or ethics with respect to the study of the basic fact of the human sciences, which is the historicity of free human nature. In no other area except that of science have the products of human activities been so perfectly preserved. The history of literature has preserved them as successive strata. Active powers still appear to pulsate vigorously in such products. Today poetic processes occur in just the same way as in the past. The poet is alive before our eyes; we see evidence of his creative work. Thus the poetic formative process, its psychological structure, and its historical variability can be studied especially well. The hope arises that the role of psychological processes in historical products will be explained in detail through poetics. Our philosophical conception of history was developed from literary history. Perhaps poetics will have a similar significance for the systematic study of historical expressions of life.
The formation of such a science would also have a great practical significance for our system of higher education. Before the reform of philology through Humboldt's and Wolf's conception of the Greeks from the perspective of an ideal of humanity, the Gymnasiumaimed to derive from the classics a rational consciousness of rules of language and thought, of rhetorical and literary style, as well as a secure technique based on this. This legitimate idea was replaced by another during the heyday of our humanistic rediscovery of the Greeks, but its validity was more limited. The historical knowledge of the Greek spirit in its ideality was now supposed to educate one to attain full humanity. If the Gymnasium is to return to its former basic aim in a more mature form, which takes into account our historical consciousness, then it will also need a new poetics, a new rhetoric, and a more developed logic.
11 Secondary school with a classical emphasis.
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