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Gray The Marketplace And The Masculine Poet

In 1767, an anonymous pamphlet appeared entitled The Sale of Authors, a Dialogue, in Imitation of Lucian's Sale of Philosophers. Written by naval official Archibald Campbell, this pamphlet features Apollo and Mercury conducting an auction among booksellers for the premier writers of the day, including James Macpherson, John Wilkes, Charles Churchill, and Thomas Gray. With its magnified sense of poets' powerlessness in the commercialized literary culture of midcentury England, Campbell's text seems a typical attack on the vigorously expanding book trade. Yet while satirizing the transformation of writers into commodities, and emphasizing the diminished social stature that accompanies this change, Campbell manages to capture with some accuracy the defining features of Gray's literary career. Most obviously, he calls attention to the poet's departure from current norms of masculine behavior The criticisms raised in The Sale of Authors concerning Gray and his verse are by no means...

Rhetoric Leads to Clich

I am an Indian born upon Indian land and I've been battered by myself and others for nine rounds but I am raging and ready for the tenth and final spurt of manhood. When the rednecks passed me in their white pickup and dropped a beer can in their wake I tromped the gas pedal and passed them back stupidly, since the roads were sheet ice.

Eros In The Lyric Poets

The character of Eros in the early lyric poets is worthy of attention from the fact of its being quite distinct from that of later times. From the scattered passages in Alcman xv. xvi. Sappho vm. Ibycus I. II. and Anacreon VI. vil. vm. IX. etc., we can construct the conception of a youthful divinity in the first bloom of manhood, with golden wings, and with that profound expression in the eyes (Ibyc. II.) which appears so effectively in the sculpture of Praxiteles. Though at times sportive, no childish attributes are as yet imputed to him he is conceived rather as a relentless deity, whose approach is full of terror to his victims compare Alcaeus XXIII. ostvoTaxov O-swv. Thus the lyric age regarded him more seriously than the Alexandrine, and also invested him with more dignity as a cosmic power, the idea of the god being not yet entirely distinct from the idea revealed in the early worship at Thespiae, where Eros was revered almost as the manifestation of a physical force and traces...

Sonnet To The Noble Lady The Lady Mary Wroth A Ben Jonson

To prevent readers from imagining Wroth as a masculine warrior type, the speaker adds a reference to Cupid's mother, Venus, whose beauty was well known, comparing Wroth to the mother, as well as the son But then his mother's sweets you so apply. This leads Jonson into the traditional closing sonnet couplet, designed to summarize the 12 lines preceding it

Johnsons Lives And The Gender Of The Poet

In a modern, industrial nation, the ability to act without relationship is still a mark of the masculine gender boys can still become men, and men become more manly, by entering the marketplace and dealing in commodities. A woman can do the same thing if she wants to, of course, but it will not make her feminine.

Shakespeares sonnets Sonnet 33 Full many a glorious morning have I seen William

Period, it was commonplace that the sun symbolized masculinity, in opposition to the feminine moon, and it was often tied to the hierarchy of the monarchy. Shakespeare follows this convention by having the lover note how the sovereign eye (l. 2) of the heavenly (l. 4) beloved Flatter s the mountain tops (l. 2). Alchemy, which was also a frequent topic in the early modern period, involves the protoscientific quest to transform base materials into gold.

Art Of English Poesie Arte Of English Poesy George Puttenham 1569

The final quatrain again employs an antithetical structure, this time making more explicit what the second quatrain implied The king has become dangerously effeminate. He scace scarcely retains the name of manhood (l. 9), because he has permitted himself to be Drenched in sloth and womanish

Agincourt Carol The Anonymous

Stanza 3 recalls the 150-mile trek of Henry's forces across northern France and the crossing of the Somme at an unguarded place amid the threat of attack from the French forces. The battle at Agincourt is commemorated in the fourth stanza. The carol writer, building on the images of corporate strength, celebrates Henry's warlike masculinity. The grace of god (l. 15) is the power behind the battle, which results in the twofold victory of a single battle and an entire campaign that cripples French power, for which the singers again return thanks to God with Deo gracias.

