Hie Happy Peasant

Claudian Shorter poems, 20

Happy is he who has spent his life in ancestral fields, whom the very [same] house sees as a boy [and sees] as an old man, who, leaning on [his] staff on the sand on which he crawled [as a child], counts the long generations of a single humble dwelling (lit., cottage). Fortune has not dragged him off with unstable turmoil, nor has he drunk unfamiliar waters [as] a resdess stranger. He has not trembled at seas [as] a merchant, he [has not trembled at] trumpet calls [as] a soldier, nor has he endured the disputes of the noisy forum.

Ignorant of the world [and] unacquainted with the neighboring city, he enjoys a freer view of the sky. He calculates the year by alternating crops, not by [the name of]' the consul; he marks for himself autumn by [its] fruits [and] spring by [its] flowers (lit., flower). The same field sets the sun and the same [field] brings [it] back, and he, a peasant, measures the day with his own luminary (i.e., sun). He remembers the huge oak from a small seedling. He sees that the forest of the same age [as he is] has grown old [with him]. For him, neighboring Verona is more distant than the dark Indians, and he thinks that Lake Benacus is the Red Sea. However, [his] strength [is] unbroken, and the third age sees [him as] a grandfather, vigorous with strong arms. Let another wander and explore the farthest Spaniards. The former has more life, the latter more traveling.

C A list of abbreviations is given on page xxvi.

C Entries preceded by ♦ are basic vocabulary words whose meanings are not given in the notes to the selections.

C Meanings given here reflect a word's use in the selections, not necessarily the entire range of meanings the word may have.

C Words with three endings are adjectives (e.g., acerbus -a -um, amabilis -is -e, and acer acris acre).

C The genitive of third-declension nouns is given in foil (e.g., adspergo adsperginis), as is that of nouns of other declensions whose stems change (e.g., ager agri).

(I The genitive of third-declension adjectives is given in parentheses (e.g., felix (felicis)).

C Case government is indicated for prepositions (e.g., a (ab) prep. (+ abl,)) and, where applicable, for adjectives (e.g., cupidus -a -um (+ gen.)) and verbs (e.g., careo -ere intr. (+ abl.)).

<[ For verbs whose perfect and supine forms are regular, only the first-person singular present indicative and the present infinitive are given (e.g., accuso -are and audio -Ire). For all other verbs, all principal parts are given (e.g., abrump5 -ere abrupt abrup-tum). A missing principal part is indicated by a dash (e.g., accido -ere accidi —).

<1 Alternative forms are given in parentheses (e.g„ for the noun Davos (Davus) -i, the pronoun quidam quaedam quiddam (quoddatn), the verb abed abire abii (ablvl) abitum, the conjunction ac (atque), and the preposition a (ab)). Some alternative forms are abridged to the ending only (e.g., appeto -ere appetivl (-ii) appetitum). Parentheses are also used to indicate alternative spellings or forms in words such as sepulc(h)rum -I.

G Principal parts in square brackets are rare (e.g„ cano -ere cecinl [cantum]) or are not attested but given to aid identification (e.g., [ecfor] ecfarl ecfatus sum).

* accedo -ere accessl accessum intr./tr. approach, come near, come over

♦ a(ab) prep. (+abl.) by; (away) from; after abed abire abii (abivi) abitum intr. go away, depart; get away, escape

♦accidö -ere accidi — intr. fall down; happen abrumpö -ere abrupt abruptum tr. break

♦ accipio -ere accepi acceptum tr. take; accept, receive; admit; hear; grasp, learn accingö -ere accinxl accinctum tr. gird abscëdô -ere abscess! abscessum intr. go away absens (absentis) absent, not present

absolve -ere absolu! absolutum tr. release; acquit accumbö -ere accubul accubitum intr. lie down absum abesse âfiiî äfutürus intr. be distant; be absent accurró -ere ac(cu)curri accursum intr. run up absûmô -ere absumpsi absumptum tr. drink (up); waste accuso -are tr./intr. blame acer acris acre sharp, severe; energetic acerbus -a -um bitter acetum -i N. vinegar

Achaicus -a -um a poetic term for Greek

Achilles Achiilis M. the greatest of the

Greek warriors Achxvi -drum m.pl. another name for Greeks

♦ acies -el f. keenness, edge; battle line aconltum -I N. aconite (a poisonous plant)

acquiesco -ere acquie(v)! — intr. relax; subside acrius compar. adv. more bitterly actum -I N. deed; achievement actutum adv. in the near future acus -us F. needle

for (the purpose of) adaeque adv. equally adc- see also acc-adclino -are tr. lay on, rest on addo -ere addidi additum tr. add, attach adedd -ere adedl adesum tr. exhaust; consume adeo adire ad(i)l aditum intr./tr. approach; take on

