Hallfred Vandrj3dascald

To Olaf Tryggvason, curiously enough, Skaldatal only gives two poets, Biarni and Hallfred. Of the former no mention is made in the King's Life, but Skaldatal is confirmed by Hallar-Steinarr in Rek-stefia, when he says that Hallfred and Biarni formerly made Encomia on Olaf, and that he will now make a third; and in Islendinga-Drapa we have it recorded, doubtless from a lost Saga of Biarni's, that when this poet's courage was challenged, he struck Earl Hakon in the face with a drinking-horn.

Of Hallfred details abound; we have a separate Saga of him, which gives a good picture of his life and character. Born in the north of Iceland, he took to trade in his youth, and coming out to Norway, is said to have become the henchman of Earl H&kon, and to have made an Encomium on him. In the autumn of 997, on the King's first return from Haloga-land, he met King Olaf and entered his service.

"One day King Olaf went out into the street, and there met him certain men, the foremost of whom greeted him. The King asked him his name. He said his name was Hallfred. 'Art thou the poet?' asked the King then. ' I know how to compose,' said he. Then spake the King, 'Thou must be minded to become a Christian, and then thou shalt be my man.' ' I will let myself be baptized,' says he,' on condition that thou, O King, be my god-sir. I will not accept that office from any other man.' 'I will do so,' says the King. Then Hallfred was baptized and the King held him up in his baptism. Then he asked Hallfred, 'Wilt thou be my man?' 'I was formerly a henchman of Earl Hakon's, and now I will not become thy liege or any other chiefs, save thou promise me that no matter what I do, thou wilt never drive me from thee!' 'But I am told of thee,' says the King, 'that thou art not so wise or careful but that it is likely that thou wilt do something that I could not by any means suffer to be passed over.' 'Then slay me,' says Hallfred. 'Thou art a troublesome poet, but thou shalt be my man.' Quoth Hallfred, ' What wilt thou give me, O King, as a name-gift if I am to be called the troublesome poet?' The King gave him a sword without a sheath, and bade him see that no man got hurt by it for three days and three nights, and told him to make a verse on the sword, and let the word 'sword' come into every clause. Hallfred did so [see p. 97]. Then the King gave him the sheath and belt and said, ' The word sword is not in every clause, though!' 'No, but there are two swords in one clause,' answered Hallfred. ' So there are,' said the King." In another place it is told of him, "And now Hallfred was with the King for a time and made a short poem on him and prayed him to listen to it. But the King said that he would not hearken to him. Hallfred answered, ' Thou shalt have thy way, but I shall cast off all the stories [the Creed, Lord's Prayer, etc.] thou makest me learn, if thou wilt not l&en to my poem, for those stories thou makest me learn are no whit more poetic than the poem I have made on thee.' Said King Olaf,' Thou ait truly called the troublesome poet, and I will listen to thy poem.'"

But with the poetic feeling as to the old gods clinging round him, we are told that Hallfred did not very easily put off his old faith, and it seems to have been more love for the King than the creed that kept him a Christian. 1 Hallfred would never speak ill of the gods, though other men railed at them, saying that there was no need to speak evil of them, though they would not believe in them.' And once he spoke this verse in the King's hearing, * We used formerly to sacrifice to Woden. Our life is changed now.' ' That is very bad verse, and you must unsay it.' Then Hallfred sang, * We used to sing of the gods, but now I must put away Woden's service though I loved it, and serve Christ.' The King said, •Thou lovest the gods too well, and it will not profit thee. That verse is no better, and must be mended.' Tben Hallfred renounces the gods, and the King said, 4That is well sung and better than any, but go on.' And Hallfred added another verse witnessing to bis faith. While he was with the King he made a Poem on him, and when sent on an embassy to the east to Earl Reginwald of Gautland, about the marriage of Olafs sister, he seems to have made the Earl's Encomium, of which also we have fragments. He went back to Iceland the year before Olaf's death, and so was not present at Swold.

