1 John Donne, The Complete English Poems, ed. A. J. Smith (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971, 1976), p. 64.

2 Ben Jonson, The Complete Poems, ed. George Parfitt (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975), p. 103.

3 The Poetical Works of Robert Herrick, ed. L. C. Martin (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956, 1963), p. 109.

4 Barbara J. Todd, 'The Remarrying Widow: A Stereotype Reconsidered', in Women in English Society 1500-1800, ed. Mary Prior (London and New York: Methuen, 1985), pp. 54—92.

5 Miranda Chaytor, 'Household and Kinship: Ryton in the Late 16th and Early 17th Centuries', History Workshop Journal 10 (1980): 24-60.

6 Lawrence Stone, 'Family History in the 1980s: Past Achievements and Future Trends', Journal of Interdisciplinary History 12.1 (1981): 58.

7 Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage in England 1500-1800, abridged edn (New York: Harper and Row, 1977, 1979), p. 40.

8 Thomas Gataker, Marriage Duties Briefly Couched Together (London, 1620), pp. 9-10.

9 T. E., The Lawes Resolutions of Women's Rights (London, 1632), p. 125. OED defines 'coverture' as 'the condition or position of a woman ... when she is by law under the authority and protection of her husband'.

10 Even Elizabeth I presented herself to her nation as a 'Prince' in order to enhance her status. See Allison Heisch, 'Queen Elizabeth and the Persistence of Patriarchy', Feminist Review 4 (1980: 45-56); Lisa Jardine, Still Harping on Daughters: Women and Drama in the Age of Shakespeare (Brighton: Harvester, 1983); Katherine Usher Henderson and Barbara F. McManus (eds.), Half Humankind: Contexts and Text of the Controversy about Women in England, 1540-1640 (University of Illinois Press, 1985).

11 Katherine Philips, Poems By the most deservedly Admired Mrs Katherine Philips The Matchless Orinda (London, 1667), pp. 37-8. Repr. in Minor Poets of the Caroline Period, ed. George Saintsbury (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905). Selections in Salt and Bitter and Good: Three Centuries of English and American Women Poets, ed. Cora Kaplan (New York and London: Paddington Press, 1975), pp. 41-8; Moira Ferguson (ed.), First Feminists: British Women Writers 1578-1799 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), pp. 102-13; Kissing The Rod: An Anthology of iyth Century Women's Verse, ed. Germaine Greer, Jeslyn Medoff, Melinda Sansone, and Susan Hastings (London: Virago, 1988), pp. 186—203.

12 Philips, 'To my Excellent Lucasia, on our Friendship', Poems, pp. 51-2.

13 Anne Bradstreet, Several Poems Compiled with great variety of Wit and Learning (Boston: 1678), pp. 240-1. Modern facsimile intro. J. K. Piercey, The Tenth Muse (1630) and, from the Manuscripts: Meditations Divine and Morall, Together with Letters and Occasional Pieces (Gainesville: Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1965). Modern editions: The Works of Anne Bradstreet, ed. Jean-nine Hensley (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967); The Complete Works of Anne Bradstreet, ed. J. R. McElrath and A. P. Robb (Boston: Twayne, 1981). Selections in Kaplan, Salt and Bitter and Good, pp. 27-39; Greer et al. (eds.), Kissing the Rod, pp. 119-40; The Norton Anthology of Poetry, 3rd edn, ed. A. W. Allison et al. (New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1983), pp. 322-6.

14 George Parfitt, John Donne: A Literary Life (London: Macmillan, 1989); Works of Anne Bradstreet.

15 Stone, Family, Sex and Marriage. For economic considerations in other classes, see Chaytor, 'Household and Kinship'.

16 Lawrence Stone, 'Marriage among the English Nobility in the 16th and 17th Centuries', Comparative Studies in Sociology and History 3 (1960-1): 189.

17 Women Beware Women 1.2.171-81, The Selected Plays of Thomas Middleton, ed. D. L. Frost (Cambridge University Press, 1978), p. 204.

18 The Complete Poetry of Richard Crashaw, ed. G. W. Williams (New York University Press, 1972), p. 482, lines 103—4.

19 The Poems of Thomas Carew with His Masque of Coelum Britannicum, ed. R. Dunlap (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1949, 1964), p. 82, lines 35, 33.

20 The Poems of Richard Lovelace, ed. C. H. Wilkinson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930, 1963), p. 27.

21 Henry King, 'The Surrender', in The Metaphysical Poets, ed. Helen Gardner (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1957, 1972), p. 108.

22 Thomas Randolph, 'Upon Love Fondly Refused for Conscience's Sake', in The Literature of Renaissance England, ed. John Hollander and Frank Kermode (Oxford University Press, 1973), p. 604.

