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Bernstein Charles 1950 From

Bernstein was born on April 4th, 1950, in New York City. The author of more than 25 collections of books and essays, he is best known for L A N G U A G E, a magazine on experimental poetics that he edited with Bruce andrews from 1978 to 1981. He has taught at the State University of New York (Buffalo) and the University of Pennsylvania. He was awarded the Roy Harvey Pearce Archive for New Poetry Prize of the University of California at San Diego in 1999 for a lifetime contribution to poetry and scholarship.

The Origins Of Aphrodite

More recent scholarship has limited Aphrodite's provenance to Phoenicia. This view has recently been supported by a possible Semitic etymology in which her name is interpreted as the Greek rendering of a local title of the Semitic goddess Astarte ( she of the villages ) and thus related to the phonology and morphology of the Cypriot Phoenician language.9 W. Burkert emphasizes many significant parallels on the basis of cult traditions and iconography. Ishtar-Astarte is the Queen of Heaven, and this title is reflected in Aphrodite's frequent cult epithet Oupavia in Greece.10 Aphrodite is the only deity in Greece worshipped with incense, altars and dove sacrifices, which are also offered to Ishtar-Astarte.11 She is a warrior goddess, and Archaic xoana of an armed Aphrodite are documented in Sparta and Argos as well.12 One of Aphrodite's most frequent epithets, xpuasr , together with its compounds (e.g. noAuxpuooc ), has been interpreted by W. Burkert as a reflection of artworks made of...

Personification Concepts And Contents

The scope of what is imagined as personified by the Greeks in the Archaic period is significantly wide. As far as the gender of personifications is concerned, it seems remarkable that the majority of personified figures is female and, moreover, associated with predominantly positive, often political or civic connotations (Dike, Eirene, Eunomia, Harmonia and Homonoia &c.).11 This striking phenomenon has usually been explained linguistically through the feminine gender of the abstract qualities which tend to be personified. This is certainly a relevant point. More recent scholarship, however, has drawn attention to the dynamics of a male-dominated society in which extremes of good and evil tend to be represented in a female shape. Perhaps the great number of female personifications occurring in cult and iconography are a reflection of positive male attitudes towards females. At least, personifications are depicted as beautiful young women of marriagable age, potential objects of desire,...

Leicester Robert Sidney Earl Of 245

The main critical discussion of the Legend is whether it actually endorses the types of female behavior that it describes. The best-known source for such a collection is Ovid's Heroides, a series of letter-poems composed as if written by women lamenting their betrayal by men. However, the legend is not all about women and their troubles, as the men, overall, fare rather well. Each legend contains as many lines about the errant men as it does about their female subjects. Composed in this way, the narrative leaves open the possibility for textual and narrative misogyny, making The Legend of Good Women really the Legend of men who got away with boorish behavior. Another interesting avenue of scholarship examines the role of lovesickness in the Legend, as the women in the poem suffer from this affliction. Finally, another body of criticism looks at the violent implications in the relentless deaths of the female protagonists.

Man Of Laws Tale The Geoffrey

Understanding the Man of Law's character is essential to understanding his tale. His deliberate obtuseness makes his own tale that much harder to accept as a serious and instructive story. The story instead uncovers the Man of Law's own moral code, which has more to do with appearing righteous than with doing the right thing, although some recent scholarship has challenged this general view, pointing out that in the tale Chaucer asks serious questions about how evil can remain in a world created by a powerful and righteous God. Recent feminist scholarship has further explored the tale's obvious misogyny, displayed both in Custance's extreme passivity and silence and in the monstrosity of the mothers-in-law, both of whom further demonize themselves by desiring authority. other critics have examined Chaucer's portrayal of the Saracens, including his knowledge of the Koran. Still, this tale has not undergone the frenzy of scholarly examination that others have, and there is room for more...

London Faber Faber 1965

1961 and 1962 to be titled Ariel, many of which have as background the break-up of her marriage with poet Ted Hughes, who had left her and the couple's two children for another woman. The couple had married in June 1956, when Plath, a native of Boston, was at Cambridge University on a Fulbright scholarship.