There is a touching account of the way in which he came to hear the tidings of his master's fall. He was just about to fight a wager of battle with Gris, the husband of Kolfinna, his love, and he dreamed the night before that King Olaf appeared to him and told him not to fight in an unrighteous cause, and that he should go to the wood where the cross-roads meet, and that there he would hear tidings which would touch him more nearly than this matter of the wager of battle. So he went, and lo, men in red coats riding from the ships, and from them he heard the news that was shocking the whole north. 4 Hallfred was as if he were stunned with a stone.' He settled his suit, went out at once to Norway to hear what he could of the King, and then he made the dirge Olafs Drapa. A piece of a fragment on Earl Eric is ascribed to him about this time, but he seems to have composed no more afterwards, for he was never happy or at rest after the King's fall,i the world was empty,' as he says; and though he went out to Sweden, where he had a wife and son, he could not stay there in peace, but was minded to go back to Iceland, and on that voyage he died, as the Saga tells us.

"Hallfred was then about forty years of age when he set out to Iceland to fetch his property. His son Hallfred was with him. They had a bad voyage. Hallfred pumped in his turn, and yet he was very ill. And one day as he came from the baling, he sat down on the boom, and at that moment a wave struck him down on the deck with the boom on the top of him. Then cried Thorwald,4 Art hurt, brother?' and he answered him in a verse. They thought they could see that he was in a fever, and laid him aft along the deck, and made up his berth, and asked him what he thought of himself. He answered in a verse. And lo, they saw a woman walking after the ship; she was tall, and clad in a mail-coat, and walked over the billows as if she were on dry land. Hallfred looked at her, and saw that she was his Fetch, and said,' I renounce thee altogether.' She said, * Wilt thoutake me, Thorwald ?' but he refused. Then said Hallfred the Young,41 will take thee.' Then she disappeared. Then spake Hallfred,i I will give thee, my son, the sword, King's-gift, but my other treasures thou shalt lay in the coffin with me if I die on board,' and he spake this verse [see p. 98]; and a little later he died, and was laid in his coffin with his treasures, the mantle, the helm, and the ring; and they were all cast overboard together. The coffin came ashore in Holy Island (Hy) in the Sudreys, and the Abbot's servants found it. They broke up the coffin and stole the goods and sank the body in a great marsh. But lo, in the night the Abbot dreamed that King Olaf came to him; he was very angry, and said that be had evil servants, that had broken his poet's ship, and stolen his goods, and bound a stone about his neck. ' Now do thou enquire diligently of them the truth of these matters, or there shall marvellous things befall thee.' Then the servants were taken and they confessed, and were pardoned. And Hallfred's body was brought to the church and buried worshipfully; a chalice was made out of his ring, and an a/tar-cloth of his mantle, and a candlestick of his helmet." [See the Reader for this story, p. 109.]

Besides the poems noted above, there is an Uppreistar Drapa (or Song on the Creation) of his mentioned, which is now lost. In Codex Birgianus, there is an Olafs Drapa set down to him, but wrongly, for the following reasons. The author of this poem speaks mpdestly of himself (not a characteristic of Hallfred's); says that famous poets have sung already of Olaf, but that he also presumes to do so; and talks of hearsay information, ' I have heard of a king named Olaf,' which Hallfred had no reason to do. Secondly, he uses late phrases, such as stol-konungr, fiaaiXtvs icaOtdpios, a synonym brought, we fancy, by Harold Hardrede from Byzantium, and certainly not used before his day. Thirdly, the metre and cadence is not that of Hallfred, but of some thirteenth-century poet, presenting striking resemblances, especially to those of one named ' Hallr Skald,' whose poem, Brand's Drapa, is quoted in Sturlunga, c. 1246. The similarity of the names ' hallr' and * hallf.' would easily lead to a copyist's mistake, as Hallfred was well known as Olafs friend and poet.

Of Hallfred's own characteristics as a poet, we may call him the first of the second school of court-poets;—nothing antique or deeply thought out in his verses, though a real devotion and affection breaks out in his dirge on the King. Of Hallfred's improvisations, those which occur in his first interviews with the King, and in the last hours of his life, are genuine to our mind; but those which are given to him in the course of his love for Kolfinn and quarrel with Gris are coarse and commonplace and spurious. Like Thormod and Cormac, his love was an unlucky one; he seems, like them, to have been of a wayward Irish temperament, hot-headed and ready-handed, and passionately devoted to his lord. Like theirs, too, his life was more romantic and imaginative than his verse.

