ride after him and slay him. Then they told him that Einar had ridden away early in the morning. He must have got to Dale by now. Afterwards Egil made a poem, of which the beginning is—[here a spurious verse is inserted]. Egil and Einar kept up their friendship as long as they were both alive. And it is told as follows of the fortunes of the shield afterwards, that Egil had it with him when he went on the bridal-way, when he went north to Wood-Mire with Thorkettle Gundwaldsson and the sons of Red-Biorn, Treevle and Helgi. Then the shield was spoilt, having fallen into sour milk. And afterwards Egil had the mounting taken off it, and there was twelve ounces of gold in the bosses."—EgiTs Saga, ch. 82.

The end of Einar is thus told in Landnama-bok, ii. 11: "Helgi [Einar's father] harried in Scotland, and there took captive Nidborg, daughter of King Beolan, and Cathleen the daughter of Ganger Rolf [Rollo]. He married her; their sons were Oswif the Wise, and Einar Rattle-scale, who was drowned on Einar's-reef [Einarssker, now called Einars-bodi, near Hrappsey in Broad-fiord] in Seal-sound, and his shield came ashore on Shieldey and his cloak on Cloak-holm [Feldar-holm]. Einar was the father of Thorgerd, the mother of Herdis, the mother of Stein the poet."

Einar's most famous work was Vell-Ekla (Lack-Lucre), which is quoted in the Kings' Lives and also in Edda. It was no doubt one of the chief sources for the early career of the earl. It is very antique in spirit, akin in feeling and treatment to Thiodwolf's poems, but, curiously enough, without any trace of EgiPs influence. As a dated work, before 980, on such a man as Hakon, the poem is of high interest to the historian. It was in Drapa-form, and each section treated of a separate exploit of the earl's; thus, had we the whole, there would be a complete annalistic account of his life, beginning with his revenge for his father's death, down to the eve of the Iomswicking battle. We have parts of sections relating (1) to Fighting the sons of Gundhild and Gritgard's fall;

(2) the Expedition in aid of the Danish king Harold against Otho II;

(3) a Campaign in Gautland; (4, 5) the first and second Can.paigns against Reginfred; (6) the Re-establishment of peace and good rule and the heathen ritual in Norway.

Vellekla's text is in a fearful state, whole lines rotten and overlaid by Philistine folly—once a fine poem, rich in parallelisms, and variations on a single theme, stern, almost religious, full of condensed facts—but now, names and facts that Ari once found there lie buried beneath the stucco of jingle, e. g. the name of Griotgard in v. 6 concealed under (harda loptz vinar barda,' the 4 three winters' in v. 1, the name of the emperor in v. 11, and the name of Othere [Ottar] in v. 13. In 1. 62, stod and byijar where Ari read Stad and Byrda; in 11. 65-66, Ari read {>inga nes. In 1. 44, for ' fior Gauta' Ari read 'sker Gauta;' farther we have been able to restore the reading ' he enquired of the oracle by the divining rods' to the form in which we believe Ari read it.

The arrangement of the sections is determined by the German chronicle, which forbids us to allow Hakon's rule to have been established before the Danish expedition, as indeed was a priori unlikely. Ari or his editors have been misled here in some way.

There is a peculiarity which marks many genuine verses of Einar— consonance between the last measure of the first half and the first measure of the second half of the line. This ornament characterises a whole poem on Hakon 'different from Vellekla' cited in Edda and Fagrskinna, but of which the name is lost; and even the text is not safe in parts. This metrical form was imitated and pushed to extremes by later poets.

Tind Hallkettlesson, one of Bragi's descendants (see Book vii, p. 2) and kinsman of the poet Gunlaug Snake's-tongue, was a man of adventurous life. There are traditions relating to him in the Heidar-viga Saga, where we are told of his smithy, and of his part in the Heath-slaughter feuds. The verses ascribed to him in that Saga are of doubtful authenticity. There are fragments of a Hakoris-drapa in the Kings' Lives, and in the Iomsvikinga-vellum, AM. 510, is a long snatch of the same poem in a terribly corrupt state, published first by Dr. Petersens, Lund 1880. This Encomium relates to the Iomswicking battle, and contains particulars and names (such as Godmar in the

Wick, the site of some engagement of the year 980) which are not contained elsewhere, and we must regret the impossibility of doing much to restore these verses to their original state.