New York Farrar Straus Giroux 1969

Henry is critical of what he sees as the petty politics, pedantry, and unoriginality of academia and of much scholarship, although Berryman himself began a career in 1939 as a scholar, critic, and teacher that continued until his death. From 1955 he was based at the University of Minnesota, and he published a number of scholarly articles and books on a range of topics. Songs 35-8 begin at the annual meeting of the Modern Language Association. Henry calls on professors of all ranks to forget your footnotes on the dying Robert Frost, and their various moral arguments, and to dance around Mary, a professor's wife, the name Mary a reminder that the convention always takes place just after Christmas. In Song 373, one of a number in which Henry imagines his death (and is deeply concerned about the difficult situation it would put his family in), he wonders about being a source for academic promotions - will assistant professors become associates by working on his works

Descriptive Rhetoric

It may be helpful, in this light, to discuss two much criticized aspects of the traditional handbook of rhetoric. The first of these is its preservation of, and seeming reverence for, a vocabulary of unnecessarily difficult technical terms. Beside such well-known words as 'metaphor' and 'irony', as names for rhetorical figures, are many more forbidding Greek labels like 'epana-lepsis ', ' homoiotelcuton and ' antistrophe '. It would be foolish to lay any store by the mastery of this cumbersome terminology in an age when the classical languages and cultures are little studied. However, because such terms have a certain currency in literary scholarship, and serve a real communicative purpose, they cannot be altogether discarded. It would be even more foolish, in the present age, to try to replace the classical terms by a completely new terminology, as George Puttenham, the Elizabethan literary theorist, did in his Arte of English Poesie.3 As a considerable part of the present book is...

Parliament of fowls the Geoffrey

The Parliament of Fowls can be broken into three primary divisions (1) the narrator's comments on himself and his reading (2) the first part of the dream, in which the narrator enters a seductive but also sinister garden and (3) the second part of the dream, in which the narrator witnesses a bird debate regarding which male eagle should be chosen as a mate for a female eagle. While none of these sections is particularly long, each is quite complex in itself, and the attempt to determine the significance of the relationship between the three has been a major focus of scholarship.

Lehman David 1948 A New Yorker

An expansive poet who often finds metaphors in mathematics and natural science and rhythms in everything from common speech to songs by George Gershwin, Leithauser writes with a wonderful combination of scholarship, a microscopic eye for detail, and a gentle but incisive sense of humor. A sensuous, naturalistic, frequently pastoral imagery is typical of his poems. In his poem Small Waterfall (1998), for instance, he neatly conveys the sense of a little waterfall with short phrases that tumble one into the next, breaking off in midstream and regathering, with rhymes splashed throughout to bring continuity and likeness to the lines, as in stumbling on this small, all-but-forest-swallowed waterfall. The poem also exemplifies his interest in correlating natural images and phenomena with the psychic landscapes of people, as it goes on to liken the waterfall to his wife, the poet Mary Jo SALTER, to whom the poem is addressed, calling both cataract and woman a thing that flows and goes and...

Dafydd Ap Gwilym Trouble In A Tavern

Modern scholarship has examined the extent of Continental literary traditions on Dafydd ap Gwilym, as well as the ways he plays with the courtly love tradition. For instance, a number of his poems, like this one, involve the character Dafydd going to his lover's house or setting up an amorous adventure at night in order to maintain secrecy however, the trysts fail, and secrecy is blown. In these, Dafydd is the central, comic figure who rarely succeeds in finding the girl. Some scholars suggest that these poems are deliberate parodies of romance texts, while others believe that this lightheartedness indicates reliance upon Ovid, not an attempt to undermine another tradition.

Alliterative Revival ca 13501400

Alliterative Revivals. Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. Turville-Petre, Thorlac. Alliterative Poetry of the Later Middle Ages An Anthology. Washington Catholic University Press Padstow, Cornwall TJ Press, 1989. Zimmerman, Harold C. Continuity and Innovation Scholarship on the Middle English Alliterative Revival. Jahrbuch f r Internationale Germanistik 35, no. 1 (2003) 107-123.