Hallfred's poems have suffered not a little, for it is clear that whole lines have been irretrievably 'improved* away, chiefly in the Swold section: better are w. 17-25; though there are a few places where one sees that behind a banal phrase or word there once stood a statement °r proper name; thus in II. 7 'val-kera' stands for 4 Wal-Breta,' so 'Hedinsmeyiar' (I. 11) is really ' Hedins-eyiar,' as the 'sundi* preceding shows. Again, 'Hedins rekka' (1.10) is Hedin's4 swirl' or * race,' n°t'warrior;' 'krekka' being the common Slav word for current, which translates Swold here, for Swold 'swelchie' is not an island at all, and toe nearest island is Hedinsey. * We fought before the mouth of Swold,' ays Skuli, and Skioldunga twice mentions Swold, and enables us to fix its place. There are reasons for doubts respecting II. See notes.

Hallfred helps one to several details in the battle of Swold, which differ from the prose account. He hints at some stratagem (vel) in toe fight, followed by some breach of discipline (such as that of Senlake ** may fancy) committed by the crew of the Serpent, which he takes to have lost the day for Olaf. * Eric would never have won the Long

Serpent, as long as the King's men kept the shield-wall within the ship? The popularised version of this is that Olafs men went mad with Bear-sark rage, and leapt overboard. The forecastle seems to have been deserted by the crew, who had, contrary to Olafs orders, boarded one of the ships that lay alongside, so that Eric was able to throw his men on board, and once an entry gained the force of numbers must have prevailed. Hallfred's reflection on the Thronds (ver. ao) does not seem to be, as might be guessed, an accusation, but simply the thought that il all Northmen had stood together, the King would have been invincible Unfortunately both lines 15 and 79 have been tampered with; who ii meant by * committed treason* is obscure. Respecting Sigwald (to whose treason Stephen's verse witnesses Book vi, Ditty 59) Hallfred say! nothing, but Skuli speaks to his accompanying Eric against the King though the popular prose account slurs over his behaviour. Whethei his treason consisted, as one might guess, in some Themistoclean message to Olaf, or in more open treachery, we cannot tell. Hallfred'j poem is touching where he hovers between hope and despair, as hi hears the varying reports 1 from the East' as to the fate of his lord and finally is assured of the worst. The last stanzas, however, haw a triumphant ring; his grief, great as it is, has the greatest comfort the proud remembrance and assurance of the dead King's glory.

(Verses 2-3, 13, 16-18, 20, 21 from Kringla; lines 1, 2 from |>iftr. S.; lines 3, 4, and 89, 90 from Fagrsk.; the rest from 6lafs S.)

Stef a. JVTORDR ro oil of ordin aud lond at gram daudan : allr glepsk fridr of falli flug-styggs sonar Tryggva.

b. Grams daudi brd gledi gdds 6fdrar piddar allr glepsk friOr af falli flug-styggs sonar Tryggva.

c. Eigi Idtask ytar enn peirs vida nenna fremra matin of finna folk-reifom Aleifi.

d. Hverr vas hreeddr 1'id orvan hug-dyggvan son Tryggva (ddosk malm-pings meidar) tnadr und sSlar-iadri.

1. Flug-pverrir nam fyrri fraegr aldregi vasgja heldr ldt hauka skyldir hug-rekki ser f)ekkja. i<

2. Geta skal mals J>ess es maela menn at v&pna senno dolga-fangs vift drengi da6-a)flgan gram kvsodo:

Burdens. a. All the Northern lands are made desolate, all peace i confounded by the fall of Tryggwi's steadfast son.

b. The death of the good king has bated the joy of many a people All peace is confounded by the fall of Tryggwi's flight-scorning son.

c. Men that have travelled far declare that they have never me a man like the doughty Olaf.

d. Every man underneath the course of the sun trembled before th< stout-hearted son of Tryggwi, yea, his foes feared him.

The king's orders before the battle. The famous king that spurned flight that never turned his back, said that all his mind was set on goo< courage. Now I will tell the word the king spake to his men at th' clash of weapons. He bade his followers ' never think on flight.' Thes< words of prowess shall never die.

bafiat her-tyg8ar hyggja hnekkir sína rekka (|>ess lifa {>ió8ar sessa J>róttar-or8) á flótta.

3. í>ar hygg víst til mia)k misto (ma>rg kom drótt á flótta) 15 gram J)annz gunni framSi gengiss fcroenzkra drengja: naefr vá einn vi8 ia>fra allvaldr tvá snialla

(fraegr es til slíks at segja si8r) ok iarl inn j>ri8ja.