23 Complete English Poems, p. 125.

24 Jane Anger her Protection for Women, in Henderson and McManus (eds.), Half Humankind, p. 183. This pamphlet is one of several published by women in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries to defend their sex against explicitly misogynistic attacks. See Henderson and McManus (eds.), Half Humankind; and Simon Shepherd (ed.), The Women's Sharp Revenge (London: Fourth Estate, 1985). On courtship language see also The Case of Madam Mary

Carleton, in Elspeth Graham, Hilary Hinds, Elaine Hobby, and Helen Wilcox (eds.), Her Own Life: Autobiographical Writings by Seventeenth-Century Englishwomen (London and New York: Routledge, 1989).

25 Aphra Behn, Poems Upon Several Occasions: With a Voyage to the Island of Love (London, 1684), p. 75. Repr. in Kaplan, Salt and Bitter and Good, pp. 51-5. Behn selection in Greer et al., Kissing the Rod., pp. 240-60.

26 See also Suckling, 'Farewell to Love', in The Poems, Plays and Other Remains of Sir John Suckling, ed. W. C. Hazlitt (London: Reeves and Turner, 1892), pp. 45-7, where the no longer desired mistress is presented as monstrous because of her attempts to be attractive.

27 Joseph Swetnam, The Arraignment Of Lewd, Idle, Froward, and Unconstant Women (1615), pp. 15, 20. Repr. in Henderson and McManus (eds.), Half Humankind.

28 The Honour of Vertue ... Mrs Elizabeth Crashawe. Who dyed in child-birth and was buried in Whit-Chappell: Octob. 8. 1620. In the 24 yeare of her age, excerpted in Henderson and McManus (eds.), Half Humankind, pp. 343-50.

29 Hesiod, Theogony, lines 592-3, trans. Richard Lattimore in Hesiod (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1959), p. 158; quoted in Henderson and McManus (eds.), Half Humankind, p. 5.

30 See Louis B. Wright, Middle-Class Culture in Elizabethan England (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1958), p. 493. The report of James I's order appears in a letter from John Chamberlain dated 25 January 1620.

31 Hie Mulier, excerpted in Henderson and McManus (eds.), Half Humankind, pp. 264-76.

32 The Memoirs of Anne, Lady Halkett and Ann, Lady Fanshawe, ed. John Loftis (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), pp. 127-8. On cross-dressing, see Rudolf Dekker and Lotte van de Pol, The Tradition of Female Transvestism in Early Modern Europe (London, Macmillan, 1989).

33 See Elaine Hobby, Virtue of Necessity: English Women's Writing 1649-1688 (London: Virago, 1988).

34 Thomas Edwards, Gangraena (1646), Part 1, p. 156.

35 Extract in Seventeenth-century England: A Changing Culture, vol. 1: Primary Sources, ed. Ann Hughes (London: The Open University, 1980), pp. 28—9.

36 Arthur Marrotti, John Donne, Coterie Poet (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986); Achsah Guibbory, '"Oh, Let Mee Not Serve So": The Politics of Love in Donne's Elegies', ELH 57 (1990): 811-33.

37 See George Parfitt, English Poetry of the Seventeenth Century (London and New York: Longman, 1985, 1992).

38 Richard Fanshawe, 'An Ode, upon occasion of His Majesties Proclamation in the year 1630', in Gardner (ed.), The Metaphysical Poets, p. 173.

39 Alice Thornton, The Autobiography of Mrs Alice Thornton (London: Surtees Society, 1875), p. 47n.

40 Margaret Cavendish, The Worlds Olio (1655), p. 10.

41 Quoted in A Selection from John Dryden, ed. Donald Thomas (London: Longman, 1972), p. 14, from Dryden's A Discourse concerning the Original and Progress of Satire (1693).

42 Hester Biddle, The Trumpet of the Lord (London: 1662), p. 12.

further reading

Fräser, Antonia, The Weaker Vessel: Woman's Lot in Seventeenth-Century England

(London: Methuen, 1985) Graham, Elspeth, Hinds, Hilary, Hobby, Elaine, and Wilcox, Helen (eds.), Her Own Life: Autobiographical Writings by Seventeenth-Century Englishwomen (London and New York: Routledge, 1989) Greer, Germaine, Medoff, Jeslyn, Sansone, Melinda, and Hastings, Susan (eds.), Kissing The Rod: An Anthology of ijth Century Women's Verse (London: Virago, 1988)

Parfitt, George, English Poetry of the Seventeenth Century (London and New York:

Longman, 1985, 1992) Prior, Mary (ed.), Women in English Society 1500—1800 (London and New York: Methuen, 1985)

Usher Henderson, Katherine and McManus, Barbara F., (eds.), Half Humankind: Contexts and Text of the Controversy about Women in England, 1540-1640 (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1985)

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