Finch Annie Ridley Crane

Born in New Rochelle, New York, Finch earned a B.A. from Yale University, an M.FA. from the University of Houston, and a Ph.D. in English from Stanford. She has published two books of poetry, Eve (1997) and Calendars (2002), as well as critical studies, including The Ghost of Meter Culture and Prosody in American Free Verse (1993), An Exaltation of Forms (2002, with Kathrine Varnes), and New Formal Poets (2003, with Susan Schultz). The founder and moderator of WOM-PO, a national internet listserv on women's poetry, Finch once remarked that her scholarship is motivated by her need to create a critical context for women's poetry (135). She has taught at Miami University in Ohio.

Montagu Lady Mary Wortley

However, in her struggle against the male dominance that threatened to suppress her intellectual expression. Her publications in the 20th century fill multiple volumes, including Complete Letters, 1965-7 Essays and Poems, 1977, 1993 and Romance Writings, 1996. Montagu interested later critics both as a writer and as a personality. They continue to search for unpublished pieces, which she mentioned and to produce scholarship based on Montagu's fascinating life and works.

Slow Slow Fresh Fount Ben

SMART, CHRISTOPHER (1722-1771) Christopher Smart was born at Shipborne in Kent. He moved to Durham at the age of 11 years when his father died. In 1742 he graduated with a B.A. from Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, as a classics scholar and won a Craven Scholarship. In addition to classical languages Smart could read and write Hebrew and gained a reputation as brilliant and insightful. His later work carried marked influences by Horace's Ars Poetica, an extremely challenging Latin work Smart translated in 1756. He was elected a Cambridge Fellow in 1745. Two years later he wrote, produced, and acted in The Grateful Fair, or, A Trip to Cambridge. However, in November that year, he appeared to be gripped by religious obsession, which expressed itself in public prayer. Falling to his knees to pray loudly in parks and on the streets, Smart was judged a nuisance and imprisoned for debt. His obsessive behavior increased, but he was released from prison and returned to Cambridge in 1748 with the...

Gondibert Excerpt William Davenant

The next lines continue to focus on Christ's crucifixion, during which supposedly an earthquake and an eclipse simultaneously occurred. The speaker alludes to those events that happened while God's own lieutenant, Nature shrunk It made his footstool crack, and the sun wink. Donne returns to his sphere metaphor as the speaker wonders, Could I behold those hands which span the poles And tune all spheres at once, pierced with those holes The holes refer to those made by the spikes hammered through Christ's hands to hold him on the cross. Some discussion exists regarding the term tune, which appears in line 22 some versions read instead turn, a product of the ongoing problems that occur in Donne scholarship. H. J. C. Grierson adopted the word turn in his edition of Donne's poetry, explaining that Donne described Christ as first mover, adding that tune could also refer to turn, as the rate of turning produces music. In line 26, Donne refers to The Seat of all our Souls, echoing, according...

The appearance of Ireland

Outlined above set a counter-motion going. As Robert Welch remarks 'In the nineteenth century the strategy was to invent as many Irelands as possible. Because there was no Ireland, because there was no language, no system for it, then it was as well to try out as many possibilities as the brain could invent.'2 The ideology of nationalism, which was spreading through Europe at this time, took hold in Ireland also, and writers and politicians endeavoured to preserve and develop the essence of Irishness often in the face of British hostility, and - what was often more difficult to manage - British interest. Prompted by the curiosity about James MacPherson's Ossian (1760-3), a work in which a Scottish writer claimed to have discovered the texts of Scottish legends (they were in fact Irish), as well as by the growth of French and German scholarship in the area of Celtic culture, there was a surge in antiquarian activity in Ireland during the nineteenth century, as scholars attempted to get...