Moss Thylias 1954 Thylias Moss is

Much of Moss's work presents stream-of-conscious-ness reflections on life events, characters, and specific objects. Moss is decidedly a free verse poet, and she is primarily concerned with the possibilities of imaginative association apart from regular rhyme or meter only in a few things did I want permanence, consistency, predictability mine was seldom a yearning for universals Moss says (305). Moss's poems frequently turn surreal or visionary, but they almost always remain strongly connected to real-world issues or objects. In Dear Charles (1993), for example, a rambling prose poem in the form of a letter addressed to a hurricane elicits a response from the masculine hurricane that ties the destructive fury of the tropical storm to the real history of slavery and exploitation in West Africa, the

Amy Lowell and Imagism

Lowell posits three older sisters - Sappho, Dickinson, and Elizabeth Barrett Browning - as important predecessors, but she ultimately decides that none ofthem provides a workable model for a female poet in the modern era. Lowell recognized the double bind in which women writers are placed, between masculine ambitions and feminine selves As Cheryl Walker suggests, The Sisters was a major breakthrough, the first grand attempt by a woman poet in America to situate herself within a feminine literary tradition. 3 Lowell's most famous poem, however, is Patterns, a work that first appeared in Poetry in August 1915. Here Lowell moves beyond the imagistic register of a poem like Aubade to a longer narrative form and a fictionalized persona. Like Eliot's Prufrock, the poem adapts the form of the dramatic monologue, but its setting is historical rather than contemporary. Spoken by an aristocratic woman during the Queen Anne period, Patterns uses the female perspective to critique the masculine...

Slow Slow Fresh Fount Ben

Interest in Smart was renewed at the end of the 19th century through the efforts of Robert Browning, and by the 20th century Smart received deserved attention. For example, using psychoanalytic criticism, Clement Hawes writes of Jubilate Agno that the horn, a central image in this jubilee poem, reveals Smart's preoccupation with and revision of the concept of cuck-oldry, as the poet believed his wife had been unfaithful to him. Hawes uses this idea to support Smart's inclusion of wordplay that he describes as bawdy in order to reiterate his Smart's reconstructed masculinity. The brief but excellent biography by Neil Curry supplies solid critical consideration of the Jubilate Agno, The Psalms of David, A Song of David, Hymns and Spiritual Songs, and Hymns for the Amusement of Children. The 20th-century composer Benjamin Britten adopted the Jubilate for use in his festival cantata, Rejoice in the Lamb.

Aphra Behn Student Writing Center To My Fair Clarinda

Behn's speaker begins by addressing her love interest as Fair lovely maid, then agrees to address her as lovely charming youth, if that name more approaches truth. She continues to play with the idea of balance inherent to the presence of masculinity and femininity in one body by using the term This to refer to the youth and that to refer to the maid. The speaker declares she may pursue the youth without blushes, as long as so much beauteous woman remains in view, a prelude to her claim that for sure no crime with thee we can commit Or if we should thy form excuses it. In the three rhyming line, Behn continues to emphasize balance as she claims she struggles against Clarin-da's charms . . . in vain, even though her deluding form gives us pain, and the bright nymph betrays us to the swain. Swain was a common label for a shepherd, while a nymph was a mythological female being. Behn basically writes that the beauty characteristic of the female induces the speaker to submit to the...

Upon The Death Of Mr King John

What follows is the extended metaphor described in Cleveland's time as a masculine type. It results in awkward and unfortunate imagery projected through FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE (FIGURE OF SPEECH), as well as rhyme, as the speaker says, I am no poet here my pen's the spout Where the rain water of my eyes runs out. Spouts generally ejected water from gargoyles, introducing a monstrous element into the image. While such figures often decorated churches, no connection to King's intention to become a clergyman is suggested. What follows extends the jarring water metaphor In pity of that name, whose fate we see Thus copied out his grief's hydrography. While hydrography means literally a description of water and is meant as a reference to King's ocean grave, its juxtaposition to the water reference of tears reduces its effectiveness. Both are salt water, but the figurative expansion of the tears to beads and then to the ocean is neither smoothly nor skillfully accomplished.