4. Hept vas lítt á lopti (liño a>rvar fram goerva)

brodda flaug á8r bauga briótendr skyti spiótom: 20 oró vas hitt at hardast hvar-kunnr fyr la)g sunnan mest í malma gnaustan mínn dróttinn framm sótti.

5. Sótti herr J)ar es haetti hund-margr drasil sunda; 4enn hialm-spiotom' hilmir harS-fengr Damom 'var8i:' fello ]>ar 'me8 polli' f>eim skaevaSar geima 25 (mein hlaut ek af {>ví) mínir meirr holl-vinir fleiri.

6. Her-sker8ir klauf harSan (hann gekk rei8r of skei8ar) svar8ar-stofn me8 sver8i sunnr eld-vi8om kunnom: kunni gramr at gunni gunn-{)inga iarn-munnom

(margr lá heggr of hoeggvinn) hold-barkar rao sarka. 30

7. Var8 um Vinda myr8i víg-sk^s (enn J>at tysig) ramr und randar himni rymr, knátto spior glymja: hirdir stó8sk vi8 harSan hnit-vegg me8 fia>18 seggja víftiss velti-rei8ar varg-hollr primo marga.

8. Upp sa)g8o laog laog8ar 'líf skiótt firom' hlífa 35 gnóg til gumna feig8ar ga>lkn vi8 randar ba>lko.

9. Leitt hykk Leifa brautar log-naórungom va&ro geirs vi8 'gumna' stióra geigor-J)ing at eiga: ))a-es fák-hlaSendr fraóknir farligs at vin iarla húfs me8 hamri txéfSar hring-skyrtor fram gingo. 40

Then I ween the king missed the Thronds' backing sorely. A great People was put to flight. Alone he withstood two mighty kings and an earl the third. It is a glorious feat to tell of.

Ik first attacks. There was little space between the arrow-flight and the spear-hurling; the story goes that my lord fought foremost of all, south over sea. A mighty host beset his ship, he defended himself against fhe Danes and Swedes. Many a good friend of mine fell there on board In the king's crew, whereby I grieve. The king clove the skulls of his foes with his sword, and made many a man's locks bloody with the lips of the iron. Many a warrior was cut down at that war-moot. There was a grim clatter of shields about the slayer of the Wends [Olaf], he and his men withstood the onslaught of many foes. The swords spoke; out the law of death to the Swedes from the tables of the shields. They [the Danes and Swedes] became weary of holding the dread parliament of spears against the lord of the Grenes, where the good crew with their hammer-clenched ring-shirts charged following their king.

Read, med . . . Sviom. Read, vardizk. 29. iarn-munnom] Edda 748; a hw Jmnnom, Cd. 30. Emend.; holdbarkat r&, Cd. and 748. 35. Fib.; hgto, Cd. Read, lif-skiörr Sviom. 37. Emend.; let it hygg, Cd. 38. Rod, Grena?

10. Firdisk vcetr sa es varfiisk vifl-lendr Breta stridir

4 bleyfii firfir' vifi breifian bekk d6m Heflins Rekka: hann \6t 4 of saok sanna' (sverd-ialmr 6x {>ar) verfia * skilit fra-ek fyrir skylja sk68 mx*r ro8in bl68i.'

11. Harfi-gaervan \6i 4hia>rvi' holms verSa tyr sverfia 45 vind d vifio sundi vfg-J>ey 4 He8ins meyjar:'

d8r an Ormi naefii Eirekr eda hlut meira maorg 66 bitr i bl66i ben-kneif fyrir Aleifi.

12. Moendit Lung it Langa lae-sfks und gram rikjom (bl66 kom d f)ra)m J)i8an) {)i6d varliga hri68a: 50 meftan itrs vinir iutto innan-bor8z (at mordi)

(su goerfiisk vdl) var8a (verflung) ia>furs sverSom.

13. Sukko ni5r af naftri nadd-fars 4i ba>8' sdrir baugs goerftot vifi vaegjask 'verkendr Hefiins serkjar' vanr man Ormr ' J)6 at' Ormi all-dyrr konungr 4 st^ri,' 55 J>ars hann skrifir meft lift tyfia, lengi slikra drengja.