Come Away Come Sweet Love

The poet intended this three-part structure to be the driving force of this sermon-like poem, as evidenced by the conclusion Thus upon thrynne wyses I haf yow thro schewed That unclanness tocleves in corage heart dere (ll. 1805-6). Three clear examples of uncleanness were presented thus, clannes is God's comfort. Although the structure of the poem does follow chronologically, it has been a point of intense study and scholarship. The poem is homiletic and adheres at least somewhat closely to the structure of a sermon, but it departs from it in some significant ways. Normally, a medieval sermon would build up to some sort of climax, but here God's punishments are lessened in time. The worst vengeance is Noah's flood, where the entire earth is punished for its sins, while Belshazzar's fate is his alone. Others argue that the poem's shape is informed by the poet's role as moral instructor and guide, leading his readers through illustrative examples to support his theoretical claims.

Drayton Michael 15631631 Michael

Roses and would reappear in a much altered version as the well-known The Barons' Wars (1603), again considering the subject of Edward II and probably heavily influenced by Marlowe's drama Edward the Second (1594). It is likely that Drayton was influenced by a writer he greatly respected, the historian Samuel Daniel, who had written Civil Wars (1595), focusing on the fall of Richard II through the fall of Edward IV. Unlike Daniel, however, Drayton limited his topic to one event to add dramatic unity, an element Daniel's prose vision lacked. Hardin explains that Mortimeriados allowed Drayton to focus on a topic that he would study for the next decade, the relation between national destiny and the personal human spirit. As did other writers of English history, Drayton believed that men act, whether for good or evil, as part of a pattern established by a divine power. Important changes made to the second version included the addition of hundreds of lines and a move from rime royal to...

Hesiod And The Cosmological Tradition

As presented in the Theogony, Eros' activity is closely related to the sphere of mortals and anthropomorphic gods, but his role and function are those of a primeval element among two other, non-anthropomorphic principles Chaos and Gaia. In order to resolve this ambiguity, which is also reflected in the god's second appearance as Aphrodite's companion (Theog. 201f.), scholars suggested that there were originally two different traditions of the god which Hesiod has combined Eros the cosmic principle and Eros the love-god.75 More recent scholarship has denied the idea of two parallel traditions, suggesting that the role of the cosmic Eros is not different from the divinized desire . . . defined by the poets. 76 I will argue that one cannot distinguish between two types of Eros, but that different genres focus on different aspects of one and the same phenomenon. Whereas cosmogonic sources (including Orphic literature) display the reproductive aspect of desire, lyric and tragedy display...

Dafydd Ap Gwilym fl 14th century

More than 400 poems are attributed to Dafydd ap Gwilym in various manuscripts, but it is uncertain how many of these he actually composed, as his popularity meant that poems written by others would be attributed to him in order to achieve greater circulation. Modern scholarship suggests that 154 of these poems are his work, while 177 are considered apocrypha. Dafydd's popularity stems from the fact that as well as

Tradition and Modernity

Is to say, a rather awkward translation across cultures whose practice of 'creative translation' and imitation of earlier literatures helped in the event to create a modernist idiom with all the estrangement this implied. The often scandalized response of Pound's contemporaries to his work showed how inflammatory this assault upon ideas of authorship, originality, scholarship and tradition could be. The protests mounted as Pound worked upon forms and figures in an expanded tradition (in 'translations' of the Anglo-Saxon 'Seafarer', of Cavalcanti, Propertius and early Chinese poets). Still 'out of key' he became within a dozen years too up to date for postwar English literary taste.

Epic and early lyric poetry

When modern scholars speak of Eros , they often refer neither to the love-god nor to the non-personified meanings of the term spwq, but to the phenomenon of Greek love more generally.41 Whereas aspects of cult have been frequently discussed in recent scholarship, the examination of the original, literal meanings of spwq has been a matter of less interest.42

Marlowe Christopher 15641593

Born in Canterbury in 1564, Christopher Marlowe was the son of a shoemaker. In January 1579, he was awarded a scholarship to the King's School in Canterbury. Near the end of 1580, he enrolled at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge University, where he had received a scholarship intended for students who planned to become clergymen. He received his B.A. in July 1584 and his M.A. in July 1587. The award of the latter degree has left a tantalizing biographical mystery. The university was going to deny the M.A. to Marlowe because of a rumor that he was planning to enter the English seminary at Rheims (that is, convert to Roman Catholicism). However, the Privy Council intervened on Marlowe's behalf in June, writing that he had done her majesty good service and that his degree should not be hindered. Precisely what service Marlowe had provided is not known, though it is usually thought to have involved some kind of undercover work, perhaps as a courier or spy.