Elegy Upon The Death Of The Dean Of Pauls Dr John Donne

Donne redeemed all of those wrongs by drawing a line of masculine expression. Carew also proves adept at the rules by breaking them when he purposely disrupts rhythm to prove a point. After writing of Donne that to thy imperious wit our troublesome language bends, made only fit, he demonstrates by disrupting the smooth iambic pentameter of previous lines With her tough thick-ribb'd hoops, to gird about. The thing the language had to gird was Thy giant fancy, which had prov'd too stout For their soft melting phrases. Carew thus reflects on the contrast between his own approach, that of the soft melting phrases, and Donne's far more fantastical. He concludes his 96-line poem by offering a four-line elegy, calling on others to express in a more complete way their grief for Donne, while he on thy grave this epitaph incise

How Soon hath Time Sonnet

Milton opens using figurative language (figure of speech) to refer to Time as the subtle thief of my youth. The second line notes Milton's age, as he continues his accusation, writing of Time, Stol'n on his wing my three and twentieth year It extends the metaphor of time as a thief, with the reference to the wing suggesting Time's rapid flight. He continues his allusion into the third line, writing, My hasting days fly on with full career, a sly nod to the fact that he has no career, other than watching his days pass. Suggesting his spring is simply a late one, he admits that it shows no bud or blossom. After introducing the situation of his dwindling youth, the speaker ponders on his semblance, which might deceive the truth, which is that he nears maturity and manhood. He also wonders whether he might possess an inward ripeness less visible to the exterior gaze, resembling that of some more timely-happy spirits, the spirit allusion one that critics believe to be to Edmund Spenser....

On Lord Holland Seat Near Margate Kent Analysis

Ence of lyric to satire, and maintained that by this choice of genre they abandoned their political roles and compromised their manhood. In The Author, for instance, he charges poets like Gray with having voluntarily relinquished their influence as monitors over powerful figures in the church and state (and, thus, as preservers of English liberty) by lapsing into the quietism of lyrics. The daring Muse whose satire had once chastised corruption in all forms has been persuaded by critics to adopt a more innocuous form and content for her poetry To Churchill, pastorals, odes, sonnets, and verses like Gray's Elegy are not only characterized by their disregard for political affairs the poems' retreat into stylized art also exposes the feminine nature of the lyric. Described as quaint and trim slang signifying both female genitalia and frippery these lyrics, unlike satire, are suited to the private (and, by implication, insignificant) realm of female experience. The poetry of earlier...

Ds revisionist mythmaking

Just as Lowell's Venus Transiens was a challenge to the male tradition of depicting women in art, Helen is is an implicit attack on the masculine literary tradition ofusing women as symbols. Helen is silenced in this poem just as she is in Poe's, but here she is silenced by the hatred of society rather than by the poet's controlling male gaze. The female poet is powerless to invest the figure of Helen with any kind of redemptive significance, since she herself shares Helen's fate as a woman.

Cynthia With Certain Sonnets Sonnet 11 135

Cynthia, with Certain Sonnets Sonnet 5 ( It is reported of fair Thetis' son ) Richard Barnfield (1595) Sonnet 5 develops the imagery of the Trojan War. In it, the speaker, Daphnis, is wounded by Ganymede's eyes, which are full of desire. At the beginning of the sonnet, Achilles is praised for his . . . chivalry, His noble minde and magnanimity (ll. 2-3), and by extension these qualities are projected onto Ganymede. The poem records the tradition that only the person who is wounded by Achilles' spear could be healed by a second touch of that speares rust (l. 8). The speaker, Daphnis, understands his fate to be like that of the person wounded by Achillles. The spear is equated with the piercing eie (l. 10) of Ganymede, but the remedy (l. 11) and how to find it remain unclear. Here the speaker seems to be playing the part of the coy lover, adopting at times both masculine and feminine qualities, as was common in Richard Barnfield's verse.

En203s British Poetry Important

Venus and adonis William Shakespeare (ca. 1592) The lengthy narrative poem Venus and Adonis begins with the goddess's supplications to Adonis to grant her amorous desires however, Venus's entreaties soon turn to frustration and questions regarding his masculinity. The two then engage in a rhetorical discourse on love, and after a great deal of pleading, Adonis grants Venus a farewell kiss that inflames her passion. Her desire quickly turns to fears for his safety when she learns that he plans to hunt boar the next day. Adonis ignores her suggestion to pursue tamer beasts such as the hare. The next day, hearing the furious baying of the hounds, Venus runs out to discover Adonis's lifeless, bloody body. She laments his death but soon observes his body melt and marvels that from his blood, A purple flow'r sprung up, check'red with white (l. 1168). Plucking the flower and wearing it near her heart to observe her lover's memory, Venus then departs dejectedly for her home in Paphos....