14. Itr-fermflom r^fl Ormi or8-saell iofurr norfian (sna)rp varfi at f)at sverfia sn6t) Eiriki d m6ti: enn huf-ia>fnom hefnir hl/rs J)eim gota st^rSi

(a8r 6x um gram g68an gunnr) Hdkonar sunnan. 60

15. G6tt es gaerva at frdtta (gunnr 6x) fyr haf sunnan [sverS bito feigra fyrfia fiaor-ramn] orfl at maonnom: hvern rakklegast rekka rand-lafts viftir kvaufto (Surtz aettar vinn-ck sldttan sylg) Aleifi fylgja.

16. (5grou8ir sd auflan orm-gri6tz Trana fliota 65 (hann raud geir at gunni gla8r) ok bafia Nafira:

dftr hialdr-{x>rinn hdldi hug-framr or baofl ramri

The assault of Eric. The fearless foe of the Welsh did not refuse to plead by the broad bank of Hedin's Race. He defended himself bravely.

He fought a hard fight on the wide sound at Hedinsey, till Eric won the Serpent and got the upper hand of Olaf. He would never have won the Long Serpent from the mighty king as long as the king's men stood on their defence on board. That stratagem [of Eric] wTrought their death.

The king's men on the Serpent sunk down wounded into the swelchie of Hedinsey, not sparing themselves. Never again shall the Serpent have such a crew, whatever king steer the Serpent.

The fame-blessed king launched the Serpent from the north to meet Eric, but the avenger of Hakon [Eric] steered the even-hulled bark from the south again.

Tborkettle's bravery. It is good to enquire diligently into the report men gave from the south, as to whom they say followed him most bravely of all his men; I go on to this in my song: Thorkettle the wise saw the Crane and both the Serpents drifting crewless before he turned away on his ship out of the fierce fray.

41. Emend.; varfti vid lond, Cd. 42. bruflan, Cd. 43. Read, fyr sae sunnan? 46. Read, Hedins eyjar. 51. vin, Cd. 54. Read, Heftins rekka? 55. Read, J»r es . . . styrir? 59. Emend.; hy iofnum, Cd. 62. ord at] emeud.; at ¿>vi, Cd. 65. aufta Trouo, Cd.

Snotr a snceris vitni suntlz {»orketill undan. 17. Veitkat-ek hitt hvirt Heita hungr-deyfi skal-ek leyfa dyn-saeöinga dauöan d^r-bliks, eöa j)6 kvikvan: 70

allz sannlega segja (sdrr man gramr at hvaoro) [haett es til hans at fr&ta] hvdrt-tveggja mer seggir.

18- Sumr vas aorr of aevi 'odd-flagös' hinn-es J)at sagöi at loföa gramr liföi lae-styggs sonar Tryggva:

vesa kveör a>ld ör ¿Ii Äldf kominn stdla; 75

menn geta mdli saonno (mia>k es verr an svd) fern.

19- Sagör vas mer (enn meira munoma striö of biöa) 1^'öom firör ok läöi land-viorör fyr sid handan: vaeri oss Jx>-at 'aerir elldz J)eim' svikom belldi heila lfkn ef hauka ha-klifs ia>furr liföi. 80

20. Moendot J)ess, es free n dir J)rött-haröan gram sötto, (' frd-ek meö työa liöi' land heröar) skaop veröa:

at mund-iaDkuls myndi marg-d^rr koma rfrir (geta Jrikkjat mer gotnar glikligs) or styr slikom.

21. Enn segir ööar kenni austr or malma gnaustan 85 seggr frd saorom tyggja sumr eöa braut of komnom: nü hefk sann-fregit sunnan siklings or styr miklom (kannka-ek mart viö manna) morö (veifanar-oröi).

22- Norömanna hygg-ek nenninn (nü-es Jjengiil fram genginn) [d£rr hn6 dröttar stiöri] dröttinn und lok söttan. 90

23- Illt vas J>atz ulfa sultar of ^verri stöö-ek fern inest {>ar-es malmar gnusto mein, \>o at smdtt s6 und einom: skiliör em-ek viö skylja; skalm-a)ld hefir J>vf valdit; vaetti ek viröa dröttins (vil est mest) of dag flestan.