Rudman Mark 1948 Mark Rudmans

Poetry takes up the relationships between fathers and sons, history and memory, literary tradition and scholarship. The figures of motion and architecture appear central to his poetics. Rudman composes in a shortened version of the American long poem (see LONG AND serial poetry), something he calls the intermediate poem inspired by William Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790) and T. S. eliots the waste land (two important early influences). Increasingly Rudman has attempted to transpose an American context onto Horace's Roman world (Rudman Notes 201) by writing a series of Horatian palimpsests including such poems as Against All Odds (1999) and In Your Own Time (1999).

Charles Dorlans See Fortunes

The charms themselves appear in leechbooks filled with hundreds of remedies, or else in the flyleaves and margins of other manuscripts. For the most part, the modern separation of the Anglo-Saxon metrical charms is more the result of early scholarship equating the charms with magic and witchcraft rather than with early medicine. The most recent scholarship has therefore tended to move away from earlier depictions of the charms as magic and has instead focused on the efficacy of the charms themselves. Furthermore, recent editions of the charms have tended to focus on charms in their manuscript contexts, rather than by recategorizing them according to modern conceptions. See also Anglo-Saxon poetry.

Patchen Kenneth 19111972

The third of five children in a working-class family, Kenneth was born in Niles, Ohio. An excellent student and athlete, Patchen worked two summers in the Ohio steel mills with his father and brother to supplement his college scholarship at Alexander Meilejohn's Experimental College at the University of Wisconsin. Later he studied with his mentor, Meilejohn, at the Commonwealth College in Mena, Arkansas, but Patchen soon became disenchanted with academics and left after one semester. In 1967 he received an award from the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities for lifelong contribution to American letters.

New York Harcourt Brace 1922

Recent scholarship has shown a resurgence of interest in McKay's poetry as well as his prose work. Such attention has helped the importance of his transitional role within the Harlem movements of the early 1920s to be acknowledged, while at the same time recognizing the achievement of his best work on its own terms.

The living pantheon of poets in 1820 pantheon or canon

As recently as the early 1980s, the definition of Romantic poetry would have been fairly clear and mostly non-controversial. Students explored Romanticism through the work of six major poets - Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, and Keats - with primary attention being given to their lyric poetry or to the lyric qualities of their attempts at, say, epic. Yet a Romanticism defined by the Big Six male writers is very much a mid-twentieth-century creation contrasted with, for example, Thomas Humphry Ward's English Poets of 1880, which included the favored six (Blake, largely invisible during the Romantic period, had been recovered by his Victorian admirers) alongside secondary Romantic poets such as Thomas Love Peacock, Barry Cornwall, and Leigh Hunt, popular writers of the period such as Sir Walter Scott, Thomas Moore, and Samuel Rogers, and women poets such as Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Joanna Baillie, and Felicia Hemans George Benjamin Woods's 1916 English Poetry and Prose of...

Sylvia Plath 19321963

Her treatment included electric shock therapy. Plath's final year at Smith was a great success, however, and she won a Fulbright scholarship to Cambridge University for two years, where she met Ted Hughes. The two married in June 1956. Plath returned to the US with her husband to teach at Smith for a year, and the two then lived for a short period in Boston, before returning to make a home in London in late 1959. While in Boston Plath attended a poetry seminar run by Robert Lowell that also included Anne Sexton.