Transformations of feeling

Among the most important prosodic ideas that gradually took hold by the mid-eighteenth century was the contention that the content of the work should determine the shape of the form, and it is significant that such an early critique of heroic couplets had come from Isaac Watts, a prominent writer of hymns. There was a precedent for this, well known by Milton, in the classical idea that musical modalities had attached emotions the Dorian scale vigorously masculine the Lydian relaxed the Phrygian wild.10 Samuel Say's essays on prosody attached to his 1745 Poems on Several Occasions suggested that 'Tis reasonable to assume a different Style, and Numbers far Different, when the Like Ideas, or the Like Passions are intended to be rais'd in Those that hear us, and he particularly admired the alternating active iambics and slow spondaics of Paradise Lost.11

Forging Romanticism in 1820

We can find the growth of a more specifically Romantic canon in works such as Hunt's often reworked The Feast of the Poets, as it evolves from its 1811 version, where Hunt creates a canon of contemporary popular poets comprising Campbell, Southey, Scott, and, first among equals, Moore, through the key 1815 edition, where he expands his list to include Byron, Coleridge, and, most prominently, Wordsworth, up through the i860 version, where we find added Hunt's younger allies Keats, Shelley, and Procter, so that the poem offers an outline of what would come to be known as Romantic poetry. Galignani (a Parisian publishing house founded by an Italian who had spent time in London, indicating again that a cosmopolitan world of piracy and translation is important to the dissemination of the pantheon) offered during the 1820s a kind of library of Romanticism with editions of Scott, of Moore, of Crabbe, of Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats, of Wordsworth, of Southey, of Byron, of Rogers, Campbell,...

Figurative Language In To Her Father With Some Verses

KILLIGREW, ANNE (1660-1685) Born the daughter of Dr. Henry Killigrew, Master of the Savoy and a prebendary of Westminster, Anne Killegrew would mature during the restoration of Charles II. Her father, an accomplished dramatist, served as chaplain for the duke of York, his position allowing Killigrew to mature in an atmosphere where her art was encouraged. Killigrew served as maid of honor to Mary Modena, the duchess of York, and enjoyed a broad education, although not at the level of her male counterparts. That education remained responsible for what some critics judged the masculine tone of her poetry. However, for a person of status, Killigrew did not leave behind much information on her early years. Letters written from her father to her uncle William were later used to glean some information by the antiquarian Anthony Wood for his monumental work, Athenae Oxoniensis. The letters are still with Wood's manuscripts in the Bodleian Library. Dr. Killigrew's letters reveal an obvious...

Drayton Michael 15631631 Michael

This volume also contained his most popular piece, Nimphidia, a mock-heroic series of fairy poems, also called Nimphalls, obviously influenced by Shakespeare's A Mid-summer Night's Dream (1596). Also in 1627, he published The Moon-Calf, a lengthy satire that focuses on the vices of London, including, according to Hardin, whoring, gambling, homosexuality, and buying Flemish shirts, as well as a confusion of masculine and feminine dress. In Drayton's final work, The Muses' Elizium (1630), he returned to the pastoral.

Virgil Publius Virgilius Maro

During this period, which saw an increase in affective (emotional) piety, we also find lyricists describing events such as the Crucifixion from Mary's perspective. Affective piety encouraged empathy in the believer and focused on Christ's manhood rather than his divinity.

Russian Rhyme In Poetry

Blank verse (and free verse) notwithstanding, rhyme has been a crucial element in Russian versification from the eighteenth century to the present day. We have already introduced the three main types of rhyme masculine (stress on the final syllable, e.g., cag guMoHag, goM ogHoM), feminine (stress on the penultimate syllable, e.g., caga guMoHaga, Boga goga), and dactylic (stress on the third syllable from the end, e.g., MrHoBeHHoro ngeHHoro, egHHcrBeHHbiH raHHcrBeHHbiM). This last type, acknowledged but rarely used in the eighteenth century, became popular in the Romantic period in imitations of folklore. (Russian folk poetry was generally unrhymed, but had frequent dactylic line endings.)