Olafj end. I know not whether I am praising a dead or living king, as people tell me both things for certain. However, he is at least wounded, for there are no news of him. One there was that told me toe fate of Tryggwi's son, that he was alive; men are saying that came alive out of the battle; but they guess far beside the truth : it is much worse than that! I have been told the king lost life and kad over the sea: though it were a great mercy to me if the king were yet alive, in spite of . . . committed this treason. Fate would not have turned it so, that he should have escaped out of such a battle

Still there is one that tells me that the king was wounded, or has escaped from the fight in the east; but at last I have got the tme news of the king's death in the great battle in the south: I set no store by the wavering reports of men. I believe that the doughty king of toe Northmen has come to his end. The prince is gone, the dear Qptain of the Guard has sunk in death.

/^poet's grief. 'Twas pity that I was far away from the king, where toe iron rang, though there is small help in one man. Now I am Parted from him: the sword-tide has wrought this. I yearn for my k] »f. Cod. (badly). 73. Samr, Cd. 79. Corrupt text. 85. auöar, Cd. H Emend.; ok dul flestom, Cd.

24. Hef-ek Jxinnz hverjom iaofri heipt-fíknom varft ríkri 95 und nid-byrñi Norñra norór goftfaoñor orñinn:

bíóa man-ek J)ess es breiñan borñ-mána vann skarflan marg-aukanda maekiss mót, aldregi bótir.

25. Fyrr man heimr ok himnar hug-reifom Áleifi

(hann vas menzkra manna mest gótt) í tvau bresta: 100 áñr an glíkr at góño gcéóingr moni foédask. —Koens hafi Christr inn hreini konungs aond ofarr laondom!

II. The Older Praise of Olaf.

(From thc Lives of Kings.)

1» nPOLF vas elldz at aldri ^-setrs hati vetra hraustr {>a-es her-skip glaesti Haorña vinr or Gaorñom : hlóño Haniñes kloeóom hiaorva gnfs ok skyjom hilmis menn sem hialmom htyT-vigg, enn mól st^ri.

2. Hilmir let at Holmi hrae-skó8 rodin blódi 5 (hvat of dyldi \>ess haolfiar?) haorñ ok austr í Gaaréom.

3. Svá frá-ek hitt at háva haDrg-briótr í stañ maorgom (opt-kom hrafn at heipta) hlóó val-kaosto (blófli).

4. Endr let Iamta kindir all-valdr í styr falla

(vandisk hann) ok Vinda vé-grimmr (á {>at snimma): 10 Haettr vas hersa dróttinn hia3r-diarfr Gota fia>rvi, goll-skerñi frá-ek goerño geir-^ey á Skáneyjo.

5. Baoó-serkjar hió birki bark-laust í Danma>rko hleypi-mei6r fyr Heiña-, hlunn-viggja, -bf sunnan.

6. Tífi-hoeggvit let tyggi Tryggva sonr fyr styggvan 15 Leiknar hest á lesti liót-vaxin hrae Saxa: vin-hróñigr gaf viña vísi margra Frisa blookko brúnt at drekka blóó kveld-rióo stófii.

lord every day! It is the height of woe! I had him to my godfather who was mightier than any king under the burden of the Dwarves [heaven]; I shall never get a recompense for his loss. Earth and heavens shall be rent in twain, ere there shall be born a lord like to Olaf. He was the best of earthly men. May Christ the pure keep the king's soul in paradise [lit. above the lands].

Olafs kicking exploits. He was twelve years old, the Friend of the Hords [Anlaf], when he launched his war-ship out of Garth [Novgorod territory]. They loaded her with Hamtheow's clothes [mail-coats] and shields and helms, then the rudder churned up the sea. He dyed his spear red in blood at Holm [Borgund-holm ?], and east in Garth, Who knows it not? I have heard how the Breaker of high-places piled heaps of corpses in many a place. The Hater of the Fanes made the kindred of the Iamts and Wends to fall in battle. He was trained early to that. He was a danger to the lives of the Gots [Gotland folk], and I hear that he fought at Sconey. He hewed the mail-coats with the sword in Denmark, and south ot Heathby Tryggwi's son cut down the coarse-grown carcases of the Saxons for the witches' chargers [the wolves], and gave the blood of many a Frisian to the steeds of the

7. Rógs brá rekka laegir ríkr Val-Breta líki; her-stefnir lét hrajfnom hold Flaemingja goldit. 20

8. Goeröisk ungr viö Engla of-vaegr konungr baegja; nadd-skúrar réó ncérir Noröymbra J)ví moröi: Eyddi ulfa greddir ógn-blí0r Skottom vífla;

gceröi seims meö sveröi sverö-leik í Mam skerñir.