Great Clarendon Street, Oxford 0x2 6dp Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in

University Press

Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6dp Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in

Critical Debates

Scholarship of the past three decades has enriched and complicated our understanding of eighteenth-century political history. Debates that began in the 1980s and still reverberate today have challenged traditional preconceptions of the eighteenth century as a period of stability and complacency. Linda Colley's pioneering work on British-ness, which stimulated wide-ranging discussions of national identity, examined the ways in which the 1707 Act of Union forged a sense of nationhood in which distinctive Scottish, Welsh, and Irish allegiances were subsumed under a larger sense of Britain as a Protestant nation pitted against Catholic France (Colley 1992). Britain's growing confidence as an imperial power has been the subject of some broad-ranging studies of empire see ch. 2, Poetry, Politics, and Empire . Revisionist historians such as J. C. D. Clark, debating the nature and impact of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, have argued controversially that England remained a static,...

New Approach

In classical scholarship no attempts have been made so far to analyse the interactions between Aphrodite and her train, specifically Eros. Normally, scholars have treated each deity separately under a specific aspect or within a certain discipline. Aphrodite's early mythical representations in Hesiod and Homer have been examined against the background of her origins, for example, by D. Boedeker, who in Aphrodite's Entry into Greek Epic (1974) infers the goddess's Indo-European origins from the formulaic epic language. P. Friedrich (The Meaning of Aphrodite, 1978) analyses Aphrodites literary representation from Homer to Sappho and, in a structuralistic approach, interprets Aphrodite as a female symbol of love. He identifies her as an Indo-European sky goddess. V. Pirenne-Delforge's monograph

Romantic Atheism

This series aims to foster the best new work in one of the most challenging fields within English literary studies. From the early 1780s to the early 1830s a formidable array of talented men and women took to literary composition, not just in poetry, which some of them famously transformed, but in many modes of writing. The expansion of publishing created new opportunities for writers, and the political stakes of what they wrote were raised again by what Wordsworth called those 'great national events' that were 'almost daily taking place' the French Revolution, the Napoleonic and American wars, urbanization, industrialization, religious revival, an expanded empire abroad and the reform movement at home. This was an enormous ambition, even when it pretended otherwise. The relations between science, philosophy, religion and literature were reworked in texts such as Frankenstein and Biographia Literaria gender relations in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and Don Juan journalism by...

Robert Penn Warren

Ments in poetry came in the last 30 years of his life. Warren was born in the small town of Guthrie, in Kentucky, and had to abandon a planned naval career because of an eye injury. He entered Vanderbilt University in 1921, and became a member of the Fugitives group, which included John Crowe Ransom and Allen Tate, sharing a room for a period with Tate. Warren absorbed their commitment to the culture and history of the South and their conservative program for a return to agrarian values. Before he graduated from Vanderbilt in 1925 he had published his first poems in the journal The Fugitive. Warren's studies continued with graduate work at Berkeley and Yale, and in 1928 he entered Oxford University on a Rhodes scholarship. While at Oxford he published his first book, John Brown The Making of a Martyr (1929).

Possible Misgiving

I shall try now to forestall a misgiving which may arise in the mind of a reader who thinks of modern intellectual life in terms of the dichotomy of the 'two cultures', arts and science, with literary scholarship in the one camp and linguistics in the other. The analytic approach to literature might appear to such a mind objective and clinical, bent on destroying the sublime mysteries of poetry, and on reducing the study of literature to a set of lifeless mechanical procedures.


The Romantic poets present us with a series of problems that demand the cooperation of literary scholarship and linguistic analysis. W.H.Auden, writing as a somewhat sceptical heir to the legacies of Romanticism and modernism, summarised our difficulties. 'Poetry' he wrote, in memory of Yeats, 'makes nothing happen'. What he meant is that, unlike most other forms of linguistic representation or interpersonal exchange, the poem is confined within the vacuum of its own self-determined formal conditions. It can issue orders, promote one particular moral or ethical position above others, or enable its perpetrator to complain about his own existential condition or that which he shares with the rest of humanity, but it forbids itself from entering the same functional circuit of personal, social or political exchange as the letter, the philosophical thesis or the manifesto for the envisaged rights of man. The problem, from which no poet or reader is immune, is of how to balance the...