Cleveland John

Cleveland's popularity with contemporary readers as a satirist and poet grew to overshadow that of Milton, although later critics scoffed at the comparison. He wrote the type of poetry termed masculine and robust, gaining the title last of the metaphysicals because of his employment of what John Dryden would later term Clevelandisms in Dryden's Essay of Dramatic Poesy (1668), reducing the poet's overreaching to a syndrome. A Clevelandism was catachresis, wrestling and torturing a word into another meaning. An additional publication, Fuller's Worthies (1662), adopted the poet's name as an infinitive suggesting dubious value To clevelandise was to employ the masculine approach, using phrases pregnant with metaphors, carrying in them a difficult plainness, difficult at the hearing, plain at the consideration thereof. Nevertheless, Cleveland's work proved popular with the public two of his famous poems are The Rebel Scot and The King's Disguise. A collection of Cleveland's poetry appeared...

Women and Science

Intervention and his own apparently technical and exclusively masculine discourse. By contrast, Alexander Pope's Cave of Spleen in The Rape of the Lock was also informed by medical thought (Sena 1979) but used the Spleen as a means of castigating large numbers of the female population few escaped. Mary Leapor perhaps best reflects the problematic position of the female poet in relation to the hard science of Newtonian theory in her The Enquiry. Obviously stimulated by the marvels of the New Science, her imagination runs riot among both the stars and the miniature worlds to be found in drops of dew (l. 54). Yet she concludes her poem apologetically, stating that whoever follows Nature through her mazy Way . . . Has need of Judgment better taught than mine (ll. 84-7). Even if grave-fac'd Wisdom may itself be wrong (l. 89), Leapor is unable to envisage herself as central to the scientific project or at least its representation in the way that a male poet might have done. When natural...

C 500430 Bc

We have but few details of the life and career of Bacchylides, nor does it appear to have possessed much independent interest for us. He was born at Iulis in Ccos,1 and was the nephew on his mother's side of Simonides. We do not know the date of his birth, but he had evidently reached manhood before the year 476 r .c. when he went with his uncle to the court of Hiero and since he is mentioned by Eusebius under the date 431 b.c., I have adopted as the approximate period of his lifetime 500-430 b.c. This agrees with the fact that he was younger than Pindar, who was born in 518 b.c., and with the statement of Eusebius that Bacchylides flourished in 450 b.c. His patron Hiero is said to have preferred the poems of Bacchylides to those of Pindar,2 and it is supposed that considerable enmity existed between the two poets. After the death of Hiero he appears from a passage in Plutarch3 to have gone to live in the Peloponnesus, and we know nothing further of his life.


Therefore they are removed therefore they have taken root In Egypt & Philistea in Moab & Edom & Aram In the Erythrean Sea their Uncircu m cision in Heart & Loins Be lost for ever & ever. then they shall arise from Self, By Self Annihilation into Jerusalems Courts & into Shiloh Shiloh the Masculine Emanation among the Flowers of Beulah Lo Shiloh dwells over France, as Jerusalem dwells over Albion Build & prepare a Wall & Curtain for Americas shore Rush on Rush on Rush on ye vegetating Sons of Albion The Sun shall go before you in Day the Moon shall go

Robert Duncan

He was an assistant and contributor to the commune's journal The Phoenix, and edited the Experimental Review - where one of his correspondents was Kenneth Rexroth, who was to become an important contact when Duncan returned to the west coast. In 1941 he was briefly drafted into the military, but was discharged after declaring his homosexuality. In 1943 he married Marjorie McKee, although they were divorced after a few months. In 1944 he published a pioneer essay The Homosexual in Society in the journal Politics, and paid the price for such a forthright statement at a time when the subject was still largely taboo. An immediate outcome was that John Crowe Ransom refused to print Duncan's An African Elegy in The Kenyon Review, even though the poem had been scheduled for publication. Duncan's essay is a plea for tolerance on all sides, both from those who condemned homosexuality, whether on racial, religious, or sexual grounds, and from homosexuals themselves....


Became a Space & an Allegory around the Winding Worm They namd it Canaan & built for it a tender Moon Los smild with joy thinking on Enitharmon & he brought Reuben from his twelvefold wandrings & led him into it Planting the Seeds of the Twelve Tribes & Moses & David And gave a Time & Revolution to the Space Six Thousand Years He calld it Divine Analogy, for in Beulah the Feminine Emanations Create Space. the Masculine Create Time, & plant The Seeds of beauty in the Space listning to their lamentation


Enitharmon answerd This is Womans World, nor need she any Spectre to defend her from Man. I will Create secret places And the masculine names of the places Merlin & Arthur. A triple Female Tabernacle for Moral Law I weave That he who loves Jesus may loathe terrified Female love Till God himself become a Male subservient to the Female.