Thorleif Redcloaksson is told of in Landnama-bok, where we find the story how he and his brother killed Klaufi who insulted them; a ditty Thorleif made on the occasion is given in Book vi, Ditty 19. He is told of also in Swarfdaela Saga. He has become a legendary person, and a story (known already to Hawk Waldisason and hinted at in his Islendinga-drapa) sprung up of his having composed a bitter satire on Earl Hakon, who sent a ghost to slay him. The ghost did his work at the Great Moot, where Thorleif was buried. It is on his cairn that the shepherd sat, as is told in the pretty story, parallel to our Csedmon legend, in Flatey-bok, to be found in the Reader, p. 146.

Thorwolf mouth is only known from Skalda-tal, as Hakon's poet.

Eilif Gudrunsson. We have noticed this poet in the introduction to his Thors-drapa, above, § 1 of this Book.

Eyiolf Dadi's poet. What is known of this poet is noted below in Book viii, §1. His poem is inserted here, belonging more fitly, as a heathen composition of Hakon's days, to this Book than the next.

I. Einar (Vellekla, or Lack Lucre).

(From the Lives of Kings; vv. 30-32 from Edda.)

i. /^K odd-neytir uti eifl-vandr flota breiflan

* gla8r i Gaondlar veflrom gramr " svaffli bil" haffli:' ok raufl-mdna reynir r6g-segl H£8ins b6ga upp h6f iaofra kappi 4etjo-lund at setja.'

а. Vasat of byrjar aorva odda-vifs n^ drifo 5 sver8a sverri-fiarSar svan-gl^jaSi at fr^ja: brak-raognir sk6k bogna (barg uj>yrmir varga)

hagl or Hlakkar seglom (hiaors rakkliga fiaorvi).

3. Mart var8 6\ d8r Ala 4 Austr-laond' at mun banda randar lauks af riki rceki-lundr of tceki. 10

4. Ber-ek fyr hefnd \>£ es hrafna4 hli6ms lof toginn ski6ma' t>at nam vaor8r at vinna vann sins fao8ur hranna: . . .

5. Rigndi 4 hiaors £ hersa hriS-remmis fiaor vi8a' (l>rym-lundr of 16k Imndi l>egns gn6tt) meil-regni:

4 ok hald-vi8orr haolda haf faxa' \6t vaxa 15

laufa ve8r at lifom lif-kaold Hdrs drifo.

б. 4 Hialm-grdpi vann hilmir har8r' (Loptz vinar) bar8a (t>d kom vaoxtr i 4vino' vinheims) fi&ndr sina:

I. He revenges bis father. The oath-fast earl had a great fleet on the sea for three winters waging war against the kings [Gundhild's sons]. No one could question his courage in battle. He shook the bows' hail, arrows, out of the sail of the Walkyries, his shield, and feasted the wolves. There was many a hard struggle ere he won the lands of his heritage by the gods' will. I set forth his praise for his avenging of his father. Iron-rain was showered at... He strengthened the host of Woden. He made the life-chilling sword-storm at... wax high.

ok for-sniallir fello furs í fundar skúrom

Q)at faer Jnódar snytri) J>rír iarls synir (tirar). 20

7. Hvarfat aptr áflr erfflan odd-stafr faoftur haffli, her-forfla8r ré8 harña hiaor-veflrs konungs fiaorvi: varóat Freyr sá-es fcéri folk-skífis né man síSan (t>ví bregSr aold vi8 añra) iarls ríki framm slíko.

8. Hitt vas auk es eykir aur-borñz á vit norfian 25 und sig-runni svinnom sunnr Danmarkar runno:

ok holm-fiaoturs hialmi Haorda valdr of faldinn Dofra 'Danskra iofra' Dróttinn fund of sótti. o. Ok *vi8 frost' at freista fé-mildr konungr vildi myrk-hlo8ynjar markar mor8-alfs {>ess es kom nor8an: 30

{)á-es val-serkjar Virki ve8r-hir8i ba8 stirSan fyr hlym-nia)r8om Haor8a * Hagbar8a gramr' varSa.