9. ídrogar let cegir Eyverskan her deyja 25 (t^r vas Tiorva d^ra tirar giam) ok fra:

Baröi Bretzkrar iarñar byggvendr, ok hió tyggvi (gráñr J)varr geira hríñar giófli) Kumbrskar J>ió8ir.

i. A SK-fcOLLOM standr Ullar austr at miklo trausti ** rceki-lundr inn ríki rand-fárs brumaör hári.

R26Ö lukosk, at sá siöan sniall-maeltr konungs spialli átti enga dóttur Ónars viöi gróna. 3- Breiöleita gat brüöi Báleygs at ser teygja 5

Sann-yröom spenr sveröa snarr piggjandi viggjar barr-haddafla, byrjar, bifl-kván und sik fcriöja. 5- fcví hykk fleygjanda fraegjan (ferr ia>rö und men-pverri) " itra eina láta Auös systor miaok trauöan. 10

Grams nini laetr glymja gunn-ríkr, hinn-es hvaot líkar, Haogna hamri slegnar, heipt-bráfir, um sik váñir. 7- Ok geir-roto ga>tvar, gagls, viö strengja hagli hungr-eyöondom hanga hloeöot iarni soeñar.

night-hags [wolves]. He fed the wolves on the bodies of the Gaulish Bretons [lit. Wal-Brets], and gave the flesh of the Flemings to the raven. The young king waged war against the English, and made a slaughter of the Northumbrians. He destroyed the Scots far and ™de. He held a sword-play in Man. The archer-king brought death to the Islanders [of the Western Islands] and Irish; he battled with the dwellers in the land of the British [Wales], and cut down the Cumbrian folk.

On Earl Rognwald. This doughty tree of war, budded with hair, is a mighty refuge for men in the East. The agreement was concluded to the eloquent friend of kings [earl] should wed the only Daughter of «oden, green-with-wood [the land]. With mighty covenants he allured to him the broad-faced Bride of Woden; with true compacts he wiles jo himself the harvest-haired Spouse of Woden. And now that the land is his, he is very loath to put away the beautiful Sister of Aud [i. e, he has gained the land, and will not part with it].

Aw battle. The earl made the hammer-beaten weeds of Hagena [.mail-coat] fall about him. Yea, the iron-sewn mail-coat did not

8. Ölitift brestr üti unn-d^rs sumom runnom 15 hart d Hamöis skyrtom hryn-grdp Egils vdpna.

9. 'fcaöan' veröa faot 'fyröa' (fregn-ek goerla [>at) Saorla [riööask biaort i blööi ben-fur] meil-skürom.

IV. On Earl Eric.

Sief Bcerr ert hröör at heyra, hialdr-aorr, um \>lk goervan!

V. Improvisations.

(From Hallfred's Saga.)

Hall/r. T7CEROM festar örar; ferr sae-roka at knerri, svaorö tekr heldr at heröa; hvar es Akkeris-frakki ?

Olaf. Enn i ölpo grsunni ek faek dreng til strengja

J)ann-es hnakk-miöom hnykkir. Her es Akkeris-frakki.

2. Veit-ek at viso skreyti viö-lendr konungr sendi 5 na>köan brand af nokkvi; nü dk S^rar mey d^ra: veröa hiaolt fyr heröi (haofom, gramr, kera framöan skoelkving um J>d-ek skialga) skrautlig konungs-nauti.

3. Fyrr vas hitt es harra Hliö-skialfar gat-ek sialfan (skipt es d gumna gipto) geö-skiötan vel blöta. 10

4. Öll hefir dtt viö hylli Öflins skipat liööom all-gilda man-ek aldar iöjo vdrra niöja:

enn trauör (J^vi-at vel ViSriss vald hugnaöisk skaldi) legg-ek d frum-ver Friggjar fiön, {)vi-at Kristi J)iönom.

protect them [his foes] against the hail of the bowstrings [arrows]. And the hail-grape of Egil's weapon [arrows] burst hard upon the shirts of Hamtheow [mail-coats]. The raiment of Sarila [mail-coat] was beaten by the iron shower. The bright blades are dyed red in blood. Yea, I heard it of a truth.

