Romantic Poetry Notes

1 On the issue of anthologizing Romanticism, see, e.g., the special issue of Romanticism on the Net 7 (August 1997).

2 Stuart Curran, "Romantic Poetry: Why and Wherefore?," in The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism, ed. Stuart Curran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 217.

3 Shelley, "England in 1819," in Shelley's Poetry and Prose, ed. Donald H. Reiman and Neil Fraistat, 2nd edn., (New York: W. W. Norton, 2002), pp. 1, 2-3. Subsequent references in the text.

4 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Biographia Literaria, ed. James Engell and W. Jackson Bate (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983), vol. I, p. 38.

5 Among other good work on print culture and Romanticism, see Kevin Gilmartin, Print Politics: The Press and Radical Opposition in Early Nineteenth-Century England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), and Paul Mag-nuson, Reading Public Romanticism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).

6 See J. R. de Jackson, Annals of English Verse: A Preliminary Survey 1770-1835 (New York: Garland, 1985), and Romantic Poetry by Women: A Bibliography 1770-1835 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).

7 On the importance of drama and theatre to the period, see, among other good work, Julie Carlson, In the Theatre of Romanticism: Coleridge, Nationalism, and Women (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994); Jeffrey N. Cox, In the Shadows of Romance: Romantic Tragic Drama in Germany, England, and France (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1987); and Jane Moody, Illegitimate Theatre in London, 1779-1840 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

8 On Satire's importance to Romanticism, see Gary Dyer, British Satire and the Politics of Style, 1789-1832 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), and Steven Jones, Satire and Romanticism (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000).

9 William St. Clair, The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004). See also Jon Klancher, The Making of English Reading Audiences, 1790-1832 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987).

10 See, e.g., James Chandler, England in 1819: The Politics of Literary Culture and the Case of Romantic Historicism (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1998), pp. 3°3-49.

11 On "The Literary Diary; or, Improved Common-Place-Book" (Bristol Central Library), used by Reynolds, his sister Charlotte, Frances Hood, and Thomas Hood to collect poetry, among other writings, see Paul Kaufman, "The Reynolds-Hood Commonplace Book: A Fresh Appraisal," Keats-Shelley Journal 10 (1961), pp. 43-52; for other such gatherings made within the extended Keats circle, see Clayton E. Hudnall, "John Hamilton Reynolds, James Rice, and Benjamin Bailey in the Leigh Browne-Lockyer Collection," Keats-Shelley Journal 19 (1970), pp. 11 -37. On writers and reviewers, see Barbara M. Benedict, "Readers, Writers, Reviewers, and the Professionalization of Literature," in The Cambridge Companion to English Literature 1740-1830, ed. Thomas Keymer and Jon Mee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 3-23; Marilyn Butler, "Culture's Medium: The Role of the Review," in Curran, The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism, pp. 120-47; British Romanticism and the Edinburgh Review, ed. Massimiliano Demata and Duncan Wu (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002); and Mark Parker, Literary Magazines and British Romanticism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

12 Among the many studies of canon formation in this period, see John Guillory, Cultural Capital: The Problem of Literary Canon Formation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993); Michael Gamer, Romanticism and the Gothic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000); Robert Crawford, Devolving English Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992); David Simpson, "Romanticism, Criticism and Theory," in Curran, The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism, pp. 1-24; and Natalie M. Houston, "Anthologies and the Making of the Poetic Canon," in A Companion to Victorian Poetry, ed. Richard Cronin, Alison Chapman, and Antony H. Harrison (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002), pp. 361-77.

13 St. Clair, The Reading Nation, pp. 660-4.

14 Stephen Gill, William Wordsworth: A Life (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), pp. 330-7, 344.

15 On Wordsworth's efforts to create himself as the key poet of the day, see Lee Erickson, "The Egoism of Authorship: Wordsworth's Poetic Career," in The Economy of Literary Form: English Literature and the Industrialization of Publishing, 1800-1850 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), pp. 19-48.

16 Elizabeth Barrett, The Battle of Marathon (London: printed for W. Lindsell, 1820), p. 3.

17 See Michael Scrivener, Poetry and Reform: Periodical Verse and the English Democratic Press 1792-1824 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992); Anne Janowitz, Lyric and Labour in the Romantic Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); and Paul Thomas Murphy, Towards a Working-Class Canon: Literary Criticism in British Working-Class Periodicals, 1816-1858 (Columbus: Ohio University Press, 1994).

18 Jeffrey C. Robinson, Unfettering Poetry: The Fancy in British Romanticism (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), p. 226. Subsequent references in the text.

19 Margaret J.M. Ezell, Writing Women's Literary History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993), pp. 66-131.

20 Francis Hodgson, Sxculomastix; or, The Lash of the Age We Live In; A Poem, in Two Parts (London: Porter, 1819).

21 Byron, Don Juan, in The Complete Poetic Works, ed. Jerome J. McGann, 7 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980-93), vol. v.

22 Wordsworth, letter to Henry Crabbe Robinson, late January 1820, in The Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth: The Middle Years, ed. Ernest de Selincourt, 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1937), vol. ii, p. 579.

23 See The Sceptic: A Hemans-Byron Dialogue, ed. Nanora Sweet and Barbara Taylor: www.rc.umd.edu/editions/sceptic.

24 Byron, Byron's Letters and Journals, ed. Leslie A. Marchand, 11 vols. (London: John Murray, 1973-9), vol. vii, pp. 113-14.

25 Mill, Autobiography of John Stuart Mill (London: Longmans, Green, Reader, & Dyer, 1873), ch. 5.

26 Hazlitt, The Spirit of the Age, in The Complete Works of William Hazlitt, ed. P.P. Howe, 21 vols. (London: J. M. Dent, 1930-4), vol. xi, p. 191.

27 See, e.g., Nicholas Roe on "To Autumn," in John Keats and the Poetry of Dissent (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), pp. 253-65.

28 See Ann Rowland, "Romantic poetry and the novel," in this volume.

29 On Keats's striking language see Christopher Ricks, Keats and Embarrassment (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974); William Keach, "Cockney Couplets: Keats and the Politics of Style," Studies in Romanticism 25 (Summer 1986), pp. 182-96; Marjorie Levinson, Keats's Life of Allegory: The Origins of a Style (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988); and Jerome J. McGann, The Beauty of Inflections: Literary Investigations in Historical Method and Theory (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), pp. i7-65.

30 See Jeffrey N. Cox, Poetry and Politics in the Cockney School: Keats, Shelley, Hunt and Their Circle (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 146-86.

31 Wordsworth, Lyrical Ballads and Other Poems, 1797-1800, ed. James Butler and Karen Green (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992), p. 747.

32 On Wordsworth's statement, see Rowland, "Romantic poetry and the novel," below, pp. 120-1; and Gamer, Romanticism and the Gothic, pp. 90-126. While it is true that Wordsworth attacks "frantic," "sickly," "stupid," "idle," and "extravagant" versions of these genres rather than necessarily the genres themselves, this passage has often been read as a defense of the lyric against narrative and dramatic forms in ways that would shape various constructions of Romanticism.

33 Stuart Curran, Poetic Form and British Romanticism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 150.

34 Cox, Poetry and Politics in the Cockney School, pp. 164-5.

35 McGann, The Beauty of Inflections, p. 53.

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