Secondary Works

Works on T.S. Eliot

Asher, Kenneth (1995) T.S. Eliot and Ideology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

This book provides the most detailed analysis of Eliot's interaction with Charles Maurras and the Action Française.

Bush, Ronald (1984) T.S. Eliot: A Study in Character and Style, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Probably the best general account of Eliot's work in the last 25 years. This is an even-handed, extremely perceptive account of Eliot's poetry and thought and it also provides discussion of the various critical debates Eliot's work has inspired.

Chinitz, David E. (2003) T.S. Eliot and the Cultural Divide, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

Influential recent work that argues against the standard view of Eliot as a highbrow, by reading his poetry through his popular culture interests, such as detective fiction, music hall and jazz.

Crawford, Robert (1990) The Savage and the City in the Work of T.S. Eliot, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Wide-ranging discussion on Eliot's poetry and prose, which is particularly strong on Eliot's interest in anthropology and myth.

Gordon, Lyndall (2000) T.S. Eliot: An Imperfect Life, New York: Norton This biography, a synthesis of Gordon's two previous biographies on Eliot, Eliot's Early Years (1977) and Eliot's New Life (1988), is the most detailed and literary critical of the extant biographies. Peter Ackroyd's 1993 T.S. Eliot, London: Penguin is also good.

Jain, Manju (1992) T.S. Eliot and American Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Of the several excellent books on Eliot's philosophical studies, this is the best to begin with. It provides a clear, detailed account of Eliot's education in philosophy at Harvard, including his Bergsonian year in Paris, and gives a good sense of the state of American philosophy during the early twentieth century. It also has a useful appendix of the courses Eliot took at Harvard. Rafey Habib's study, The Early T.S. Eliot and Western Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, is also very good, especially on Eliot and Bergson.

-(2002) A Critical Reading of the Selected Poems of T.S. Eliot, Delhi:

Oxford University Press

This is the best line-by-line guide to Eliot's poetry, although B.C. Southam's more easily available A Student's Guide to the Selected Poems of T.S. Eliot will also explain most local difficulties. Neither includes Four Quartets, which is covered by Harry Blamires's Word Unheard: A Guide Through Eliot's Four Quartets, London: Methuen.

Julius, Anthony (1995) T.S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Julius is unequivocal in his argument that Eliot's anti-Semitism is an integral part of his poetic and prose projects. Although this is the most famous and most thorough discussion of the topic, Christopher Ricks's 1988 study, T.S. Eliot and Prejudice, London: Faber, contains an important chapter on anti-Semitism, and current opinion is summed up in the roundtable 'Eliot and Anti-Semitism: The Ongoing Debate' in Modernism/Modernity, 10 (2003), 1—70

Kojecky, Roger (1971) T.S. Eliot's Social Criticism, London: Faber & Faber

Still the only book to provide a sustained account of Eliot's writings on society and culture.

Menand, Louis (1987), Discovering Modernism: T.S. Eliot and His Context, New York: Oxford University Press

Readable, insightful account of Eliot's role in the creation of modernism, with an emphasis on the way Eliot's strategic packaging and marketing of his critical ideas created an audience for his and his colleagues' poetry.

Works on T.E. Hulme

Comentale, Edward P. (2004) Modernism, Cultural Production, and the British Avant-garde, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

This has a chapter on Hulme that argues for his centrality to modernism, and is particularly insightful on the context of the romanticism/ classicism opposition.

-and Gasiorek, Andrzej (eds) (2006), T.E. Hulme and the Question of Modernism, Aldershot: Ashgate

This collection of essays on all aspects of Hulme's writing (poetry, philosophy, art criticism, politics) gives an excellent sense of the current state of Hulme studies.

Ferguson, Robert (2002) The Short Sharp Life of T.E. Hulme, London: Penguin

The most recent of the Hulme biographies, and therefore able to draw on the most collective wisdom. This is the place to start, but the two previous biographies, Michael Roberts's 1938 T.E. Hulme, London: Faber & Faber, and Alun Jones's 1960 The Life and Opinions of T.E. Hulme, London: Gollancz, remain important, even though they are hampered by the mis-dating of Hulme's essays which obscures the trajectory of Hulme's thought.

Rae, Patricia (1997) The Practical Muse: Pragmatist Poetics in Hulme, Pound, and Stevens, Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press

This is a well-regarded scholarly work that places Hulme's and Pound's theories of poetry in the American philosophical tradition of pragmatism. It is not an easy read, but its description of an American, rather than French, philosophical background for modernism is important.

Works on Ezra Pound

Bell, Ian F.A. (1981) Critic as Scientist: The Modernist Poetics of Ezra Pound, London: Methuen

Excellent account of Pound's criticism and poetry, focussing on the influence of new scientific writing on Pound's thought. Very helpful in analysing some of the most distinctive aspects of modernism, such as its concern with precision, energy and pattern.

Bernstein, Michael André (1980) The Tale of the Tribe: Ezra Pound and the Modern Verse Epic, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

One of the most important general accounts of The Cantos. This book interprets the poem in the context of the epic tradition, and also looks at the legacy of the poem in the work of William Carlos Williams and Charles Olson.

Brooker, Peter, A Student's Guide to the Selected Poems of Ezra Pound, London: Faber & Faber

There are several good line-by-line guides to Pound's Selected Poems, but this guide, and Christine Froula's 1983 A Guide to Ezra Pound's Selected Poems, New York: New Directions, are particularly helpful. They gloss most difficulties in the shorter poetry and selections of The Cantos.

Bush, Ronald (1976) The Genesis of Ezra Pound's Cantos, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

Engaging and thorough account of the early stages of The Cantos, which provides the best introduction to the major aims and themes of the poem. It also reproduces Pound's 'Three Cantos' (1917), important but discarded early cantos.

Carpenter, Humphrey (1988) A Serious Character: The Life of Ezra Pound, London: Faber & Faber

This enormous biography is exhaustive in its detail: a fascinating read, but also an invaluable resource (its index is excellent). The other biography that is also worth consulting is Noel Stock's 1970 The Life of Ezra Pound, Harmondsworth: Penguin, written by a poet and critic who knew Pound and was able to consult him while writing the biography.

Kenner, Hugh (1973) The Pound Era, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press

This is the best-known book on Pound and, indeed, one of the most influential works of criticism in modernist studies. It is impressionistic and partisan, but brilliant and wide-ranging. Essential reading.

Nicholls, Peter (1984) Politics, Economics and Writing: A Study of Ezra Pound's Cantos

Excellent analysis of the impact of Pound's economic theories on his poetry. Even for readers uninterested in the economic angle, this is one of the most important books on The Cantos.

Redman, Tim (1991) Ezra Pound and Italian Fascism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

The best book on Pound's politics, combining detailed biography with perceptive literary criticism. It also contains the clearest summary of Pound's economic theories.

Terrell, Carroll F. (1993) A Companion to The Cantos of Ezra Pound, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press

Essential guide to serious study of The Cantos, which explains every reference in the poem, apart from those that continue to elude scholars. It does not, however, provide overview critical interpretations (as Brooker and Froula do, above). A much less comprehensive guide, but one that may be more useful for initial encounters with The Cantos is William Cookson's A Guide to the Cantos of Ezra Pound, London: Anvil Press.

Witemeyer, Hugh (1969) The Poetry of Ezra Pound: Forms and Renewal, 1908—1920, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press

Though a number of studies have been written about Pound's early poetry since this book appeared, this is still the most accessible and astute introduction to the pre-Cantos verse.

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