10. Vasat í goegn J>ótt goerSi garfl-raognir styr harftan gengilegt at ganga geir-ásar her {>eira:

£á-es meñ Frisa fylki fór 'gunn-vifiur' sunnan 35

'kvaddi vígs' ok Vinda vágs blakk-rifli Frakka

11. fcrymr varfl logs es laogfio leik-miñjungar J>riója (arn-greddir varfi 'oddom' andvígr) saman randir: sund-faxa kom Saoxom sceki-{>róttr á flótta

{>ar 's svá-at gramr * meñ gumnom' Garó yr-{)ió8om varfli.

12. Flótta gekk til fréttar felli-niaorfir á velli 41 (draugr gat dolga Ságo dagráS) 'Heñins váóa*

ok hald-bodi hildar hrae-gamma tvá ramma;

He slew Gritgard. There was fresh company for Woden's hall. Three carls' sons fell; it was a glory to the furtherer of the people. He turned not back till he had kept the arval over his father, having slain the king, Erling. Neither before nor after has there been an carl who showed such earl's power; all talk of it.

II. Expedition against Otho. Next the ships sped under him southard to Denmark, and the lord of the Northmen, hooded in helm of went to meet the Danish prince; for the Danish king coming from the north wished without fail to do battle against the Emperor, the ruler of the Dark-woodland, Holstein, Germany; he bade the prince oftheHords, Hakon, defend the Wall against the king of the Longo-j&rds. However bravely he fought, it was no easy task to meet this to**) when the emperor came from the south, ready for battle, with J P*at company of Frisians, Saxons, Wends, and Franks. It was a "*rd fight when they joined shields; the earl faced Otho bravely, he turned the Saxons to flight. Thus he guarded the Wall against the army of the Southerners.

HI. Sacrifices in Gautland. He enquired of the oracle on the . . . and he got for an answer that there <was a fair chance of a victory,

J8. Read, Dana iöfri? 29. Read, some placel 32. Read, Langbarfta

PUtf? 36. Read, Saxa ok Vinda. 38. Read, Odda? 43. tvá] sá, Cd.

13. Háfii iarl J>ars áfian engi mannr und ranni 45 hyrjar-{)ing at herja hiaor-lautar kom Sajrla:

bara maör lyngs en lengra Mopt varöaöar' baröa (allt vann gramr um gengit Gautland) frá siá randir.

14. Val-fa)llom hlófl vaollo varö ragna konr gagni hrífiar áss at hrósa (hlaut Ódinn val) Fróda. 50

15. Enn reiö aoöro sinni iarl borö-maorom noröan (sökn-heröir lét sveröa sótt) Ragnfroeöi at móti.

16. Hóf und hyrjar kneyfi (hraut unda fiaold) fnrndar [J>at sleit vígi á vági] vandar-d^r at landi:

né fia)l-nenninn fyrri fé-mildr konungr vildi 55

(vaegöit iarl fyrir iaofri) Yggs niör friöar biöja.

17. Buinn létzk valdr ef vildi val-mey konungr heyja haolöa moröz at halda (herr feil um gram) vellL

18. Hitt var meirr at Mc&ra morö-fikinn lét noröan folk-verjandi fyrva faor til Sogns of goerva: 60 ¿'tti Freyr af fiórom folk-laondom sá branda

' ullr " stoö " af J)vi' allri yr-{)ió8 cHé0ins "by^ar."'

19. Ok til mótz á meita miúk-hurSom fram J)uröo meñ svaor-goeli svarfa siau land-rekar randa.

20. Glumöi allr J)á-s Ullar egg-'Jjing' Heñins veggiar 65 (gnótt flaut nás) fyr ^nesjom' Noregr saman fóro.

21. Varö fyrir Vinda myröi viö-fraegt (enn gramr sífian gceröisk mest at moröi) mann-fall viö styr annan: hlym-narfi baö hverfa hlifar-flagös ok lagöi ialks viö a>ndurt fylki ondur-vaorp at landi. 70

22. Straong varö gunnr á8r gumnar gammi nás und hramma l>roengvi-meiör of t>ryngi J)rimr hundruSom lunda:

and he beheld two ravens. Yea, he cast the divining rods at the Gauta Skerries. He fought against Othere where none had ever come helmed before; no wicking had ever borne shield farther from the sea. He covered the field with slain; won a victory: Woden gained by the dead.

