The perfect indicative describes both a simple past action (I shut the city gates yesterday) and a present state resulting from a past action or actions (I have now shut the city gates); context shows which meaning is intended.
Subita incautum dementia cepit amantem. Vergil Georgics 4.488 A sudden madness seized the unwary lover.
(a single past action) Hoc intellextin (= intellexisti + -ne)? Terence Andria 201
Have you understood this? (i.e., Are you now in a state of understanding this?) (the perfect expressing a present state)
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