The Feminine separates from the Masculine & both from Man, Ceasing to be His Emanations, Life to Themselves assuming And while they circumscribe his Brain, & while they circumscribe His Heart, & while they circumscribe his Loins a Veil & Net Of Veins of red Blood grows around them like a scarlet robe. Covering them from the sight of Man like the woven Veil of Sleep Such as the Flowers of Beulah weave to be their Funeral Mantles But dark opake tender to touch, & painful & agonizing To the embrace of love, & to the mingling of soft fibres Of tender affection. that no more the Masculine mingles With the Feminine. but the Sublime is shut out from the Pathos In howling torment, to build stone walls of separation, compelling The Pathos, to weave curtains of hiding secresy from the torment.

The Vedic evidence

Besides the Sun and the Dawn, the Rigveda makes frequent reference to a figure called SUryasya (or Sure, SUro) duhitr, 'the daughter of the Sun', or Surya, which is a feminine form corresponding to masculine SUrya- (only with a shift of accent).105 In most cases she appears in connection with the Asvins, that youthful equestrian pair whom we met in the last chapter and found to be a close parallel to the Greek Dioskouroi. It is often mentioned that Surya joined them in their car. She chose it, or them (1. 117. 13 4. 43. 2 7. 69. 3 f.), and her beauty added to their lustre all the gods approved (1. 116. 17 6. 63. 5 f.). It was a bridal car the Asvins mounted it for her sake, and their swift riding made them her husbands (7. 69. 3 8. 22. 1 4. 43. 6 cf. 1. 184. 3).


The Norse pantheon includes a god Fiorgynn and a goddess Fiorgyn. These go back to *Perkwun(i)yos, *PerkwunO. Apart from having a stem in -yo-instead of -o-, the masculine name corresponds exactly to that of the Baltic thunder-god.13 Fiorgynn is an obsolescent figure, mentioned only as the father of Frigg (Lokasenna 26. 1, Gylf. 9, Skaldsk. 19), and we cannot tell from the Nordic evidence what he originally stood for.

Part Iv

Historically speaking, the feminine has been constituted of the refuse of masculine transcendence (Schor 1994 48), and as such is not a fixed category but rather a catch-all for things not male. As the shadow side of men's lofty self-projections, the feminine tends always toward entropy and chaos. Woman is matter too soft a lasting mark to bear, as Pope famously puts it (An Epistle to a Lady, l. 3), and she therefore threatens always to slide back into more rudimentary states of being lustfulness and sexual disorder, to be sure, but also madness, self-absorption, triviality, and emotionalism. This relational understanding of femininity, coupled with the idea that woman is by nature more primitive and therefore more irrational, bodily, and sexual than men, gives rise in the eighteenth century to the widely held negative stereotypes described by Felicity Nussbaum in her valuable study of misogynistic satire in the period. Women are vain, inconstant,...

Green Chile

When I visit her, she holds the green chile pepper in her wrinkled hands. Ah, voluptuous, masculine, an air of authority and youth simmers from its swan-neck stem, tapering to a flowery collar, fermenting resinous spice. A well-dressed gentleman at the door my grandmother takes sensuously in her hand, rubbing its firm glossed sides, caressing the oily rubbery serpent, with mouth-watering fulfillment, fondling its curves with gentle fingers. Its bearing magnificent and taut as flanks of a tiger in mid-leap, she thrusts her blade into and cuts it open, with lust

Epic Poema Ballada

Similarly described the genre as containing some important memorable, famous event or an event that serves the whole nation's glory (quoted in Terras, Handbook of Russian Literature, 344). The scholar Susan Friedman argues that because epic norms, like norms of masculinity, are public, objective, universal, heroic, women find it particularly difficult to write epics For male poets, writing within the epic tradition has been an extension of a culturally granted masculine authority to generate philosophical, universal, cosmic, and heroic discourse. For women, no such cultural authority has existed. . Their very marginality as women writing has made it impossible to narrate 'the tale of the tribe' ( Gender and Genre Anxiety 205). The few women who have attempted epics, she demonstrates, do so with anxiety of poetic genre (203).11 In the nineteenth century such anxiety would have been increased by men writers' tendency to cast themselves as epic heroes something women could not do because...

