The optative subjunctive (negated by ne) expresses a wish. It may be reinforced by utinam. In the present tense, an optative subjunctive expresses a wish for the future.
Te Iuppiter dique omnes perdantl Plautus Mostellaria 38
May Jupiter and all the gods destroy you!
An imperfect subjunctive expresses a wish for the present.
Tecum ludere, sicut ipsa, possem. Catullus Carmina 2.9
I wish I could play with you as she herself [does], (lit., Would that I could ...)
A pluperfect subjunctive expresses a wish for the past.
Utinam ne ... Cnosia Cecropiae tetigissent litora puppes.
*Catullus Carmina 64.i7if. Would that the Cecropian ships had not touched the Cnossian shores.
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