IV. Fight <witir Reginfred. A second time the earl rode his sea-horses from the north to meet Reginfred. The ships hove towards land, which cut short the battle in the bay: the earl would not ask the king for peace, the earl did not give in to the king. The earl said that he was ready, if the king would, to fight on land.

V. Second Jight with Reginfred. Again another time the earl went from the north to Sogn; he had with him the full levy of four folk-land between Byrda and Cape Stadt. Seven earls sailed to battle with him, and all Norway resounded when they joined in fight off Thinga-Ness. There was a famous slaughter before the slayer of the Wends in his second battle with Reginfred; the earl laid his ships to land, and drew

44. Emend.; vildi . . . tyna tein lautar fior Gauta, Cdd. 62. Read, Sta5. 63. Read, frá Byrfto. 65-66. Read, f>inga . .. nesjom ? 70. vorp, Fms.; J>orf, Cd.

knátti hafs at haofóom (hagnañr vas J)at) bragna folk-eflandi fylkir fang-saell J>a8an ganga.

23. Siau fylkjom kom 'silkis snúnañr vas J)at brúna' 75 'geymir grundar sima grand-varr' und sik landi.

24. Hver sé if nema iaofra aett-r/ri gofi st^ra. Ramm-aukin kve8-ek ríki raogn Hákonar magna.

25. Nú liggr 4 allt * und iarli (imon-bor8z) fyrir norSan

(l veñr-gcéfiiss' stendr ví8a) Vík (Hákonar ríki). 80

26. Óll lét senn inn svinni saonn EinriSa maonnom herjom kunnr of 1 heriod' hofs laond ok vé banda at Veg-Ióta vitni valfallz um siá alian

({>eim st^ra go8) geira garíz HlórriSi farfii.

27. Ok her-J)arfir hverfa Hlakkar mótz til blóta 85 *rau8-bríkar fremsk roekir' ríki ás-megir slíko:

nú grcér iaorS sem áfian aptr geir-bruar hapta au8-r^rir laetr aoro ótryggva vé byggva.

28. Engi var8 á iaorflo settom gó5r nema Fróñi gaeti-niaorñr sá-es goer5i geir-bríkar frió slíkan. 90

29. Hvar viti aold und einom iar5-byggvi svá liggja (t>at skyli herr of hugsa) hiarl ok sextán iarla? J>ess ríór fúrs mefi fiórom folk-leikr Hefiins reikar log-skundañar lindar lof-kendr himins endom.

30. Né sigbiarka serkir sóm-miñjungom rómo 95 Hárs viñ Haugna skúrír hlceñut fast um scéflir . . .

31. Odda gn^s viñ cesi odd-netz J)indl setja . . .

32. Hnigo fiándr at glym Gaondlar grams und amar hramma . . .

up his men in array. There was a hot fray ere three hundred warriors fell, and he walked thence over the dead to his ship again victorious.

He became the lord of seven counties, from ... to .. .

VI. Establishes peace, restores the Gods' worship. Who can doubt but that the gods guide the upsetter of kings! Now all the Wick north of the Wethereys is under his sway; Hakon's realm stretches far and wide. He restored the temple glebes of Thor and the holy places of the gods, driving the Jutes into the sea with slaughter by the gods* help. And all the people turn back to sacrifices; such might do the gods grant him: the earth yields crops as of yore, and he makes men joyfully people again the sanctuaries of the gods. Never was there prince save Frodi that made such peace as he.

I say that the gods strengthen Hakon's sway. Was there ever a land and sixteen earls lying so under one ruler ? His glory soars high under the four ends of the heaven.

VII. Fragments. Nor could the firm-sewn mail shirts shelter the men in the battle .. .

To set the sword against the rearer of war no one dared.

The foemen sank in battle underneath the talons of the eagle.

79-80. Read, oil . . . Veftreyjar. 82. Read, hérod ? 86. ásmegni, Fms.