♦ adeo adv. so, to such an extent; to that point nd£- see also afif-

adfigo -ere adfixi adfixum tr. fasten adfor adfari adfatus sum tr. speak to, address adhuc adv. still adicid -ere adieci adiectum tr. add adimo -ere ademi ademptum tr. take away, snatch away aditus -us m. entrance adiungo -ere adiunxi adiunctum tr. add, attach, connect adiuvd -are adiuvi adiutum tr. help; favor adl- see also all-

adlabord -are--jntr./tr. take the trouble to add (to) adloquor adloqui adlocutus sum tr. address, speak to admirans admirantis M. admiral

(nonclassical) admiror -ari tr. marvel (at) admitto -ere admlsi admissum tr. let in, admit

♦ admoneo -ere tr. remind; advise, warn admoveo -ere admovl admotum tr.

move (up); stretch, extend adnuo -ere adnui adnutum intr./tr.- nod (assent to); grant adoperio -Ire adoperui adopertum tr. cover (over) adp- see also app-adplico -are adplicavi (adplicul)

adplicatum (adplicitum) tr. lead adq- SEEacq-adr- see arr-ads- see also ass-adsector -ari tr. follow closely; escort adsideo -ere adsedi adsessum intr./tr. sit by; assist adsiduus -a -um constant, continuous adsono -are--intr. sing in accompaniment adspergo adsperginis f. sprinkling, spray adsto -are astiti — intr. stand by/at/on adstringo -ere adstrinxl adstrictum tr. fasten; check adsum adesse adfui adfixturus intr. be present, be here

♦adulescens adulescentis m./f. young person; adj. young advenio -ire advent adventum intr. come (to) adventus -us M. coming, arrival

opposite; hostile

♦ adversus prep. (+acc.) against; toward, facing, opposite adverto -ere advertl adversum tr. turn (to) Aeacus -I m. one of the three judges of the Underworld

f.pl. house; rooms

♦ aedificium-(i)l n. building aedifico -are intr./tr. build Aeetes -ae m. a king of Colchis, father of Medea

♦ aeger aegra aegrum sick, ill, ailing, lovesick; weary aegrotus -a -um sick Aeneas-ae m. the son of Venus and

Anchises, founder of the Roman race Aeneius -a -um of Aeneas aen(e)us -a -um (made of) bronze Aeolides -ae m. a son of Aeolus Aeolius -a -um Aeolian, of Aeolus

(the god of the winds) aequaevus -a -um of the same age aequo -are tr. requite; make even aequor aequoris n. sea aequoreus -a -um of the sea aequum -i n. equal footing; what is right

just, right; favorable

♦ aeraeris m. air, atmosphere; sky aerätus -a -um bronze-clad aeripes (aeripedis) bronze-footed aerumna -ae F. trouble aes aeris N. copper, bronze, brass;

something made of one of these metals aestäs aestätis f. summer aestimö -äre tr. value; consider aestuö -are intr. burn fiercely, blaze aestuösus -a -um parched, sweltering aestus-üs m. heat; passion

♦ aetäs aetätis f. age, time of life; period of time; life; time aeternus -a -urn everlasting; ceaseless aether aetheris m. sky aetherius -a -um heavenly, in the heavens Aethiops Aethiopis m, an Ethiopian Aetna -ae f. Mt. Etna aevum -1 n. age, period of time; life Afer AftI m. a person addressed in

Martial's epigrams afferö afferre attull allätum tr. bring; raise

Africa -ae f. Africa agedum exhortation to action cornel

♦ ageragri M. field; land; farm agitator agitätöris m. driver, charioteer agnoscö -ere agnövi agnitum tr. recognize

♦ ago agere egi actum tr./intr. do, perform, accomplish, manage, play the part of; drive; bring on; spend (time); pay attention to agrestis -is -e rustic

Alänus-a-um of the Alani people

(of Scythia) Albänus -a -um of Alba Longa, Alban albens (albentis) white albicans (albicantis) white albus -a -um white Alcldes -ae m. a descendant of Alceus, especially Hercules ales (alitis) winged äles alitis m./f. bird alga -ae f. seaweed

♦ alienus -a -um foreign; strange; belonging/

relating to another

♦ aliqul aliqua aliquod adj. some

♦ aliquis aliqua aliquid pron. someone, something

♦ aliter adv. otherwise

♦ alius alia aliud pron./adj, another; other, different all- see aiso adl-

alligô -are tr. fasten; restrict, confine allûdô -ere allûsl allusum intr. play with; lap at almus -a -um life-giving; gracious alô alere alul al(i)tum tr. feed AlpisAlpis f. the Alps altë adv. to a great height, high

