G67

The optative subjunctive (negated by ne) expresses a wish. It may be reinforced by utinam. In the present tense, an optative subjunctive expresses a wish for the future.

Te Iuppiter dique omnes perdantl Plautus Mostellaria 38

May Jupiter and all the gods destroy you!

An imperfect subjunctive expresses a wish for the present.

Tecum ludere, sicut ipsa, possem. Catullus Carmina 2.9

I wish I could play with you as she herself [does], (lit., Would that I could ...)

A pluperfect subjunctive expresses a wish for the past.

Utinam ne ... Cnosia Cecropiae tetigissent litora puppes.

*Catullus Carmina 64.i7if. Would that the Cecropian ships had not touched the Cnossian shores.

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