Burden. It beseems thee to listen to the song I have made upon thee.

Hall/red to Olaf. Let us shift our moorings, there is a gust from the sea coming upon our ship. The cable is overstrained. Where is the anchor-man ?

Olaf to Hallfred. Here in a green jacket is the anchor-man. I will get a lad for the cable who shall move the buoy.

TJbe king's giß. I know that the wide-ruling king gave the poet a naked sword for a certain thing [for his song?]. I have a precious jewel now. The hilts of the king's gift are costly mounted, A fine sword I have; 1 got a brand from the king.

Hallfred's conversion. It was of old that I worshipped the swift-thoughted Lord of Lithshelf [Woden]. Men's conditions are changed now. All men once set their song to the praise of Woden; I can remember the honoured compositions of our ancestors; and therefore, now that we serve Christ, I unwillingly renounce Frigg's Spouse, because his rule suited me very well. It is the rule of the Lord of Sogn [Olaf]

17. Read, slegin ver&a ? 6. nokkra du fiaustr burar Austra, Fs.

5- Sás meö Sygna raesi siör at blót ero kviöjot; 15 TerSom flest at foröask forn-haldin sksup Noraa: láta allir ^tar Ööins aett fyr rööa; verö-ek neyddr frá Niaröar niöjom Krist at biöja. <>• Haofhom haolfla reifnir Hrafn-bloetz goöa nafni

J>ess es 61 viö Mof' työa lóm í heiönom dómi. ao

7* Mer skyli Freyr ok Freyja (fiorö let-ek aöul Niaröar),.

ßiknisk gra>m viö GrimniJ gramr ok Mrr inn rammi: xist vil-ek allrar ástar (eromk leiö Sonar reiöi), [vald á fraegt um foldar] Feör einn ok Goö kveöja.

8- Eitt es sverö J>at-es sveröa sverö-auögan mik geröi; 25 fyr svip-niaoröom sveröa sveröött mun nú veröa:

muna van-sveröat veröa; verör em-ek J)riggja sveröa, iaröar-mens ef yröi umgiaorö at J)vi sveröi.

(miaok hefir) uör (at aoöro aflat bsoro skafli): 30

marr skotar minom knerri; miaok em-ek vátr af naekkvi; munat úr-J)vegin eirá aldan sino skaldi.

Rind mun hvítri hendi haor-duks um brá miúka (fliöö gat fremöar ctöi) fiaol-errin ser {>eiTa: ef dauöan mik meiöar morö-heggs skolo leggja 35

(á0r vas-ek ungo fliööi) út um borö (at sútom). n- Ek moenda nú andask (ungr vas-ek harör í tungo) senn, ef ssolo minni, sorglaust, vissa-ek borgit: veit-ek at vaetki of s^tig (valdi Goö hvar aldri), [dauör verör hverr] nema hraeöomk Helvíti (skal slita). 40

that the sacrifices are forbidden. We are forced to forsake all the time-honoured ordinances of the Norns. All men now cast to the wind the Vmdred of Woden [the old gods]; I am forced to renounce the children of Niord [Frey and Freya] and to pray to Christ.—I renounce the ^e name of the Raven Sacrificer, him that nursed deceit to the ¡j®t of mankind, in heathendom. May Frey and Freya and the mighty Thorbe wroth with me! I forsake the son of Niord. May the fiends "^d a friend in Woden! I will call on Christ, one Father and God, all my love. I can bear no longer the wrath of the Son, who ^ gloriously over the earth.

The Sword- Verse. There is one sword that makes me sword-rich in swords; among sword-bearers there will now be a sword-bounty; there ^ be no lafk of swords now. I am worthy of three swords. Would toere were but a sword-sheath to the sword!

Hall/rets Death-Verses. The tempest-blown billow, with a mighty ^^ rushed my heart to my ribs with the boom. The sea tosse? roy ship and I am wet; the brine-washed roller will not spare the poet. Jhe linen-clad lady will wipe her soft eyelids with her white hand, if they have to throw me overboard, though formerly I caused grief to I would gladly die now if I knew that my soul were safe. I was sharp of tongue in my youth. I feel that I am troubled about nothing ttve that I fear the pains of Hell. Every one must die! May God fix hhither my soul shall pass! vol. 11. h

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