II. Fragments of a later Drapa on Earl Hakon.

(Verses 1-8, 10, II from Edda, verse 9 from Fagrsk.)

1. ^fÖ es J>at es Boönar bára berg-Saxa tér vaxa; ± ^ goervi í ha)U ok hiyöi hliód 4 fley '-iaofurs ¡riódir.

2. Hug-stóran biö-ek heyra (heyr iarl Kvásiss dreyra!) foldar-vaorö á fyröa fiarö-leggjar brim dreggjar.

3. Hlióta mun-ek (né hlítik) hia)r-t£s (of J)at fr^jo) 5 fyrir aor-Jreysi at ausa austr vín-gnó0ar flausta.

4. Ni at fia>l-kostigr flesto flestr raeör viö son Bestlo tekit hefik moröz til maeröar mceringr an J)ú fiera.

5. Goll-sendir laetr (grundar glaöar J>engill her-drengi) [hans maeti kná-ek hlióta] * hliót' Yggs miaöar nióta. 10

6. Eisar vágr fyrir visa, verk raognis mer hogna, Jyftr Ööreriss alda aldr hafs viö fles galdra.

7. Ullar gengr of alia ask-saogn Jjess es hvaot magnar byrgiss baoövar sorgar bergs grunn-lá dverga.

8. Né aett-stuöill aettar ögn-heröir mun veröa 15 (skyldr em-ek hródri at halda) Hilldi-tannz in mildri.

9. Bygöi laond (enn lunda lék orö á J>ví) foröom Gamla kind sú-es granda (gunn-boröz) véom J)oröi: nú es afrendra iaofra Ullr geir-vaöils Jjeira sóknar hvatr at setri setrs hveim gram be tri. 20

10. Hialm-faldinn baud hildi hialdr-aorr ok Sigvaldi hinn es fór í gn^ Gunnar gunn-diarfr Bui sunnan.

Prologue. It is now that the wave of Bodn [poetry] begins to wax high, may the prince's courtiers give ear in the hall and listen to the Giants' beverage, poetry. I pray the brave lord to listen to the Liquor of the Giants. Hearken, earl, to Quasi's blood. I must pour out blamelessly before thee, prince, the bilge water of Woden's wine-vessel, verse. No ruler rules more in accordance with the son of Bestla, Woden, than thou. I have begun my poem. I know how to make the ruler of the land enjoy Woden's holy Mead. The prince gladdens his men, I get gifts of him. The wave of Woden foams the billow of Odreari thunders . .. The cliffs' surf that the Dwarves own, my poetry, praising him, spreads among all men. Never shall be a more goodly scion of Hildi-tand [War-tusk] the generous. I must set forth his praise.

Hakon revenged. The kindred of Gamli [Gundhild's sons], who dared to defile the sanctuaries, ruled this land ot yore; all men's report witnesses thereto: but now there is set in the seat of those mighty lords an earl better than any king.

lomsvuickingfight. The helm-hooded Sigwald and the daring Bui, who came from the south, offered battle. The warrior fed the ravens on

2. Read, vcig or lid? 9. Read, gollsendi-lsetk? 10. hluSt-hlaut?

ii. Fiall-vaondom gaf fylli (fullr varfl) [enn spiaor gullo] her-stefnandi hraufnom (hrafn á ylgjar tafni).

III. Stray Verses.

(Verse I from Edda, verses 2, 3 from Iómsvíkinga Saga.)

1. T)AUGS getr meé J>er J)eygi J)^8r drengr vesa lengi

(elg búom flófls) nema fylgi, frifl-stoekkvir, J>ví ncekkvafl.

2. Gcerfla-ek veig of 'virfla' Viflris illrar tiflar, J>at vann ek meflan aflrir aor-vávaflir svaofo:

komkat-ek Jjess j>ar es J>ótti J>ing-saettis fé belra 5

(meiflr sparir hodd vifl hróflri hverr) enn skald in verri.

3. Scékjom iarl )>annz auka ulfs vero Jjorir sverflom (hlauflom borfl-roinn barda baug-skiaoldom) Sigvalda: drepr eigi sá sveigir sár-linnz es gram finnom

(raond berom út á andra Endils) viñ mer hendi. 10

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