♦ alter altera alterum pron./adj. one/

other (of two), another, the next, second alternus -a -um alternating altum -ï n. sea, the deep

♦ altus -a -um high, lofty; deep amâbilis -is -e lovable; pleasing amans amantis m./f. lover amârus -a -um bitter amàtôrius -a -um of love or lovers, amatory ambiguus -a -um doubtful, hesitant;

conflicting ambô -ae -ô pl. pron./adj. both ambrosius -a -um ambrosial, divine ambulô -are intr. walk arnica -ae f. (girl)friend; sweetheart, mistress amictus -ùs m. garment, shawl amicus -a -um dear, loving, friendly; favorable

fornicate amoenus -a -um pleasant, attractive

darling, beloved; (personified) the god oflove amplector -i amplexus sum tr. embrace amplius indecl. noun more, a larger amount/number, longer amplus -a -um huge

Amyclae-àrum f.pl. the name of towns in Laconia and Latium

♦ an conj. whether; or (introducing the second part of a question) anceps (andpitis) double; wavering, uncertain ancora-ae f, anchor Ancus -I m. the fourth king of Rome Andromède Andromèdes greek f. Andromeda, a character in Greek mythology rescued by Perseus from a sea monster angô -ere anxï anctum tr. choke anguis anguis m./f. snake angulus -i M. corner angustus -a -um narrow, confined, limited anhëlitus -fis m. breath ♦anima -ae f. soul, spirit, breath; life; heart animosus -a -um spirited, courageous animula -ae F. soul

courage; anger; inclination ann- see adn-

♦ ante adv./prep. (+acc.) first, previously, before; in front (of), before

♦ antea adv. before, previously antehac adv. previously

Antenor Antenoris m. a Trojan prince anthologia -ae f. anthology

♦ antlquus -a -um ancient; previous antrum -1 N. cave anus -us f. old woman anxius -a -um worried; painstaking aper apri m. wild boar aperid -Ire aperui apertum tr. open; reveal

♦ aperte adv. openly,frankly Apidanus -I M. a river in Thessaly aplustre aplustris n. sternpost (of a boat) Apollo Apollinis M. the son of Jupiter and Leto, the god of poetry and music apparatus -us m. trapping; luxury appareo -ere apparui apparitum intr. be visible

♦ appello -are tr. address; call (to); name appeto -ere appetivi (-il) appetltum tr. seek, try to reach apto -are tr. Jit to/on, put in position aptus -a -um Javorable, suitable, appropriate; Jurnished

♦ apud prep. (+ acc.) at, near, with, among, amid; at the house oj; in the works oj

♦ aqua -ae f. water; body of water ara-ae f. altar.: , aranea -ae f. cobweb aratrum -I n. plow arbitrium -(i)l n. judgment arbitror-ari tr./intr. think

♦ arbor (arbos) arboris F. tree arboreus -a -um arboreal, oj trees Arcadia -ae F. the central district of the


prevent arctdus -a -um northern Arctus -I f. the constellation oj the Bear; the north arcus -us m. bow (for shooting arrows); arch arded -ere arsi — intr. burn, blaze, be on fire ardor arddris m. fire; passion arduus -a -um steep; tall; difficult; rearing up, proud

♦ argentum -I N. silver; money Argus -l M. the hundred- or thousand-eyed guardian of Io argutiae -arum f.pl. verbal wit argutus -a -um rustling Ariadna -ae f. Ariadne (the daughter of king Minos of Crete who helped Theseus and was abandoned by him on Naxos) aries arietis m. battering ram Arion Arionis M. a poet and singer of Lesbos, said to have been saved from drowning by a dolphin Arlonius -a -um oj the poet Arion

♦ arma-orum n.pl. weapons, arms armentum -I N. herd armiger armigerl M. armor-bearer armo -are tr. arm aro -are tr. plow arripio -ere arripui arreptum tr. grasp, seize Arrius -I m. a person named in Catullus' Carmina

character; artificiality; stratagem artifex artificis M. artist; expert artus -a -um tight, close, dense; difficult artus artus m. limb, arm, leg arvum -T n. field; countryside

♦ arx arcis f. citadel, jortress as assis m. as (a copper coin of small value)

ascendo -ere ascend! ascensum tr./intr. climb, mount asellus -1 M. donkey aspectus -us M. sight, view asper aspera asperum harsh; difficult aspicid -ere aspexi aspectum tr. look (at), observe assiduus -a -um continuous, constant assuesco -ere assuevi assuetum tr./intr. accustom; become familiar astrum -i n. star; constellation

