Our gamut of categories has not exhausted the numerous ways in which English poets may deviate from the norms of English. An instance of a type of licence for which no allowance has been made in the foregoing scheme is the interpolation of bits of living foreign languages, conspicu ously practised by Pound and Eliot in some of their poems, and illustrated in Walt Whitman's 'Allons! we must not stop here!' [Sons; of the Open Road], However, I shall not attempt to extend the catalogue beyond this point: instead, I shall use Whitman's exhortation to spur the reader on to the next chapter, where my aim will be to correct the negative emphasis of this chapter by paying attention to the constructive communicative value of linguistic deviation.

Examples for discussion

1. Say as precisely as possible how the following passage of'interior monologue' from James Joyce's Ulysses deviates from the syntax of normal discursive prose (see

Bloom looked, unblessed to go. Got up to kill: on eighteen bob a week. Fellows shell out the dibs. Want to keep your weathereve open. Those girls, those lovely. By the sad sea waves. Chorusgirl's romance. Letters read out for breach of promise. From Chickabiddy's own Mumpsypum. Laughter in court. Henry. I never signed it. The lovely name you. [From The Sirens]

2. Identify types of linguistic deviation in the following. Discuss how they contribute to the total significance of each passage:

[a] [Part of a passage satirizing Wordsworth's The Waggoners]

If he must fain sweep o'er the ethereal plain, And Pegasus runs restive in his 'Waggon', Could he not beg the loan of Charles's Wain?

Or pray Medea for a single dragon? Or if, too classic for his vulgar brain,

He fear'd his neck to venture such a nag on, And he must needs mount nearer to the moon, Could not the blockhead ask for a balloon? [Byron, Don Juan, III, 99]

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