Envoy To Bukton

Most early scholarship on Envoy to Bukton was concerned with establishing the identity of Bukton. More recently, this kind of scholarship has considered who made up Chaucer's audience and what his short poems show us about his role in society. other recent criticism has focused on the poem's speaker Some see the narrator as displaying a dissolute nature, while others believe the whole poem is simply a game. Other recent discussions have cited the poem as an example of writing about the unreliability of language in the search for truth, a theme related to the late medieval philosophical concept of nominalism.


Recent scholarship has moved us far, if perhaps not far enough, beyond the once standard account of the big six. Walter Scott, Anna Barbauld, Joanna Baillie, Robert Burns, Thomas Moore, Charlotte Smith, Mary Robinson, and on the later end, Felicia Hemans and John Clare - these and other poets have benefited from the historicist and feminist inquiries since the early 1980s, as have the more familiar and much anthologized poets, who look quite different to us now. The challenge to the previous picture of the age of Romanticism came from several (often overlapping) constituencies in the last quarter of the twentieth century from feminist criticism, which called attention to the great wealth of women's writing in a period when, after all, female authorship genuinely began to thrive in Britain from scholars interested in the history of the novel, who rejected the idea that the seven decades from the death of Sterne to the publication of Dickens's Pickwick was a wasteland between two...

Curzon Sufi Series

The Curzon Sufi Series attempts to provide short introductions to a variety of facets of the subject, which are accessible both to the general reader and the student and scholar in the field. Each book will be either a synthesis of existing knowledge or a distinct contribution to, and extension of, knowledge of the particular topic. The two major underlying principles of the Series are sound scholarship and readability.

John Haffenden

Did Eliot understand his own poem Maybe not in any sense that greatly helps us in the work of interpreting it. Even after he supplied a number of teasing and occasionally tendentious notes to the poem, he came to lament, in 'The Frontiers of Criticism' (1956), what he styled his 'exposition of bogus scholarship' (Eliot, 1957, p. 109). In 'The Function of Criticism' (1923) he seemed to describe himself as much in terms of the harrowed critic as the inspired poet 'Probably . . . the larger part of an author in composing his work is critical labour the labour of sifting, combining, constructing, expunging, correcting, testing this frightful toil is as much critical as it is creative' (Eliot, 1951, p. 30). We know too that Eliot made grateful use of the services of a fellow poet and critic, Ezra Pound, who sifted, corrected and expunged a fair part of the original critical mass of the poem. Since 1971, when Eliot's widow, Mrs Valerie Eliot, published a facsimile of the drafts that were...


Ethnopoetic scholarship may involve analysis, translation, or transcription of texts gained from living traditional poets, singers, and storytellers, or it may take up previously collected ethnographic texts and retranslate them to expose their aesthetic and culturally informative dimensions. Some of the most valuable ethnopoetic texts have entailed collaboration between formally trained scholars and traditional artists. Finding the Center (1978) presents an exemplary collection of poetic narratives performed by Walter Sanchez and Andrew Peynetsa, two traditional Zuni tellers from New Mexico Tedlock produced the book by making an audio recording, translating, then transcribing the pieces for performance. The result is a book that allows one to read the works and feel nearly present in the performances. Also from the American Southwest, Yaqui Deer Songs, Maso Bwikam A Native American Poetry (1987) is a remarkable collaboration between scholar Larry Evers and singer Felipe S. Molina. It...

Rita Dove b 1952

College, and like his own father he worked for the Goodyear Tire Company. His work in chemistry produced only employment as an elevator operator at Goodyear, until the protests of one of his professors led to his becoming the first black chemist in the industry. Rita Dove was a star student at Miami University, Ohio, and upon graduating in 1973 won a Fulbright scholarship to study at the University of T bingen, in Germany. In 1977 she received an MFA from the University of Iowa. Dove has been writer-in-residence at Tuskegee Institute. She taught creative writing at Arizona State University until 1989, and now teaches at the University of Virginia. Dove has said in interviews that, while she was always reading and writing as a child and as a teenager, she knew no professional writers and had not realized that it was possible to have a writing career. As an undergraduate, she recalls, she realized that she was arranging her college course work around taking writing courses.