♦ at conj. but, moreover ater atra atrum black; dark

Atlas Atlantis m. a Titan, condemned to support the sky on his shoulders

♦ atque(ac) conj. and, and also Atrldes -ae m. a son ojAtreus, especially

Agamemnon atrium -ii n. the first main room in a Roman house attero -ere attrivi attritum tr. rub Atticus -a -um Athenian attined -ere attinul attentum tr./intr. hold back; concern attingo -ere attigl attactum tr. touch (on); arrive at attollô -ere--tr. raise, lift up auctor auctôris M. creator, writer; authority auctôritàs auctôritâtis f. authority;

reputation audacia -ae f. boldness

♦ audax (audâcis) bold;foolhardy ♦audeô -ère ausus sum tr./intr. dare, venture; be bold

♦ audio -ire tr. hear, listen to auditor audïtôris m. listener auferô auferre abstulï ablâtum tr, carry/take away; sweep away auíugió -ere aufugi — intr./tr. run away

♦ augeô -ère aux! auctum tr. increase, enlarge augurium -(i)ï n. augury; interpretation Augustus-ï m. a tide given to Octavius Caesar after he had established himself as sole ruler at Rome aura -ae f. breeze; breath aureus -a -um golden auricula -ae p. ear aurifer aurífera auriferum gold-bearing

Aurora -ae f. the goddess of the dawn

♦ aurum -I n. gold Ausonia -ae f. Italy Ausonis (Ausonidis) Italian Ausonius -a -um Italian, Roman Auster Austrï m. the south wind ausum -ï n. exploit

and indeed

Automedôn Automedontis m. Achilles'

charioteer and Pyrrhus' armor-bearer autumnus -ï m. autumn

♦ auxilium-(1)1 n. help, aid, assistance avàritia -ae f. greed avàrus -a -um greedy avë imp. of avère (to be greeted) hail, hello

âvellô -ere âvellï (âvolsï, àvulsï) âvolsum

(âvulsum) tr. tear away Aventïnus -a -um of the Aventine Hill Avernus -a -um of the Underworld, infernal

Avernus -ï m. the lake reputed to be an entrance to the Underworld; the Underworld itself aversus -a -um facing away avia-ae f. grandmother avidus -a -um greedy avis avis f. bird avunculus -1 m. maternal uncle avus -1 m. grandfather; ancestor, forebear axis axis m. axle, axis; chariot; heavens, sky

Babylonius -a -um Babylonian bacchans bacchantis f. a female devotee of Bacchus, bacchante bacchor -ari tr. rage, rave, rant Bacchus -I m. Dionysus, Liber (the son of Jupiter and Semele); wine Bactra -orum n.pl. the capital of Bactria (a province of Parthia in what is now northeast Iran) baculum -I n. (walking) staff balans balantis m./f. sheep barba -ae f. beard barbaria -ae f. the foreign world barbarus -a -um cruel, savage; barbarian, foreign basiatid basiationis f. kiss, kissing basid -are tr. kiss basium -(i)l n. kiss

Battus -1 m. the legendary founder of Cyrene beatus -a -um happy, satisfied bellator bellatoris m. warrior; adj. warlike; bellator equus m. warhorse bellicus -a -um military, warlike

♦ bellum -I n. war bellus -a -um beautiful, handsome belua -ae f. monster; elephant Benacus -i m. a lake near Verona

♦ bene adv. well, properly, honorably benignus -a -um generous, bounteous

♦ bibo-erebibi— tr./intr. drink biceps (bicipitis) with two peaks Bilbilis Bilbilis f. a small city in northeast Spain, the birthplace of Martial bipennis bipennis f. double-edged ax bis adv. twice

Blthynus -a -um Bithynian, of Bithynia (a district on the northwest coast of Asia Minor) blanditia -ae f. blandishment blandulus -a -um diminutive of blandus sweet, charming blandus -a -um coaxing, persuasive; beguiling

Bolanus -I m. a person reputed by

Horace to have a bad temper bonum-i n. the good, advantage; (usually pl.) possessions, glories

virtuous; advantageous, beneficial

Boreas -ae m. the north wind Borysthenes Borysthenis m. the name of a horse belonging to the emperor Hadrian ♦bös bovis m./f. ox, bull, cow; (pl.) cattle Böterdum -i N. a village near Bilbilis in Spain bra(c)chium -(i)l N. arm

♦ brevis -is -e short, brief; meager brüma -ae f. winter; winter solstice buc(c)ula -ae f. cheek-piece bustum -I n. tomb buxus -T f, boxwood

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