Queering the Canon

Cal performing of masculinity than a simple affirmation of male power. My own view is that the rise of the feminist movement following the publication of Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique (1963) swiftly rendered the sexual politics of the Beats suspect, if not mastodontic, and that the only context in which they can still be read as libera-tional is that of gay rights. If the Beats are united by a subject as well as an aesthetic, then this surely is it the mid-century crisis in masculinity the attempt to establish a male camaraderie that is resolutely anti-patriarchy the refusal to become a father as a challenge to the Law of the Father. In the process of opening up this new terrain, Beat writings subvert or profane the sacred social discourses of nation (they are particularly good at excavating the latent militarism that undergirds patriotic feeling), family (their work presents the family not as our refuge from the ills of the world but as the place where we are first exposed to...

E327 E327 E327

The passive idle sleep the enormous night & darkness of Death Set herself up to give her laws to the active masculine virtue Thou little diminutive portion that darst be a counterpart Thy passivity thy laws of obedience & insincerity Are my abhorrence. Wherefore hast thou taken that fair form Whence is this power given to thee once thou wast in my breast A sluggish current of dim waters. on whose verdant margin A cavern shaggd with horrid shades. dark cool & deadly. where I laid my head in the hot noon after the broken clods Had wearied me. there I lad my plow & there my horses fed And thou hast risen with thy moist locks into a watry image Reflecting all my indolence my weakness & my death To weigh me down beneath the grave into non Entity Where Luvah strives scorned by Vala age after age wandering

The solar wheel

In the Rigveda there are eleven references to the wheel (cakram) of Surya or Suvar.23 In Greek tragedy Aiov kvkAos is something of a formulaic phrase (Aesch. Pers. 504, Aesch. Prom. 91 Soph. Ant. 416 Eur. Hec. 412, El. 465), and Empedocles (B 47) has avaKTos . ayea kvkAov 'the lord's pure wheel' in the same sense. We also find Aiov Tpoxos (Ar. Thesm. 17). But kvkAos is evidently the traditional word. It corresponds etymologically to the Vedic word (which is usually neuter, but occasionally masculine), both going back to *kw(e)-kwl-o-, a reduplicated formation from the root *kwel 'turn'. This is also the source of Old Norse hvel, which is likewise found in poetic expressions for the sun and sometimes the moon. In Alvissmal 14. 3

Terence Brown

Yeats's The Tower (a collection of twenty-one poems, including some of his greatest achievements as a poet) was published in London on 14 February 1928 he was a renowned literary figure and public man. His distinction as poet and man of letters, who had contributed by his cultural work to the independence movement in his native Ireland, had received the ultimate accolade in the award of the Nobel Prize for literature in December 1923. His life-long engagement in Irish cultural politics had also brought him to the significant office of Senator in the upper house of a new Dublin parliament, founded in 1922 after a bitter guerrilla war between a volunteer Irish Republican Army and the forces of the British Crown. He was in his sixty-third year when The Tower appeared, the husband of a much younger woman whom he had married in 1917. Georgie Hyde-Lees had borne him a daughter and a son and given him a family life in a splendid town-house on a noble square in the Irish capital,...


Feelings, or thoughts in vivid terms. internal rhyme A rhyme within a poetic line. masculine rhyme A rhyme depending on one hard- or another emphasis or effect. rhyme Fundamentally, agreement, the term specifically indicates the sameness or similarity of vowel sounds in an arrangement of words there can be end-rhyme, internal rhyme, eye rhyme, half rhyme, feminine rhyme, masculine rhyme, slant rhyme. rhyme scheme The arrangement of end rhymes in a poem, indicated when analyzing a poem with the letters of the alphabet, such as, for a poem in successive couplets, aa, bb, cc, etc. rhythm A sense of movement created by arrangement of syllables in terms of stress and time. sestet A six-line stanza of poetry, also the final large

Other Approaches

We have noted critics' use of the term poetessa to disparage Rostopchina.51 However, in reconsidering Rostopchina's significance, we must ask if she is a poetess in the well-defined European and American sense of the word.52 Nineteenth-century American and European literary scholars describe the poetess as a sociomoral handmaiden (Ross, Contours of Masculine Desire, 192) who did not demonstrate ambition, . . . was not to lecture on public issues or speculate on philosophic or religious ones (Ostriker, Stealing the Language, 31) or challenge the status quo (Walker, introduction to American Women Poets of the Nineteenth Century, xxvi) who embodied the feminine sphere of the domestic affections, religious piety, and patriotic passions, and of the female (more particularly maternal) responsibility for binding these sensibilities together. 53 Such a poetic stance, if maintained consistently,


Thou toldest me to weave thee to the beam by thy strong hair I did even that to try thy truth but, when I cried The Philistines be upon thee then didst thou leave me to bewail that Samson loved me not.' He sat, and inward griev'd he saw and lov'd the beauteous suppliant, nor could conceal aught that might appease her then, leaning on her bosom, thus he spoke Hear, 0 Dalila doubt no more of Samson's love for that fair breast was made the ivory palace of my inmost heart, where it shall lie at rest for sorrow is the lot of all of woman born for care was I brought forth, and labour is my lot nor matchless might, nor wisdom, nor every gift enjoyed, can from the heart of man hide sorrow. Twice was my birth foretold from heaven, and twice a sacred vow enjoined me that I should drink no wine, nor eat of any unclean thing for holy unto Israel's God I am, a Nazarite even from my mother's womb. Twice was it told, that it might not be broken. Grant me a son, kind...


One of those names, however, may have a cognate at the other end of the Indo-European world. Aryaman Airyaman has long been equated with the Irish Eremon. All three names appear to go back to *Aryo-men-, nominative *-men, a masculine counterpart of neuter *aryo-men-, nominative *-mn, 'Aryan-ness', just as the god Brahma ( *-men) is the deified Prayer (brahma neuter, *-mn). It is no longer politically correct to call the Indo-Europeans Aryans, but the name was conferred on them in the nineteenth century because it was a term that they, or at least their ruling classes, used of themselves. It is reflected in Sanskrit arya-, irya- 'trusty, honourable, worthy, Aryan' and Irish aire 'a noble, chief' it has given its name to Iran and perhaps to Eire. A god *Aryomen might be expected to embody the social ideals of the people and its rulers.77

Female Deities

As far back as we can see, Indo-European gods are conceived anthropo-morphically. So even at the stage when the language did not make formal distinctions between masculine and feminine, it is likely that each deity was thought of as male or female. In the Greek or the Norse pantheon we take it for granted that some are males and others females, as if by the random play We cannot reconstruct a feminine counterpart of *deiwos. Different languages created feminine forms in divergent ways. The Vedic devl is matched by Avestan daevl, but not by Lithuanian di v or Latin dea. Although the Greek deos is a different word, it is noteworthy that originally the same form was used for masculine and feminine in Attic y deos remained normal, while dea and d atva were essentially poetic. They must have been secondary creations, and the same applies to the distinct feminine forms in the other languages. Tistryaenis, who represent the lesser stars surrounding him. In the Pylos tablets there are both...

Henry Carey i6871743

Where's his money He's forgot Get him gone, a drunken sot. Now a cock-horse does he ride, And anon on timber stride. See and Saw, and Sacch'ry Down, London is a gallant town Now he gathers riches in, Thicker, faster, pin by pin Pins apiece to see his show, Boys and girls flock row by row From their clothes the pins they take, Risk a whipping for his sake From their clothes the pins they pull To fill Namby's cushion full. So much wit at such an age Does a genius great presage Second childhood gone and past, Should he prove a man at last, What must second manhood be In a child so bright as he.

Isobel Grundy

In The Rape of the Lock Pope communicates his heady, conflicting perceptions of gender relations among the gilded youth of the court. His poem presents women as shallow, self-centered, frivolous, yet so beautiful that men are their willing slaves. This was not how Montagu saw the world. Less intoxicated than Pope with high society, less censorious of women who lived with double binds she understood, she was nevertheless an equally sharp critic of the social and sexual behavior of both sexes. More than most women of the period, she set out to wrest control of a masculine genre and make it serve her feminine perceptions, even while readers expected her poems to share the attitudes of Pope's and Gay's, and moreover that Pope or Gay must have had a hand in writing them. Tuesday presents two young rakes comparing scalps what interests them in the game of love is the public sign of victory, women as currency boosting masculine status. This poem's opening lines sketch two contrasted groups...